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School of Law 
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tEET CRIME IN AMERICA 

(THE POLICE RESPONSE) 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE ON CRIME 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

NINETY-THIRD CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



APRIL 9-13, 16-19 ; MAY 1-3, 8, 9, 1973 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 



Part 1 of 3 Parts 

Part 2.— CORRECTIONS APPROACHES 
Part 3.-PR0SECUTI0N AND COURT INNOVATIONS 




1'/. 



c 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee on Crime 
(Created pursuant to H. Res. 256) 

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
95-168 O WASHINGTON : 1973 



Si 9/ 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents 

U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 

Price $3.70 domestic postpaid or $3.25 GPO Bookstore 

Stock Number 5270-01871 

^UegUiEASTEiiH U;i..i:iS:TY SGilGOl of LAW LSBRARY 



SELECT COMMITTEE ON CRIME 

CLAUDE PEPPER, Florida, Chairman 
JEROME R. WALDIE, California CHARLES E. WIGGINS, California 

FRANK J. BRASCO, New York SAM STEIGER, Arizona 

JAMES R. MANN, South Carolina LARRY WINN, Jr., Kansas 

MORGAN F. MURPHY, Illinois CHARLES W. SANDMAN, Jr., New Jersey 

CHARLES B. RANGEL, New York WILLIAM J. KEATING, Ohio 

Chris Nolde, Chief Counsel 

Richard P. Lynch, Deputy Chief Counsel 

James E. McDonald, Assistant Counsel 

Robert J. Trainor, Assistant Counsel 

(II) 



<IJ WAj 



CONTENTS 



Dates Hearings Held 

part 1. — the police be8p0n8e 

April 9, 1973 _ _ _ _ ^"^! 

April 10, 1973 _ ~~~_~_ ~_~ ~ _~_ oJ 

April 11, 1973 __"_ ~_ ~~~ JZ% 

April 12, 1973 ~__ H^ 

April 13, 1973 i°l 

559 

PAKT 2. — CORRECTIONS APPROACHES 

April 16, 1973 __ «.„ 

April 17, 1973 __I__I"__ ^tL 

April 18, 1973 _"" i;^ 

April 19, 1973 ----"— IIIIIIIIII"!!!!"""" 907 

PART 3.— PROSECUTION AND COURT INNOVATIONS 

May 1, 1973 o^o 

May 2, 1973 _ ^^^ 

May 3, 1973 _ "__ ~__~__ fyJJ 

May 8, 1973 |^™ 

May 9, 1973 -^^^^--^l^ZTHI^ZZmill^' 1279 

Statements of Witnesses 

Alexandria, Va., U.S. Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit, Hon. Albert V 
Bryan, judge ^201 i205 

Allen Milton J State's attorney, Baltimore City, State's attorney '7 office ' 
Baltimore, Md ' j23q 

^^l?\-^!?^^^L^-' general counsel, MetrVpoTitan'pJfice"Departmen"t" 
Washington, D.C ' „^ 

American Bar Association, Washington, D.c" " 

Ford Robert C, director, activation program for correctional reform 939 

Hughes, Richard J., chairman, Commission on Correctional Facilities 
and Services Q„q 

Skoler, Daniel J., staff director. Commission on Correctional" FacUmes 

and Services _ ooq 

Armstrong, William, sergeant, St. Louis, Mo." PolTce'DepaVtment 423 
Arthur, Hon^ Lindsay G.. judge. District Court, Juvenile DivisionrMiL" 

neapolis, Minn _._ 

Baltimore, Md. : ----- ^^45 

Allen, Milton B., State's attorney for the city of Baltimore, State's 

attorney's office _ _ _'_ _ ^^233 

^^office^^^^''*^ ^■' ^^^^^' ^^^^^^^ crimes liaison unit' State's"at"to"nie"y"'s 

Moylan, Hon. Charles E., Jr., as~s"o^iate~"j~u"d"ge",~s"tate"Court'of"~s"pe"c"ia"l ^^^ 
Appeals *^ .2QQ loqq 

DeTa'itmenr^' ^'^^^^^ ""^* commande"r:""D"e"troi"t:""MTch:,"~"p"olice 
^tfnT T?''^'^^ ^.,"ca"ptai"n7s"a"n""An"oyo"n;"T;x:,"p"oh"ce""De"pa;tm^^^^^^ 111, ^^'^ 



Rrn^^' Rfhard L., patrolman, Cincinnati (Ohio) Police Departments. 247,250 
S. niL^;I;'J/'''^°"' Community Services Division, Dallas, Tex., 



444,451 
(ni) 



IV 

Page 

Brown Charles E., patrolman, Kansas City, Mo., Police Department 562, 573 

Bryan, Hon. Albert V., judge, U.S. Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit, 

Alexandria, Va 1201, 1205 

Busch, Joseph, district attorney, Los Angeles County, Calif 107 <, 1089 

California, Los Angeles County, Joseph Busch, district attorney 1077, 1089 

Callier, Leroy, patrolman. New York City Police Department 6, 18 

Camp, Eugene J., chief of police, St. Louis, Mo., Police Department 423 

Casey, Hon. Bob, a U.S. Representative from the State of Texas 1077 

Cawley, Donald F., chief, Patrol Services, New York City Police 

Department "> 1") 41 

Chamberlin, John D., sergeant, Chicago (111.) Police Department 276 

Chicago (111.) Police Department officials, panel of 276 

Chamberlin, John D., sergeant 276 

Crosby, Wayne, community service aide 308 

Jungheim, Annette K., community service aide 296 

Nolan, Samuel W., deputy superintendent 276 

Rottman, Herbert R., lieutenant 287 

Churchill, Winston L., chief, Indianapolis (Ind.) Police Department 136 

Cincinnati (Ohio) Police Department officials, panel of 247 

Brand, Richard L., patrolman 250 

Espelage, Howard, captain 255 

Goodin, Carl V., chief of police 247 

Lind, Carl A., director, program management division 254 

Panno, Lawrence C, patrolman 251 

Conyers. Hon. John, Jr., a U.S. Representative from the State of Michigan- 381 
Crosby, Wayne, community service aide, Chicago (111.) Police Department 276, 303 
Crowley, Donald F., sergeant, neighborhood patrol team commander. New 

York City Police Department 41, 64 

Dallas, Tex., Police Department 444 

Brown, Arlyn J., director, community services division 451 

Heath, Edwin D., Jr., director, criminal justice interface division 444 

DeMuro, Paul, assistant commissioner of after care, State department of 

youth services, Boston, Mass 649, 674 

Detroit, Mich., Police Department officials, panel of 382 

iBannon, James, STRESS unit commander 387 

Martin, Ronald H., patrolman 389 

Nichols, John J., commissioner 382 

Ricci, John P., patrolman SM 

Eisdorfer, Simon, deputy chief inspector. New York City Police 

Department 41, 56 

Espelage, Howard, captain, Cincinnati (Ohio) Police Department 247,255 

Fenley, Thomas T., sergeant, San Antonio, Tex., Police Department 541, 545 

Fixsen, Dr. Dean, research associate. Achievement Place Research Project, 

University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kans 868,870 

Florida (Tallahassee) Division of Youth Services, Oliver J. Keller, 

director 766 

Ford, Robert C, director. Activation Program for Correctional Reform, 

American Bar Association. Washington, D.C 939 

Freeman, Arthur A., deputy inspector, New York City Police Department-- 41, 85 

Garritani, Carl, patrolman. New York City Police Police Department 6, 17 

Gillespie, James, attorney, San Antonio, Tex 1281, 1290 

Gersh, Howard B., chief, violent crimes liaison unit, State's attorney's 

office, Baltimore, Md 1233 

Giarrusso, Clarence B., superintendent. New Orleans, La., Police Depart- 
ment 95 

Glenn, Robert, patrolman, San Antonio, Tex., Police Department 541, 547 

Gonzalez, Hon. Henry B., a U.S. Representative from the State of Texas 1279 

Goodc'hild, Lester, executive officer, Criminal Court of the City of New 

York 1006 

Goodin, Carl V., chief of police, Cincinnati (Ohio) Police Department 247 

Greene, William Robert, captain, homicide and robbery division, Indian- 
apolis (Ind.) Police Department 136,143 

Halleck, Hon. Charles White, judge, Superior Court of the District of 

Columbia 1143 



Page 
Hamilton, William A., PROMIS, Office of the U.S. Attorney, U.S. Depart- 
ment of Justice ll'^2 

Harder, Dr. Robert, director. State department of social welfare, Topeka, 

Kans S^^ 

Head, James, patrolman, Kansas City, Mo., Police Department 562, 564 

Heath, Edwin J., Jr., director, Criminal Justice Interface Division, Dallas, 

Tex., Police Department 444 

Hubert, Frank, lieutenant. Auto Crime Unit, New York City Police 

Department ^> ^ 

Hughes, Richard J., chairman. Commission on Correctional Facilities and 

Services, American Bar Association, Washington, D.C 930 

Indianapolis (Ind.) Police Department 136 

Churchill, Winston, L., chief 136 

Green, William Robert, captain, homicide and robbery division 143 

Isenst-adt, Paul, senior field director, National Assessment of Juvenile 

Corrections, University of Mi<?higan, Ann Arbor, Mich 813 

John Howard Association, Chicago, 111., Joseph R. Rowan, executive 

director '^^ 

Jordan, Hon. Barbara, a U.S. Representative from the State of Texas 1075 

Jungheim, Annette K., community service aide, Chicago (111.) Police 

Department T— ;;— . ' ^ 

Justice, U.S. Department of, Office of the U.S. Attorney, Superior Court 

Division: 

Hamilton, William A ^j;^ 

Work, Charles R., chief 11^^ 

Kansas City, Mo., Police Department 5^^ 

Brown, Charles E., patrolman oTrf 

Head, James, patrolman 5^ 

Post, James, patrolman ^^ 

Stephens, Darrel W., patrolman 581 

Sweeney, Thomas J., task force programs coordinator obJ 

Kansas (Topeka) Department of Social Welfare, Dr. Robert Harder, 

director — ^^^ 

Kansas, University of, Lawrence, Kans., Achievement Place Research 

Project: . „^ 

Fixsen, Dr. Dean, research associate — - »^ 

Wolf, Dr. Montroe M., professor «"», »^u 

Kastner, John H., detective. New Orleans, La., Police Department ——_- »5 
Keating, Lucy, program development specialist, Department of Youth 

Services, Boston, Mass _ T^TrZ ^7""" Vai 

Keller Oliver, director. State division of youth services, Tallahassee, lla__ 7bb 

Leenhouts, Keith J., director. Volunteers in Probation. Royal Oak, Mich 907 

Leonard, Robert F., prosecuting attorney, Genesee County, Mich-_- _- lUOd 
Lind. Carl A., director. Program Management Division, Cincinnati (Ohio) 

Police Department — -- — -—"I I; «« 

Luhrs, Robert E., deputy inspector. New York City Police Department— 41, 66 

Martin, Rinal L., sergeant. New Orleans, La., Police Department 9o, 12b 

Martin, Ronald H., patrolman, Detroit, Mich., Police Department SUA d89 

Massachusetts Department of Youth Services : 

Bergeron, Miss, client 'J^ 

Hall, Mr., client '^" 

Keating, Lucy, program development specialist 'w 

LaBonte, Miss., client ^xV 

DeMuro, Paul, assistant commissioner of after care b^y, b*^ 

Pollock, Mr., client I^J! 

Ruth, Miss., client '"" 

Massachusetts, panel of juvenile corrections experts: 

DeMuro, Paul, assistant commissioner of after care, State department 

of vouth services, Boston -Z—r.-Z 649, b/4 

Miller, Dr. Jerome G., director. State department of children and 

family services, Springfield V"".""""^ ^ 

Ohlin, Prof. Lloyd E., director. Institute on Criminal Justice, Harvard 

University, Cambridge -^ir'T'^^'Vi: 

Meador, Prof. Daniel J., University of Virginia Law School, Chariottes- 

•11 '\Tn „ — — — — J-^V-L 

Metca^lfe, Ho'n.'Ra'lprH.7a"u.s'.~Representative from the State of Illinois— 283 



VI 



services, Springfield, Mass ^^^^ ui cnuaren and family 

Minnesota Department of Corrections" Kpnna7h~«'^i^7v7.'Z. ~~~. ^9 

Murplw Patrick V., commlsJoTOrTNew TOTrStrPorte bVrartm™;"" *^'^« 

Isenstadt, Paul, senior field director 0-.0 

Sarn, Dr. Rosemary, codirector °}°: 

pSenrT ^' •'"^"^"" Court-yudg^sT Hon:-LlnTs;7"GrrrThur: ''' 

New Orleans (LaO~PoTicrDep;rtmVnTofflciaYs:Fanerof '^0? 

Giarrusso, Clarence B., superintendent 1 XS 

Kastner, John H., detective __ ^^ 

Martin, Rinal L., sergeant— _""~ ^ 

Poissenot, Lloyd J., major _"_ ^^ 

Woodfork, Warren G., sergeant.." J^I 

IVew York City, Criminal Court of : ^^ 

Goodchild, Lester, executive oflicer ^^^ 

Ross, Hon. David, administrative iudee }^ 

New York City Police Department o^ialsfpanlfof J^ 

Calher, Leroy, patrolman ~ ^'^^ 

Cawley, Donald F., chief of patrol se"rv"icesI_II_i: -.n i? 



FrSmfn A^S?,; ?^V^^ ?'-^ inspector, special operations ^ 

freeman, Arthur A., deputy inspector. 



Garritani. Carl, patrolman. ~"~ ^^ 

Hubert, Frank, lieutenant, auto crime unit ___ ~__ H 

Luhrs, Robert E., deputy inspector _! ~ H 

Murphy, Patrick V., commissioner _ V ^ 

O'Friel, John T., sergeant lllZl 

Rogan, John F., deputy inspector ~ „^ 

Siegel, Joseph, inspector, auxiliary police.! J? 



inspector 
Mich P 
'ment '^''"'"^^ ^' "^"^^"^'^ superintendent, Chicagr dllT Poli^e'Depart" 

.27 
6 



J?3"^^T.'^''5'' ^■-' «<^^~^e'ant7NeVYorrcitrPori"c7^^^ ^^^ 

Ohlin, Prof. Lloyd E.. director Tn«f,-f,.;l ^„ 7^„.^!^P'l, T"^ 



pS ^mTE".h,;rl"'°'T"* «neInMt[T6Mo7" pSterS-epaVtmi^r" M?'&'f 
i-erers, ii,mil E., chief, San Antonio, Tex. Police DenflrHnAnf ^"i— -^-^Ij^j- 

Phi^.^fP.^'"' ?"•' ^^'"" ^P^^t^^' district' at?o™e?_!^'-'™'"' ^^^ 

"^Sr^^iche^tle'rdgr ^'^^ ^^"^^' ^^^-^ Crim-^s-bMsTon-; Hon: ''' 

Poissenot. Lloyd J. major. New Orleans; La.7Porrc"e"i)epa7tment q^^^9? 

Post, James, patrolman, Kansas City, Mo., Police Department ^r?' J?J 

2-Tvf^^^ P- P^*"«l™^°' I^etroit, Mich., Police Dep?rtS ^S' S! 

^'S^efp;;^^? ^•' ^•"^^^^' ^^— ^^-« C-rt, M^J^^r^r^i^Vs Dl^IsTon''"' '"' 

''Sigan'.^r.'A' Z: •"'•' " '^^-S" Repr;s7nt-ati-v-e-7rom--the"stete-;i '""' 



1053 



Rogan, John F., deputy insp7cto7 New York'cUy Poric7D7p7rtmenr~"~ 41 R^ 
New York '"'' ^^^^^^^^^^^-^ j"dge, Crimi/al Court ofThecSty"of ' '' 

1006 



vn 

Page 

Rottman, Herbert R., lieutenant, Chicago, 111., Police Department 276, 287 

Rowan, Joseph R., executive director, John Howard Association, Chicago, 

111 '^^ 

San Antonio, Tex., Police Department 541 

Benfer, Robert A., captain ^° 

Fenley, Thomas T.. sergeant ^^ 

Glenn, Robert, patrolman ^*^ 

Peters, Emil E., chief ^^ 

Trevino, Arthur, patrolman T,— ^ 

Sarri, Dr. Rosemary, codirector. National Assessment of Juvenile Correc- 
tions, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich "--— " °^^ 

Schoen, Kenneth, commissioner, State Department of Corrections, bt. Paul, 

SiWerj'osephrinsp"ec'torrAuxiri7r7Po^^^^ New York City Police 'Depart- 

ment 7-^~~rjr. T * ' ' 

Skoler, Daniel L., staff director. Commission on Correctional Facilities and 

Ser\'ices, American Bar Association, Washington, D.C ____ 939 

Spears, Hon. Adrian, judge. U.S. District Court, Western District, San 

Antonio, Tex ;— Q„n 

Specter. Arlen, district attorney, Philadelphia, Pa_— --———-— - ^^ 
Stephens, Darrel W., patrolman, Kansas City, Mo., Police Department- 562, 581 

St. Louis, Mo., Police Department '*t^ 

Armstrong, William, sergeant, laboratory division *^^ 

Camp, Eugene J., chief of police ^^ 

Mueller. Charles, sergeant, juvenile division --—- v;."— 

Sweeney, Thomas J., task force programs coordinator, Kansas City, 

Mo., Police Department ^^ 

Texas. Harris County, Carol Vance, district attorney—-—-——--—-— -L"'< 

Tex., San Antonio, Hon. Adrian Spears, judge, U.S. District Court, Western ^^^^ 

Tr?vino,''Artirur,"parrormanTsan" Antom^^^^ Police Department- 541, 546 

Tucker, Julia, lieutenant. Rape Investigation and Analysis Section, New 

York City Police Department -— — ; ::";;V"- 

U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, Pittsburgh, Pa., Hon. Joseph Weis, ^^^^ 

Jr., judge — -— " 1A77 

Vance, Carol, district attorney, Harris County, Tex_ -------------- ^^ 

Voelker, Anthony M., deputy chief inspector. New York City Police De- ^ ^^ 

Volunteers i7 ProbaTionrRoFarOak7Mich:,"Ke"ith J. Leenhouts, director- 907 

Walker, William D., reporter, WWL-TV, New Orleans, La «&, i^-^ 

Washington (D.C.) Metropolitan Police Department : 

Alprin, Geoffrey M., general counsel ^|^ 

WasMnlton. D.cT Superio? CourtrHonTcharfeT White Halleck, Judge 1143 

Weis, Hon. Joseph, Jr.. judge, U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, Pitts- ^^^ 

WiS' Jer^'"v.r"ciriet' wl^s"hin"^Vn7'D.'^^ Metropolitan Police 

— . ^. . O^rl 

Wol^ Dr^Montro^'M.rprofeVsorrAcMevement" Place Research Project 

University of Kansas. Lawrence, Kans _———---- »b», »(u 

Woodfork, Warren G., sergeant. New Orieans, La., Police Department- 95, 125 

Work, Charies R., Superior Court Division, Office of the U.S. Attorney, 

U.S. Department of Justice ^.— -— 7,-— 7— ir-'-T"— ;;.„ JL 

Yunger, Frank, president, Findlay Market Association, Cincinnati, Ohio. 247, zao 

Material Received for the Record 

Alexandria. Va., U.S. Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit, Hon. Albert V. 
Byrant, judge, prepared statement -c^ZTl'Tir" 

AUen, Milton J., State's attorney for the city of Baltimore, State's Attor- 
ney's Office, Baltimore, Md., prepared statement -7-— "~ 

American Bar Association. Commission on Correctional Facilities and Serv- 
ices, Richard J. Hughes, chairman, letter to Chairman Pepper, dated 
May 21, 1973, with enclosures --.— ."7 or" T'~r— ^T"" 

Armstrong. William H.. sergeant. Laboratory Division, St. Loms, Mo., 

Police Department, statement re "The Evidence Technician Unit 44Z 



vm 



B^timore Md., Milton B. Allen, State'raTto;n;7fo7th;"cTt7ofBartimnr7 ^^^ 
Bayh^Hof B[?cl''a^n?'.^'"r^7' ^^•' Prepared staSent _!':"'''' i269 
statement ' ^^' ^'"^''^" ^"''^ ^^" ^^^^e of Indiana, prepared" 

Bryant, Hon. Albert"v:,"3udVe7u;s:"rM7tri7t"co"urt "o7 Ap"^^^^^^^ ^^ 

RiSfh^T' '^^^''^°^."^' ^^-^ prepared statement.. ^^^^''' ^^'''*^ ,o^ 

sS^^m^nt"' '^■' '"*"'' '"^'•"^^' ^^^ ^^^1- County,- Calli--prep7;e-d '"'' 

""par^nat^ement^^^^^ ^o-ty.-YoseFh ^fB^ic^: dTsiriVt-rtto^n^^'F^^^^ '"' 

^ Tfov/'i^ n'i v'"^i •^"'^*^^' Harvard L7w-S^h7ol,'crmbrid"ge~Ma"ss" pVof"" ^^^^ 

CMcaeo /in /'"p.?"'"^^"^ '^^Il"*""' ^^^^^^^^^ statement..!!'.. ' ''^- 691 

intendent"-^ ^"'''' Department, Samuel W. Nolan, deputyTuper: ^^' 

General Order, re community service aide project o-,,, 

Preventive Programs Division Community SeV?ice""iTd"e"s" pVoTe^-t"" q J? 

^Report of the Superintendent," dated December 14 T^2 "" oic 

p"S '""!."" ^' *'^ ^°^^^ department, "e'^om'^'nTy-s-eTv-iVe-alde ''' 

^^"yf^;"v ^i"«t«°' <^^ief "india7a7o7r(ind:rporrc7"D;m — ^^ 

X^ar?^?nt-^rbr=er '^^"^^^^'^^^^ '' ^^^ SE^-police 
P?eZrS s'JaleSent! '"^""^*'" ^^ ^-^^-apVus" c7im7-^7r7p7o-g7am-:: Jel 
"Teenagers Want To Know . . . Wha7is7h77flw'"7hT;";'i:"T ^^ 

•SS;«»~i"--3>S5E:: : 

Dallas, Tex., Police Department7Ed7in" D~ He7th""f;~"H7,.;;;;" — "-"T ^'^ 
justice interface division : ^"^^n ^- ±ieath, Jr., director, criminal 

''Dallas Repeat Offender Study," report 

re analysis of STRESS Nichols, commissioner, report 

^ta slSem'^nr'- ^"''"'"^"""^i'^rtmenT,- CoWwrum^e-^^^^^^^ "^ 

^TuS^ve?sfS.%/rn'S's.Ti^5ji:S™"^^^ '"" 

^, r?rTcSSS'pTr^S? «-"P H--" (outline, eo5 

^\"rprSrsii;.enr^'"""°»'"^"^-^'--'« '*• 

Florida, State of, Hon. Eeubin 6'D "^stow" r^;:™;" '90 

legislature, re criminal JuZe proposalT' ' '^""^^^ '° '"^ ^""» 

•'"aTeSen^^""' ^- ^''-'- ^""^ ''epartmentrmamr riTrj^^Ja-ria '""^ 

y^^ ?Sa;^prr^ SSI;;"-"^" «^"^'"^'"^"»™-^^^^^^^ '*" 

""^et ?0Hj"e g^pl^rt^i';?'"' ^^"'-f>-t]cril,Telircr5ms.-o-n;-6inas: ''" 
^'Dallas Repeat Offender Study," report 
Operating Procedure," re crtminal'5ustteeT„-t-eS^-dTvTsIo„:::::::: Z 



IK 

page 
Hughes, Richard J., chairman, Commission on Correctional Facilities and 
Services, American Bar Association, Washington, D.C., letter to Chair- 
man Pepper, dated May 21, 1973, with enclosures 965 

Indianapolis (Ind.) Police Department, Winston L. Churchill, chief: 

"Fleet Plan : Measuring the Effectiveness of the Indianapolis Police 

Department (brochure) I93 

"How To Describe a Suspect," re Indianapolis Crime Alert Program.! 165 

"Teenagers Want To Know . . . What Is the Law?" (brochure) 171 

Prepared statement 16O 

Justice, U.S. Department of, Office of the U.S. Attorney, Superior Court 

Division, Charles R. Work, chief, prepared statement 1194 

Kansas City, Mo., Police Department, Thomas J. Sweeney, task force pro- 
grams coordinator: 

"Central Patrol Division : Interactive Patrol Project" 612 

"Crime Specific Disturbance Intervention : Program Development 

Phase" 593 

"Sky ALERT" 615 

"Sky ALERT II" 616 

"Sky ALERT III" 619 

"Special Operations Division Task Force" 623 

"The Proactive-Reactive Patrol Deployment Project" 602 

Kansas (Toi>eka) Department of Social Welfare, Dr. Robert C. Harder, 

director, prepared statement 860 

Keller, Oliver J., director. State Division of Youth Services, Tallahassee, 

Fla., prepared statement 79O 

Leenhouts, Keith J., director. Volunteers in Probation, Royal Oak, Mich., 

excerpts from "Concerned Citizens and a City Criminal Court" 919 

Leonard, Robert F., prosecuting attorney, Genesee County, Mich., pre- 
pared statement 1068 

Massachusetts Department of Youth Services, Paul DeMuro, assistant 

commi.ssioner of after care, prepared statement 690 

Meador, Prof. Daniel J., University of Virginia Law School, Charlottes- 
ville, Va., memorandum dated May 2, 1973, re prepared statement 1225 

Miami, Fla., Police Department, Bernard L. Garmire, chief, prepared 

statement 363 

Michigan, Genesee County, Robert F. Leonard, prosecuting attorney, pre- 
pared statement 1068 

Minneapolis, Minn., District Court, Juvenile Division, Hon. Lindsay G. 

Arthur, judge, prepared statement 762 

Moylan, Hon. Charles E., Jr., associate judge, State Court of Special 
Appeals, Baltimore, Md., excerpts from recent opinion, re waiver of jury 

trials , 1274 

National Assessment of Juvenile Corrections, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Mich., Dr. Rosemary Sarri. codirector, "Sampling Plans and 

Results" (excerpt) 845 

National Council of Juvenile Court Judges, Hon. Lindsay G. Arthur, presi- 
dent, prepared statement 762 

New York City, Criminal Court of, Hon. David Ross, administrative judge : 
"Annual Report of the Criminal Court of the City of New York," 

excerpt 1025 

"Nine-Month Report of the Criminal Court of the City of New York," 

excerpt 1024 

Press release dated Apr. 22, 1973, re impact of administrative improve- 
ments instituted by Judge Ross for the period January 1971 through 

June 1972 1034 

Nichols, John F., commissioner, Detroit, Mich., Police Department, report 

re analysis of STRESS 417 

Nolan, Samuel W., deputy superintendent, Chicago (111.) Police Depart- 
ment : 

General Order, re community service aide project 310 

"Preventive Programs Division Community Service Aides Project" 315 

"Report of the Superintendent," dated December 14, 1972 308 

Training bulletin of the police department, re community service aide 
project 312 



Page 
Ohlin, Prof. Lloyd E., research director, Center for Criminal Justice, 

Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Mass., prepared statement 691 

Pepper, Hon. Claude, chairman, Select Committee on Crime, U.S. House of 
Representatives, press release dated March 28, 1973, from Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice, re decline in serious 

crime in U.S. cities 3 

Peters, Emil E., chief, San Antonio, Tex., Police Department, report on 

cases handled by crime task force, 1970-73 553 

Philadelphia, Pa., Arlen Specter, district attorney, prepared statement, 

with attachment 997 • 

Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S. Court of Appeals, Third Circuit, Hon. Joseph Weis, 

Jr., judge, prepared statement 1138 

Kailsback. Hon. Tom, a U.S. Representative from the State of Illinois 323 

Ross, Hon. David, administrative judge, Criminal Court of the City of 
New York : 

"Annual Report of the Criminal Court of the City of New York," 

excerpt 1025 

"Nine-Month Report of the Criminal Court of the City of New York," 

excerpt 1024 

Press release dated Apr. 22, 1973, re impact of administrative improve- 
ments instituted by Judge Ross for the period January 1971 through 

June 1972 1034 

San Antonio, Tex., Police Department, Emil E. Peters, chief, report on 

cases handled by crime task force, 1970-73 553 

Sarri, Dr. Rosemary, codirector. National Assessment of Juvenile Correc- 
tions, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., "Sampling Plans and 

Results" (excerpt) 845 

Specter, Arlen, district attorney, Philadelphia, Pa., prepared statement, 

with attachment 997 

St. Louis, Mo., Police Department, William H. Armstrong, sergeant, labo- 
ratory division, statement re "The Evidence Technician Unit" 442 

Sweeney, Thomas J., task force programs coordinator, Kansas City, Mo., 
Police Department : 

"Central Patrol Division : Interactive Patrol Project" 612 

"Crime Specific Disturbance Intervention: Program Development 

Phase" 593 

"Sky ALERT" 615 

"Skv ALERT II" 616 

"Sky ALERT III" 619 

"Special Operations Division Task Force" 623 

"The Proactive-Reactive Patrol Deployment Project" 602 

Texas, Harris County, Carol S. Vance, district attorney, prepared state- 
ment 1114 

University of Kansas (Lawrehce, Kans.), Achievement Place Research 
Project, Dr. Dean Fixsen, research associate : 

"Community-Based Family-Style Group Homes" (outline) 905 

"The Achievement Place Model" 890 

Vance, Carol S., district attorney, Harris County, Tex., prepared state- 
ment 1114 

Volunteers in Probation, Royal Oak, Mich., Keith J. Leenhouts, director, 

excerpts from "Concerned Citizens and a City Criminal Court" 919 

Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Police Department, Jerry V. Wilson, Chief 
of Police, letter dated May 3, 1973, re LEAA grants awarded to police 

department 362 

Wilson, Jerry V., Chief of Police, Metropolitan Police Department, Wash- 
ington, D.C., letter dated May 3, 1973, re LEAA grants awarded to the 

police department 362 

Weis, Hon. Joseph Jr., judge, U.S. District Court of Appeals, Third Cir- 
cuit, Pittsburgh, Pa., prepared statement 1138 

Work, Charles R., chief, Superior Court Division, OflSce of the U.S. 

Attorney, U.S. Department of Justice, prepared statement 1194 



STREET CRIME IN AMERICA 
(The Police Response) 



MONDAY, APRIL 9, 1973 

House of R.epresentative8, 
Select Committee on Crime, 

Washington, D.O. 

The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 10:15 a.m., in room 311, 
Cannon House Office Building, Hon. Claude Pepper (chairman) 
presiding. 

Present: Representatives Pepper, Waldie, Brasco, Mann, Murphy, 
Rangel, Wiggins, Steiger, Winn, Sandman, and Keating. 

Also present: Chris Nolde, chief counsel; Richard Lynch, deputy 
chief counsel ; and Leroy Bedell, hearings officer. 

Chairman Pepper. The committee will come to order. 

The first business on the agenda of the committee is to adopt the 
rules covering the committee in its operation during this Congress. 
Do I hear any motion relative to that subject ? 

Mr. Mann. Mr. Chairman ? 

Chairman Pepper. The gentleman from South Carolina. 

Mr. Mann. It is my judgment that the rules under which we func- 
tioned during the previous Congress were adequate and fair. I move 
the adoption of the same rules effective in the 92d Congress for the 93d 
Congress. 

Mr. MunPHT. I second the motion. 

Chairman Pepper. It has been moved and seconded that we adopt the 
same rules that prevailed for the committee during the previous Con- 
gress. Any further discussion or further motions to be made? 

Are you ready for the questions ? 

Mr. Steiger. Question. 

Chairman Pepper. All that favor the motion made by Mr. Mann, 
seconded by Mr. Murphy, say "aye.'' 

[Chorus of "aye."] 

Chairman Pepper. All opposed, "no." 

[No response.] 

Chairman Pepper. The rules are unanimously adopted, with seven 
members of the committee present. 

I would like to make a brief opening statement, if I may, before 
the first of the distinguished witnesses is introduced. 

Today the Select Committee on Crime opens its inquiry into street 
crime in America. In part, this will be a success story, for a funda- 
mental purpose of these hearings is to bring to congressional and 
public attention those criminal justice programs which have shown 
promise as crime reduction agents. 

During this first week, the theme of our hearings will be "Street 
Crime — the Street Level Response" and 13 major police departments 

(1) 



will present testimony about a wide variety of police programs and 
policies which are being used to combat street crime. 

Street crime is still a fact of life in America, and its presence is 
especially ominous in our Nation's urban centers. 

If I may do so, without objection, I would like to introduce for the 
record, to appear in the record at the conclusion of our opening state- 
ment, the announcement of the U.S. Department of Justice, Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, of March 28, 1973, relative to the latest 
summary of statistics on crime in the United States. 

On March 28, 1973, the Department of Justice announced that 
there had been a decline in serious crime of 3 percent in 1972, "the 
first actual crime decrease in 17 years." On January 30, 1973, Senator 
John Stennis was robbed and shot in front of his home here in the 
District of Columbia; on March 30, 1973, former Congressman and 
Mrs. Brooks Hays were robbed within a few blocks of the Capitol. 
Senator Stennis, I am delighted to report, is making a good recovery. 

These prominent public figures took their place in a long line of 
street crime victims. In 1972— according to preliminary data — 7,751 
robberies were reported in the District of Columbia ; 714 persons were 
victims of rape; 3,897 were victims of aggravated assaults, and 245 
more people were murdered. 

These crimes — with the exception of rape — occurred less frequently 
than in 1971, but the incidence is still unacceptably high. Washing- 
ton, D.C., is by no means alone in this regard. While index crimes — 
murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny over 
$50, and auto theft — decreased, it is worth noting that the violent 
crimes — murder, rape, robbery and aggravated assault — actually in- 
creased by 1 percent. In fact, the FBI's preliminary 1972 data indi- 
cates that violent crime was up from 2 to 13 percent in suburban and 
rural areas, and in cities with populations of 500,000 or less. 

None of us can take comfort from the fact that violent crime is 
still increasing. Notwithstanding the fact that overall index crime 
frequencies are decreasing, people are still falling prey to robbers, 
muggers, rapists, and murderers. This we cannot accept. 

This committee would be remiss in its obligations if it did not 
review the present nature and extent of street crime. We launch this 
hearing with the firm hope and expectation that the many police, 
prosecution, court, and correctional programs which are to be de- 
scribed by expert witnesses during the next several weeks will provide 
eloquent testimony of imaginative criminal justice efforts which have 
reduced crime in some of our cities and made them safer places in 
which to live. We hope these examples will be an inspiration and a 
challenge to many other law enforcement authorities in our country. 

Recent polls indicate that crime remains of overriding national 
concern. Crime and the fear of crime continue to plague us as a 
people. We are by no means out of the crime crisis: Brutality and 
barbarism still rule the streets and sidewalks in urban high-crime 
areas. Violence and depravity still harm the most those who are the 
least able to defend themselves. 

A young man who runs an elevator here in the Capitol, who is 
crippled, has been mugged, I believe seven times, in the recent past. 

Street crime is by no stretch of the imagination the only kind of 
crime we need be concerned about. It is, however, the most visible 



kind of crime. Its victims end up in hospitals or morgues ; those who 
survive often carry psychic scars. As long as crime of this type preys 
upon us, we are not a free people. Our fundamental freedom is in 
jeopardy, and liberty has a hollow ring when people are afraid to 
walk in their own neighborhoods. 

Street crime cannot be eliminated until we can finally summon the 
resolve to eliminate its contributing causes, among which are poverty, 
unemployment, ignorance or lack of skills for employment, and that 
multitude of social ills which afflicts all of our Nation's population 
centers. We cannot ignore the need to get on with the business of 
attacking the root causes of crime, as well as crime itself. 

While the need to attack the root causes of crime is irrefutable, 
we also need to pay increasing attention to the short-term task of 
removing from the streets those offenders who are disrupting the 
fabric of our society. 

It is this latter facet to which we will address ourselves during 
the next several weeks. Testimony will be taken from those agencies 
which are now engaged in the tasks of apprehending, prosecuting, 
adjudicating, and confining those among us who have chosen to follow 
paths of lawlessness and violence. 

We need to arrest, prosecute, try, and — where necessary — confine 
those offenders who create havoc and fear. We need to do so in an 
expeditious, zealous manner. For the most part, the programs which 
we will be examining will show that we can attack — and hopefully 
defeat — street crime in a lawful way. This goal can be achieved with- 
out pity for the criminal act, with a decent respect for the violated 
rights of victims, and with a zealous regard for the constitutional 
rights of all concerned, both offenders and victims. 

These hearings will demonstrate that many thoughtful and dedi- 
cated law enforcement officials are bringing leadership and imagina- 
tion to bear in their efforts to reduce street crime and its carnage. 

We warmly commend all those who have been responsible for the 
innovative law enforcement programs which will be presented in 
these hearings, and, as I have said, we hope that they will be an 
inspiration and challenge to other law enforcement officials in this 
country. Nevertheless, the purpose of these hearings is to find out 
what can be done in the future to further reduce crime in this country, 
and make the streets, homes, work and recreational places of our 
citizens safer for them. 

[A cop;7 of the March 28, 1973, statistics from the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, referred to previously, follows :] 

United States Department of Justice, 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

Washington, B.C., March 28, 1913. 
Serious crime in the United States declined 3 percent in 1972. the first actual 
decrease in crime in 17 years, Attorney General Richard G. Kleindienst announced 
today. 

The downturn in the volume of crime was disclosed in preliminary year-end 
statistics tabulated by the FBI and released today. 

"This is a day that we have been looking forward to for many years," the At- 
torney General said. "It is an important milestone in the fight to reduce crime 
and is directly attributable to the strong efforts of law enforcement officers 
throughout the nation to turn back the wave of crime that rolled upward in the 
1960's.' 



During 1972, 94 major cities reported actual decreases in serious crime, Mr. 
Kleindienst said, compared witti 53 cities in 1971, 22 cities in 1970, and 17 cities 
in 1969. 

Nationally, serious crime declined 8 percent in the final quarter of the year, 
after registering a 1 percent increase through the first nine months of 1972. 

The last measurable decrease in serious crime — 2 percent — was recorded in 
1955, according to FBI crime records. 

The crime spiral peaked in 1968 when serious crime rose 17 percent above the 
previous year. In 1969 and 1970, serious crime increased 11 percent, while in 
1971, the increase was 6 percent. 

"We enter this new period with an acute awareness that crime is still un- 
acceptably high," Mr. Kleindienst said. "We pledge to renew our determination 
and efforts to make our communities safer places in which to live." 

The preliminary figures are contained in the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports, 
a collection of nationwide police statistics supplied voluntarily by local, county, 
and state law enforcement agencies. The figures were released today by FBI 
Acting Director L. Patrick Gray, III. 

Violent crime increased by 1 percent in 1972, compared with a 9 percent in- 
crease the year before. Robberies, however, which make up the largest number 
of crimes in the violent category, showed a 4 percent decrease in 1972. Murder 
was up 4 percent in 1972, aggravated assault increased 6 percent, and forcible 
rape increased 11 percent over the previous year. 

Property crime decreased 3 percent, compared with a 6 percent increase in 
1971. Auto theft declined 7 percent, larceny $50 and over dropped 3 percent, and 
burglary was down 2 percent. 

Cities over 100,000 population reported an average decrease of 7 i)ercent in the 
volume of Crime Index offenses. Crime in suburban areas increased 2 percent, 
compared to an 11 percent increase in 1971, while crime in rural areas went up 
4 percent compared to a 6 percent rise in the previous reporting period. 

Serious crime in Washington, D.C., continued to decline. The 1972 decrease 
was 26.9 percent, compared with the 1971 decrease of 13 percent. 

The nation's capital registered fewer crimes in every category, except for a 
16 percent increase in rape. Auto theft decreased 33 percent, burglary decreased 
32 percent, robbery decreased 31 percent, lai-ceny $50 and over decreased 18 
percent, murder decreased 11 percent, and aggravated assault decreased 2 percent. 

A copy of the preliminary crime figures for 1972 is attached. Final crime 
figures and crime rates per unit of population will be available in the detailed 
Uniform Crime Reports scheduled for release this summer. 

Also attached is a list of the 94 major cities reporting crime decreases. 



Cities With Decrease in Crime Index 
january-december 

1972 VERSUS 1971 



Index percent 
(decrease) 

Akron, Ohio 9.5 

Albany, N.Y 23. 8 

Alexandria, Va 2. 1 

AUentown, Pa 15. 4 

Arlington, Va 15.4 

Austin, Tex 3. 7 

Baltimore, Md 6. 5 

Beaumont. Tex 1. 6 

Berkeley, Calif 2.7 

Boston, Mass 8. 8 

Bridgeport, Conn 14. 6 

Buffalo, N.Y 6. 7 

Cambridge, Mass 7. 7 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 3. 8 

Charlotte, N.C 11. 8 

Chicago, 111 4.1 

Cincinnati, Ohio 5. 

Cleveland, Ohio 11.3 

Columbia, S.C 16.6 

Columbus, Ga 3. 

Columbus. Ohio 9. 5 

Corpus Christi, Tex . 8 

Dallas. Tex 2.6 

Dearborn, Mich 8. 8 

Des Moines. Iowa 9. 1 

Detroit, Mich 15. 8 

Duluth, Minn 6. 8 

Elizabeth, N.J 4.2 

El Paso. Tex 16. 5 

Erie, Pa .1 

Evansville, Ind 13.4 

Fall River, Mass 14.2 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla 4.2 

Fort Worth, Tex 5. 6 

Gary, Ind 3.7 

Glendale, Calif 5.8 

Hammond, Ind 2.3 

Hampton, Va 6.9 

Hartford, Conn 19. 8 

Hialeah, Fla 8. 2 

Hollywood, Fla 7.5 

Honolulu, Hawaii 15.3 

Huntsville, Ala 19.9 

Indianapolis, Ind 16. 

Jacksonville, Fla 4.9 

Jersey City, N.J 8.3 

Kansas City, Mo 13. 2 



Index percent 
(decrease) 

Lansing, Mich 6. 3 

Lexington, Ky 6. 5 

Los Angeles, Calif 3. 8 

Louisville, Ky 11.3 

Lubbock, Tex 11. 

Macon, Ga 3. 1 

Miami, Fla 9.9 

Milwaukee, Wis 3. 9 

Mobile, Ala 15.2 

Montgomery, Ala 3. 2 

Nashville, Tenn 18. 

Newark, N.J 10. 2 

New Bedford, Mass 20.3 

New Haven, Conn 9. 7 

New Orleans, La 15. 2 

New York, N.Y 18.0 

Norfolk, Va 18.1 

Oakland, Calif 3.4 

Orlando, Fla 10.7 

Parma, Ohio 9. 7 

Pasadena, Calif 1. 6 

Philadelphia, Pa 4. 5 

Pittsburgh, Pa 11. 

Portsmouth, Va 2.0 

Providence, R.I 13. 5 

Raleigh, N.C 5.0 

Richmond, Va 11.9 

Rochester, N.Y 8.6 

St. Louis, Mo 4. 1 

Salt Lake City, Utah 10. 

San Francisco, Calif 19.0 

Savannah, Ga 13. 8 

Scranton, Pa 27.0 

Seattle, Wash 3.8 

Shreveport, La 8.4 

Spokane, Wash 2.3 

Stamford, Conn 27. 6 

Syracuse, N.Y 11. 2 

Topeka, Kans 15. 2 

Torrance, Calif 5. 2 

Trenton, N.J 7.7 

Warren, Mich 2. 8 

Washington, D.C 26. 9 

Waterbury, Conn 7. 7 

Wichita, Kans . 7 

Yonkers, N.Y 11.7 

Youngstown, Ohio 11. 9 



6 

Chairman Pepper. I feel it would be only proper to express a word 
of thanks and welcome to the National Public Affairs Center for Tele- 
vision, for the television coverage offered. They will be filming several 
days of these hearings for inclusion in a documentary on street crimes. 
It will be entitled "America 1973 — Documentary," and it will be aired 
on 226 education television stations during the week of April 16. 

The airing by public television in the District of Columbia will be 
at 8 p.m. on April 18. 

I will now ask my colleague, Mr. Rangel, the distinguished gentle- 
man from New York, to introduce the Honorable Patrick V. Murphy, 
New York's police commissioner. 

Mr. Rangel. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, and members of this com- 
mittee. I have the pleasure and honor to introduce one of the most out- 
standing, dedicated public servants we have in the United States, Com- 
missioner Patrick Murphy, a career policeman who has served as chief 
of police in the cities of Detroit, the District of Columbia, Syracuse, 
and now the city of New York. 

Commissioner Murphy was appointed by President Johnson as the 
first Administrator of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administra- 
tion in the Department of Justice. He holds both B.A. and M.A. de- 
grees and is a graduate of the FBI National Law Enforcement Acad- 
emy. He served as an officer in the Navy in World War II and is the 
parent of eight children. 

Commissioner Murphy has made a distinguished contribution to the 
discovery of and attack on corruption within the New York City Police 
Department. He did this with the type of courage that is unparalleled 
in the history of law enforcement in the State and city of New York. 

It affords me a great pleasure to join with him in presenting to this 
committee information on present law enforcement efforts in the city 
of New York. 

Thank you, Commissioner. 

Chairman Pepper. Commissioner, I, as chairman, and all of the other 
members of the committee wish to concur in extending the welcome ex- 
tended to you by our distinguished member, Mr. Rangel. We are very 
grateful to you for coming to help us this morning. We all know of the 
contributions you make in the many parts of the practice of law en- 
forcement and the reduction of crime. We look forward to hearing 
what you have to say today. 

You may proceed with your statement. 

PANEL OF NEW YORK CITY POLICE OFFICIALS: 
MURPHY, PATRICK V., COMMISSIONER; 
CAWLEY, DONALD F., CHIEF OF PATROL SERVICES; 
VOELKER, ANTHONY M., DEPUTY CHIEF INSPECTOR; 
TUCKER, JULIA, LIEUTENANT, RAPE INVESTIGATION AND 

ANALYSIS SECTION; 
HUBERT, FRANK, LIEUTENANT, AUTO CRIME UNIT; 
O'FRIEL, JOHN T., SERGEANT; 
GARRITANI, CARL, PATROLMAN; AND 
CALLIER, LEROY, PATROLMAN 

Statement of Commissioner Murphy 

Commissioner Murphy. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman, Con- 
gressman Rangel, and members of "the committee. 



I am grateful indeed for the opportunity to appear before this dis- 
tinguished committee to describe some of the programs developed by 
the New York City Police Department to reduce crime during my 
tenure as commissioner. 

Mr. Chairman, I would like, with your indulgence, to make just a 
very few brief remarks in order to give the members of the committee 
every opportunity to ask questions. 

There was a significant decline in major crime in New York (^ity 
last year of approximately 8 percent. Compared with other large 
cities, and the country as a whole, we did relatively well. But consider- 
ing the thousands of victims, it would be a delusion to think that we 
have achieved a tolerable level of safety on the streets of New York 

When I was appointed police commissioner 21/2 years ago, I found 
a number of problems facing me. One very serious problem which 
could not be kept in other than first place on the list of priorities, 
the one alluded to by Congressman Rangel, was the problem of cor- 
ruption, which we have attempted to address in a straightforward 
manner. But when Mayor Lindsay, John B. Lindsay, the distinguished 
mayor of New York, interviewed me concerning my willingness to 
accept the position of police commissioner in New York City, we 
had a lengthy discussion about the proper role for the police com- 
missioner and the kind of independence and freedom he should have. 

Politics and law enforcement cannot be mixed if honest, effective 
law enforcement is to occur. The late J. Edgar Hoover proclaimed 
that principle many years ago. And although on occasion I disagreed 
with Mr. Hoover's thinking on some -matters, his foresight and deter- 
mination in this regard, as well as many others, have made a great 
contribution to American law enforcement. 

Mayor Lindsay assured me, before I agreed to accept his appoint- 
ment, that I would function independently and that the police de- 
partment during my term under him as mayor would be free from 
political interference. We have had that independence and that free- 
dom from interference and I think it is a factor which cannot be 
ignored in discussing the ability of a police department in a great 
city to address the difficult and complex problem of crime. 

Among the problems I identified early in my term was a quality 
of management that called for upgrading. Among the things we have 
been able to do in the department, in addition to selecting a new 
leadership team down through the second and third echelons, was 
our ability to bring in ci\dlian professionals of a variety of back- 
grounds — attorneys, engineers, systems managers, personnel dii'ectors, 
training specialists, and others. They all made an important con- 
tribution, in my opinion, to improve 'management in the New York 
City Police Department. 

We identified the problem of low productivity and we have been 
hard at work on that problem to attempt to make more effective use 
of our resources. The principal resources of any municipal police 
department are personnel. We found our personnel not being used as 
effectively as possible. 

One of the major changes accomplished in the past 2 years has been 
a significant shift of manpower from the hours after midnight, and 
especially after 1 or 2 a.m., when the calls for police service and the 
incidents of crime drop dramatically, and a shifting of that manpower 
to the hours before midnight. Approximately 50 percent of the man- 

95-158 O— 73— pt. 1 2 



8 

power on duty during a 24-hour period in New York City today is on 
duty during the high-crime period of approximately 4 p.m. to mid- 
night. 

We also believed that the use of uniformed police officers, though 
very important to provide the visibility and the presence that is reas- 
suring to the citizens, and which acts as a deterrent to the criminal, 
was not perhaps the most effective way to use all police officers, even 
though assigned in the individual precincts. So very early we author- 
ized precinct commanders, under a program of increased authority 
for commanders at the operating level, to assign up to 5 percent of 
their manpower in civilian clothes, to work we described as "anticrime 
street work.'' 

Since that time, each precinct commander has had his authority in- 
creased to 10 percent. 

Some time thereafter, under the distinguished leadership of the 
chief of patrol, Donald Cawley, who is with me on my right this 
morning, we established the citywide anticrime section, which is now 
headed by Deputy Chief Inspector Anthony M. Voelker, on my left. 

Mr. Chairman, I am happy to be able to tell you — you knew him 
as Inspector Voelker, and last Friday I had the privilege to advance 
him to the rank of deputy chief, in recognition of his distinguished 
leadership potential, and the great contribution of his citywide anti- 
crime section to the modest reduction in street crime we experienced 
in 1972. 

This anticrime patrol functions in plain clothes. They are deployed 
within the individual precincts and throughout the city, in accordance 
with a very careful day-to-day analysis of the occurrence of street 
crime by hour of day, by type of crime, and by location. 

As you will learn during today's meeting, the officers assigned, both 
male and female officers, are usually in a disguise of one kind or an- 
other. It is the function of the dedicated men and women of the unit 
to blend into the scenery, so to speak, wherever they are functioning, 
and you will hear later about some of the successes they have 
experienced. 

We saw a need for greater citizen support and so we hope to have 
an opportunity later to talk with you about our neighborhood police 
team concept and how it involves the citizens much more actively in 
understanding, supporting, and working with and assisting police 
officers. 

We would like to say a little bit during the day about our auxiliary 
police and the significant increase in enrollment in the auxiliary 
police program that we have experienced, especially in the minority 
communities of the city, where, because we do not have enough police 
officers or enough Hispanic police officers, it is a significant advantage 
to have more men and women in those communities in the police uni- 
form, as auxiliaries, volunteers, who give some number of hours a 
week of their time and increase the police presence. They are unarmed, 
but they are equipped with walkie-talkie radios; they are very familiar 
with the neighborhoods and, of course, they are providing an increased 
protection for their own neighborhoods, which I think is significant 
because police officers in our city do not live in the precincts in which 
they work. As a matter of fact, for many years it has been a policy 
of not permittmg officers to work in the neighborhoods where they 



9 

live, although currently we are experimenting with the concept of 
resident police officer. 

In addition to the auxiliaries, we have established some other pro- 
grams for citizen volunteers, a block-watcher program, and recently 
Mayor Lindsay announced a $5 million appropriation from the capital 
budget to encourage the citizens organized in block clubs and other 
kinds of neighborhood groups to, with Government support, contribute 
their own funds to the purchase of security equipment of one kind or 
another. 

Less than 1 percent of the budget of the New York City Police 
Department since the creation of the Law Enforcement Assistance 
Administration has come to us through Federal grants. We have been 
happy to cooperate with the policies of the criminal justice coordinat- 
ing council of Mayor Lindsay, in seeing to it that the funds have been 
used where most needed. And in New York City, and I believe in 
many cities, the greatest need today is in the courts and in corrections. 

This may seem a strange position for a police commissioner to take, 
but because I live day after day with the frustrations of our 30,000 
officers, I know of nothing that frustrates them more than the delay 
in courts, than the dismissals in courts, than the lack of convictions 
and lack of sentences. 

So to be realistic about addressing the problem of crime, I think 
we must face the fact that an adequate backup system is required for 
a police department. The prosecuting officers and the courts must be 
able to do their jobs, they must not be so overwhelmed by workload 
that they begin to break down in the fulfillment of their function. And 
certainly this distinguished committee is well aware of the failures of 
our corrections system in State after State in this country. 

In New York State, we experienced the terrible tragedy of Attica. 
All of us are saddened that such a tragedy had to occur before we, our 
communities, have begun to understand the great need for improve- 
ment, modernization, and upgrading of the corrections systems of the 
Nation. 

Almost invariably, the first reaction of the public when confronted 
by a law enforcement crisis is to seek to increase the size of the police 
force which it sees as its first line of defense. It has not been generally 
recognized that more police activity cannot be truly effective when 
other parts of the system suffer from lack of resources, manpower, and 
facilities, or are unable to adequately fulfill their purpose for what- 
ever reason. 

To make police work more credible, more resources must be made 
available to prosecutors, courts, and corrections systems, and our 
attention must be directed toward improving the whole criminal 
justice system so that it will function as a system. 

I have already introduced Chief Cawley, who is with me, and Chief 
Voelker. Also, Lt. Frank Hubert of our auto crime unit of the city- 
wide anticrime section is with us; Sgt. John O'Friel of the office of 
programs and policies, who has responsibility for processing Federal 
and other grants ; and a number of other members of the New York 
City Police Department will be here through the day and they will be 
introduced to you at the appropriate time. 

Mr. Chairman, we are ready to respond to whatever questions the 
committee might have for us. 



10 

Chairman Pepper. We thank you very much, Commissioner, for the 
very able statement that you made. 

I will now call on our deputy chief counsel, Mr. Lynch. 

Mr. Lynch, would you care to address some questions to Commis- 
sioner Murphy ? 

Mr. Lynch. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Commissioner, I wonder if you could tell us, to begin with, why the 
citywide anticrime section was created, how it operates, and what, in 
your judgment, its success rate has been during the past year or so in 
which it has been operating ? 

Commissioner Murphy. With your indulgence, I would like Chief 
Cawley, who really is the initiator of this program, to respond to that 
question. And I am sure Chief Voelker will have something to add. 

Statement of Donald F. Cawley 

Mr. Cawley. In November of 1971, shortly after my assuming the 
position of chief of patrol, there was a unit working for my office 
entitled "The Taxi and Truck Surveillance Unit" consisting of ap- 
proximately 80 men. They were primarily dedicated to dealing with 
taxi and truck robberies. In looking at the larger issue and the larger 
problem of street crime, and robbery in particular, I thought the 
matter through, came to a conclusion, what we really should be think- 
ing about was supplementing the increased anticrime civilian patrol- 
man working at the precinct level to approximately 200 men, and 
selecting the proper commander, the proper leader, have him pull to- 
gether a strong team of supervisors and create a unit that would deal 
exclusively with the street crime problems. 

As that lead, I selected Chief Voelker, at that time a captain, and I 
would suggest that perhaps if Chief Voelker gave the committee a 
brief presentation, which we have available, it might answer some of 
your questions. 

I would be very happy to respond to the specifics. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief Voelker, could you do that for us, please? 

Statement of Anthony M. Voelker 

Mr. Voelker. Yes, sir. At the time I was given the opportunity to 
organize the citywide anticrime section, I was given complete and 
total freedom as to selecting of personnel, laying down the ground 
rules and guidelines, deciding on what tactics would make the most 
sense in this kind of a police operation. 

Each superior officer was handpicked, as was each man. When we 
structured the unit, I think we were aware in advance of the necessity 
of striking a careful balance between policemen who are interested 
and enthusiastic enough to catch the street criminal in the act of com- 
mitting a street crime, while at the same time being greatly concerned 
of the rights of the individual citizen and being concerned not to 
encroach upon those rights. 

For that reason, in order to increase the complement of that unit 
from 80 to 200, we conducted some 600 interviews of patrolmen who 
were all highly recommended. They received a full week's training 
before we felt we were fully operational and then we went about the 
business of attempting to outwit the street criminal in his own baili- 



11 

wick, a task which I think is very difficult. It is very dangerous. It is 
very challenging, but I, as well as the men, find it probably the most 
meaningful kind of police work there is. 

What we have attempted to do is make the police officer relatively in- 
visible. We gave him the option to modify his appearance in whatever 
way he would. He uses what might be termed "props." In the past, we 
have used such things as wheelchairs, canes, crutches, bicycles, women's 
wigs, workmen's hard hats, toolboxes, surveyor's transit, a tie sales- 
man's cardboard box, a peddler's cart, in order to make our policemen 
relatively invisible. 

We have him focus his efforts and attention on street crime. "Street 
crimes", by my definition, being crimes of violence that occur on the 
city streets, crimes which cause concern and inconvenience to users of 
the city streets. The men are not assigned on a random basis, but are 
assigned on the basis of a statistical overview of crime. 

This is done both at the central unit and at the precinct level. We 
are interested in where crime is occurring, during what time brackets, 
what the violation may be, what the modus operandi of the criminal is, 
and possibly the description of the teams of assailants, if that is avail- 
able. 

The tactics have been devised generally by the officers themselves. I 
feel we have given them great tactical flexibilities so they can do what 
they think makes sense, as police officers. 

Two of the basic tactics are — the first being what has probably be- 
come the most favorite word in our vocabulary — is "blending." The 
officer attempts to blend into the street scene wherever he may be as- 
signed. If he is in a downtown business district, he will have on a busi- 
ness suit and carry an attache case and look like one of many others 
moving along the street. 

If he is in another neighborhood, he may be a truckdriver, cabdriver, 
a hippie, a student, a doctor, a nurse. He can assume any of these roles. 

That enters into the other facet of the operation which is the decoys. 
The anticrime men always blend and sometimes decoy. "Decoy," in my 
mind, is replacing the victim the street criminal thinks he may find 
when he strikes out. He intends to find someone who is, as the chair- 
man has said, possibly infirmed. He looks for the aged ; he looks for 
someone who will be a poor witness. He looks for someone who is going 
to be reluctant to go to court. 

"WHiat we do is take that person from the location where the crime 
is most likely to occur and substitute a police officer, a well-trained, 
physically fit, armed police officer, backed up by several others. That is 
what the decoy operation is, in my mind. 

Mr. Lynch. In that regard, Chief Voelker, this unit and units like 
it in other cities, do perform decoy operations. Do you have a substan- 
tial number of defendants who claim in court, and claim successfully, 
that they have been victims of entrapment as a result of the decoy 
operation ? 

Mr. Voelker. I never heard the question raised, other than academi- 
cally, when we get into a discussion on decoy. When I give you an ex- 
ample of the effectiveness of the unit, of the robberv arrests made in 
1972, of those cases disposed of to date, 90 percent have resulted in 
conviction. Many of those convictions — excuse me, have resulted in 
imprisonment. I have not heard any defendant raise the question 
of entrapment. 



12 

Mr. Lynch. In regard to the success rate, I understand you have 
some statistics here. Would you be good enough to go over them ? 

Mr. VoELKER. Yes, I do. I would be happy to. 

I think I would first like to show you what the anticrime investment 
is in the city of New York. Throughout the city's 72 precincts, there 
are approximately 800 men assigned to anticrime. Added to the 200 
men at the central unit, we are speaking of a 1,000-man investment, 
which in a department the size of New York's represents slightly less 
than 31/^ percent. 

Mr. Rangel. Chief, approximately what percentage of that 1,000 
total is on duty at any given time ? 

Mr. VoELKER. Somewhere between 50 and 60 percent during evening 
hours, because the duty charts are structured to strongly favor the 
evening hours, the hours of the highest incidence of crime. 

Mr. Rangel. In reference to the 8- or 10- or 12-hour shifts, and vaca- 
tion and sick time, notwithstanding the fact that you lean toward the 
hours where you have the highest criminal activity, I was wondering 
whether or not we should expect a drastic reduction in the 1,000-man 
figure that you use for the anticrime manpower, as we expect to find 
when you talk about your general police statistics, on duty at any 
given time. 

Mr. VoELKER. I would say the figure is comparable. I would say 
between 50 and 55 percent would be on duty. 

Mr. Rangel. You would say between 6 p.m. and 2 a.m., that we 
should believe 500 anticrime officers are actively on duty ? 

Mr. VoELKER. As an educated guess, sir. It might he less, but that 
would be my educated guess. 

Mr. Rangel. We couldn't guess like that if we were talking about 
the number of people assigned to a precinct. I don't know what the 
figure is, but it certainly would be nowhere near 50 percent. 

Mr. Voelker. No, the coverage is different. I can give you an ex- 
ample. The men at citywide have 6-day duty charts. The 2 last days 
being days, also, and the first 3 days being evenings. So half of their 
duty day is evening. So we subtract some of that for the court time and 
we might be in the vicinity of 40 percent would be on patrol. 

Mr. Murphy. Chief, may I interrupt? You say 72 precincts. You 
have 800 men in there and that is a little over 8 a precinct ; right ? 

Mr. Voelker. It varies, sir. It is quite a spread between what one 
police precinct considered "quiet" may feel is an anticrime team and 
what the "high-experienced" precinct might feel. 

Commissioner Murphy, Ten or eleven : 72 into 800. 

Mr. Murphy. How many people would you say comprised a precinct 
in New York, total population living in the precinct? 

Commissioner Murphy. Population per precinct is 110,000 or 120,000 
on the average. But there is a wide range there from as low as 30,000 
to close to 200,000. 

Mr. Voelker. I think when we are talking in terms of the size of 
the investment, that some of the next statistics may shed some light 
on that. Because we are now talking about officers who do not have 
the broad range of responsibilities that all policemen have. They 
don't have to answer the calls for the disorderly boys, or barking 
dogs, or family disputes, or minor accidents, or injuries. These offi- 



13 

cers are involved in what I consider in my mind, pure, distilled, anti- 
street-crime work. 

Mr. Cawlet. If 1 may, just for a moment, I am sure we will touch 
on this later, but the 800 men assi^ied to the precinct level, consistent 
with the decentralization of authority concept Mr. Murphy put in 
when he first came aboard, the precinct commander makes a lot of the 
judgments as to how he will use his people and when he will use them. 
So there is a wide variety of ways in which the precinct commander 
will assign the percentage that he selects to put into this type work. 

Mr. VoELKER. I think this chart here [indicating] will give you 
some indication of what the anticrime forces which are doing only 
anticrime work are able to do. 

In the four crime categories, which I think we would agree are the 
heart of \aolent street crime, they have effected the percent of arrest 
indicated here, this being the percent of all arrest effected by the entire 
department. It averages in around some 22 percent and they are re- 
sponsible for 23 percent of all arrests in these four crime categories, as 
well as 22 percent of all felonies and 16 percent of all arrests effected 
in the city. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, you indicated they had a high rate of convic- 
tion for felony arrests. Of the 750 robbery arrests made by city wide 
anticrime patrolmen, how many were in fact sent to court during 1972 ? 
Do you have any idea ? 

Mr. VoELKER. I am sorry, I don't have figures for other than the 
central unit. 

Mr. Lynch. Could you supply those figures to us later? Could you 
send those to us? 

Mr. VoELKER. Yes, sir. I will make every attempt to. 

[The information referred to, had not been received at time of print- 
ing.l 

Chairman Pepper. Would your same percentage of arrest apply to 
murder, rape, and aggravated assault ? 

Mr. VoELKER. I don't think so, sir. These, I feel, are the crimes that 
the anticrime has focus upon. These are the stranger-to-stranger 
crimes. The crime categories you mentioned, sir, I don't believe these 
are in the category of stranger to stranger, although they well may be. 

The next page on the chart is just an indication of what happened 
to these same crime categories during 1972. Since there were many 
programs in effect in the department, I make no correlation, other 
than to show in those crime categories that there was a reduction of 
crime. 

Mr. Rangel. Chief, arrest statistics are really just one indication of 
the effectiveness of the squad. You have to agree, every year, less and 
less people are complaining about crime being committed, for other 
reasons. 

Mr. VoELKER. I don't know. In my own mind. I think the number of 
complaints is reflective of the total number of crimes, although they 
may not be the same numerically. I think if you see a decrease in re- 
ported crimes, we are talking about a decrease in actual crimes. 

Mr. Rangel. I think if you would check with the members of the 
police force — and there are a large number that go to the community 
meetings — you will find more and more people believe it is less and 
less important to report crimes committed against them. Given this 



14 

factor, which really has not been assured, I hate for you to stress the 
good work of your division based on the number of complaints 
received. 

Mr. VoELKER. No ; I don't intend to. I would like to show you some 
other factors which I consider more important. 

Commissioner Murphy. Congressman, I can't let this go by. I think 
since we are talking about crime statistics, maybe we ought to put some 
facts on the table. I believe crime reporting in New York City today 
is the most honest, accurate, crime reporting New York City has ever 
had. 

I admit that crime reporting is not an exact science. I would not 
want to talk about crime reporting in other cities, especially Phil- 
adelphia. But in New York City 

Mr. Rangel. Do we understand what we are talking about. Com- 
missioner? I am not claiming that you don't accurately report what 
you have. I am saying, and you have been to enough community meet- 
ings to know this yourself, that more and more people believe it is 
just not worthwhile to report crimes. They are not reporting. I know 
that in the house where I live there have been in the last 2 years, a 
half-dozen burglaries. After each incident I have asked the question, 
"has a report been made to the precinct," and in each instance the 
answer has been "no." 

So I had to initiate 2 or 3 days later, the report, even though I 
recognized that had it been made earlier, the police would have had a 
greater chance to solve the case. 

Mr. Steiger. Would the gentleman yield ? 

Mr. Rangel. Yes. 

Mr. Steiger. I think the gentleman has raised a very, very important 
question, and I know, Commissioner, you recognize it from your service 
here in Washin^on. Not only are people not reporting crimes because 
they don't feel it is worthwhile, but at least in Washington, I know, 
there is an even greater factor of fear of reprisal by the accused. 

As to whether the reluctance to report a crime is on the increase or 
not, I agree with Mr. Rangel. I don't think any of us question the 
accuracy of your report. It would seem logical to assume if the com- 
plaints are down, probably the overall crime is down. 

Whether the percentages conform exactly or not, I don't think is 
important, but I think the fear of the victim, who is so intimidated 
that he is reluctant to report the crime, is something we probably ought 
to address ourselves to. 

Commissioner Murphy. My response to that, Congressman, I 
couldn't agree with you more. I think the National Crime Commission, 
in 1967, pointed out that many people don't report crimes for a variety 
of reasons. They have no hope of the crime being solved. 

I am well aware, Congressman, of many people, and tragically many 
in our district perhaps more so than other parts of the city, have a 
sense of frustration. 

Mr. Rangel. I would like to add. Commissioner, that because of 
your attempts to change the image of the precinct and change the image 
of the policeman to the point of his being regarded as a part of the 
community and the community is encouraged to become a partner in 
fighting against crime, progress has been made. I remember when 
people in my community would not have walked in that precinct for 



15 

any reason, because the precinct was always associated in the minds 
of people with wrongdoing and insensitivity. Because of the things 
you have done, I hope that perhaps we can encourage people to make 
complaints, even though it will take some time to change the general 
cynicism about what is going to happen. 

So I am not taking issue with the accuracy of your reports, I am 
just saying that I don't think it really warrants such attractive dis- 
plays, because there are more and more people saying, "To hell with 
it, we just hope things become better." 

Commissioner Murphy. That is what is frustrating. If that is 
accurate, that the reporting is getting worse each year, and it may 
be right 

Mr. Rangel. I am not going to give you an example, but during 
the break — letters I have written to you, where people, elderly people, 
have written to me after filing a complaint and I know darned well, 
God forbid something happens to them again, they are not goin^ to 
complain. To be victimized by crime is considered now as a way of life. 

Commissioner Murphy. I certainly agree that this has been a 
problem. Whether it is worsening;, I am not sure, but certainly, we 
ought to have better crime reporting in the United States, not only in 
New York City, but nationally. We ought to have better crime report- 
ing because the system is subject to error and, tragically, manipulation 
as well. 

I think we should be concerned about having the most acccurate 
crime reporting possible, so the police will know how to address it. 
There are many weaknesses in the system. Whether it is getting worse, 
I am not sure. We are trying awfully hard to make our system as good 
as we can make it. 

Mr. Eangel. But you do believe this is one of your more successful 
projects, the undercover? 

Commissioner Murphy. Oh. yes. 

Mr. Keating. Would the gentleman yield for just one observation ? 
I want to congratulate the gentleman from New York for his comments 
that people do not report crime, not to the police division, not to the 
law enforcement agencies. Individuals in my district — I don't have 
anything to back it up — but my impression in communicating with 
them is tlieir attitude of "What's the use ?" 

I think it is a very important point Mr. Rangel brings up. I say 
we now have at least three districts that are very diverse, that are mak- 
ing the same representation, and I think it is an extremely vital part 
of the total law enforcement problem. 

I think with the reverses you have had and some rape conviction 
cases, I suspect rape may be one of the worst crimes involved in non- 
reporting at the moment, because of what the girl has to go through, 
and the very difficulties you have had in securing convictions. 

I was a little surprised when the gentleman referred to a stranger- 
to-stranger crime and didn't include rape. I thought surely that would 
fit that category. 

But I think that is a very serious element that we have. Again, I 
congratulate Mr. Rangel. 

Chairman Pepper. Will you go ahead, Mr. Voelker. 

Mr. Voelker. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 



16 

I might just comment that I am in total agreement here, because 
without the basic source document, the crime complainant, there can 
be no tactical response to those problems. There can be no identifying 
of high crime trends and high crime patterns. 

Rather than stand on these, which was not my intention at all, I 
would just like to cite the 1972 achievement record of the unit I com- 
mand, the city wide anticrime section. 

With the complement of 200 male police officers and 6 female police 
officers, this unit effected, in 1972, 3,602 arrests. And I am sure we are 
all aware, raw arrest statistics can also be misleading. But I think 
when we further discuss and comment on the fact that of these total 
arrests, 83 percent were for felonies, I think they now become more 
meaningful. I am able to tell you of those arrests that approximately 
750 were for robbery, for grand larceny from the person, which are 
the two penal law terms that encompass the citizen term "mugging." 

Among those arrests were 540 for guns ; and of the arrests disposed 
of to date in all categories, 73 percent have resulted in conviction. Of 
the robbery cases disposed of, 90 percent have resulted in conviction. I 
think this is what I would rather stand upon than the other, which 
was just shown to indicate there was a decrease in reported crime in the 
same categories where this emphasis and focus has been placed. 

When we look for our anticrime man, we look for a man who is 
interested, enthusiastic, is mature, has good judgment, and we try to 
measure in advance that most difficult thing to measure, integrity. 
These 200 officers in 1972 effected 50 bribery arrests ; representing less 
than 1 percent of the department, they effected 9 percent of the bribery 
arrests. 

I think this is a comment upon the integrity level of the unit. 

To talk about anticrime is one thing. I think it is much more clari- 
fying if I would show you two anticrime officers, the way they nor- 
mally work on the street. I and they will be very pleased to answer any 
questions you may have. 

Mr. Lynch. Before you do that. Chief, I wonder, certainly the 
questions raised by the Congressmen are very pertinent. I suppose one 
way that one increases public confidence about a police department is 
to be able to advertise, if you will, the number of convictions had. 

So, I simply would like to reiterate and stress that if you could 
supply us with data for our final record, as to the number, as well as 
the percentage, of those robbery cases for 1972, it would be most 
helpful. 

Mr. VoELKER. Fine, sir. 

[The information requested was not received.] 

Mr. Lynch. Before you introduce your patrolmen who are here 
today, I wonder if you could explain to us how you deploy the city- 
wide anticrime patrolmen around the city. What judgments are made 
in deploying those men ? How do you do it ? 

Mr. VoELKER. We take a statistical overview of the entire city. Each 
precinct commander is now responding to his problems. I consider us 
a civilian-clothes overlay. We look at the total crime picture and see 
where the areas of high incidence are. 

We then meet with the local commander and his staff and he finds 
for himself, if you will, the information. My staff will say to him, "I 
see your robberies are up." He will say, "They are." And on Lennox 



17 

Avenue, between 52d and 58th on the West Side, between 8 and 11 p.m., 
and the predominant team is two males and a predominant victim, 
if he has this information, he will furnish it to us. We then tailor our 
assignments in response to the identified crime. 

Mr. Lynch. To what extent do you use them as a saturation force? 
Would you at any one time be sending 100 anticrime unit personnel 
into a given sector of the city ? 

Mr. VoELKER. We have attempted saturations, not of that size. A 
saturation of possibly 20 or 30 men, which is a lot of civilian-clothed 
police officers in a precinct. 

Mr. Lynch. What are the results of that kind of saturation work 
then? 

Mr. VoELKER. I would have to say, in my mind, it is too early to 
make a firm assessment, but I see this has the potential for possibly 
turning crime statistics. 

Mr. Lynch. I wonder if you could introduce your two anticrime 
unit patrolmen to the panel and ask if they would take a seat. 

Mr. VoELKER. Patrolman Leroy Callier, would you step up, and 
Patrolman Carl Garritani ? 

Mr. Lynch. I wonder if you gentlemen would please tell the mem- 
bers of this panel how long you have been assigned to the anticrime 
unit and tell us what you do in the normal course of your duties? 

Statement of Carl Garritani 

Mr. Garritani. I have been assigned to the citywide anticrime 
unit for approximately 16 months. My duties consist of daily going 
into areas to which I am assigned, trying to blend or decoy, depending 
on the circumstances in that area. 

Mr. Lynch. How long have you been a New York City patrolman ? 

Mr. Garritani. Four years. 

Mr. Lynch. How many arrests have you made since you have been 
a member of the city anticrime unit ? 

Mr. Garritani. I, personally, have made approximately 20 arrests 
in the last 16 months and assisted in about 40 other arrests. 

Mr. Lynch. Would that be considered a high arrest rate ? 

Mr. Garritani. It might be slightly above the average. 

Mr. Lynch. How would that compare with the number of arrests a 
uniformed patrolman might effect in that same period of time ? 

Mr. Garritani. In the same category of crime, I would say it would 
be higher simply because we have greater opportunity to make the 
high-degree felony arrest that he does not have. Numberwise, it might 
not be significantly different than active uniformed men. 

Mr. Lynch. How were you selected as a patrolman for this unit? 

Mr. Garritani. I was interviewed. I submitted an application to my 
precinct commander who ruled that I would be eligible, depending on 
my activity in my particular precinct. He then put in my name to the 
citywide anticrime section. I was called down and interviewed, thor- 
oughly screened, and subsequently selected. 

Mr. Lynch. What kind of training did you undergo prior to going in 
the street as an undercover patrolman ? 

Mr. Garritani. There was 1 week of formal training and many 
many weeks of on-the-job training. 



18 

Mr. Lynch. Would you tell us a little bit about that formal train- 
ing, sir ? 

Mr. Garritani. Yes. We spent 1 week in the police academy. We were 
spoken to by members of our department specializing in disguise work, 
undercover work, plain clothes activity, hand-to-hand combat, and 
administrative recordkeeping and report taking. 

Statement of Leroy Callier 

Mr. Lynch. Patrolman Callier, would you tell us how long you 
have been a member of the city anticrime unit ? 

Mr. Callier. I have been a member of the city anticrime section 
for approximately li^ years. Prior to that, I was in the tactical patrol 
force for approximately 2 years. 

Mr. Lynch. How many arrests have you made ? 

Mr. Callier. For the entire time I have been a police officer, I have 
effected 177 arrests. 

Mr. Lynch. How many of those came since you have been a member 
of the city wide anticrime section ? 

Mr. Callier. 44. 

Mr. Lynch. How many felony ? 

Mr. Callier. Thirty-eight of the forty-four were felony arrests. 

Mr. Lynch. How many of the 38 were for robbery? 

Mr. Callier. Approximately 20. 

Mr. Lynch. You spent how long as a uniformed patrolman before 
joining this section ? 

Mr. Callier. 21/^ years. 

Mr. Lynch. What is your judgment, as a street-level policeman, as 
to the effectiveness of this kind of policing ? 

Mr. Callier. Well, we were able to blend in the area more readily 
and we are able to ^et right on top of a situation when there might 
be one that is imminent. Also, in some cases where a complainant 
might be reluctant to complain, we are right there, which we, in many 
cases, take the complainant to the precinct, process the papers, et cetera. 

Also, in many cases, we pick up the complainant and take him to 
court, which affords more safety for them, and a little confidence. 

Mr. Lynch. Is this kind of policing more dangerous for you, per- 
sonally, than wearing a regular uniform? 

Mr. Callier. Well, for any police officer, I feel, out in the streets, it 
is dangerous. But in many cases, we try and have the crime perpetrated 
upon ourselves rather than the victim. 

Mr. Rangel. I would like to follow up on that point, because it 
seems to me that you are being very modest, because you "blend" 
too well in certain areas. 

It just seems to me, you might have a whole lot of explaining to 
do as you try to effect an arrest, if some of your brother officers are 
not entirely familiar with your identification. You don't find that 
any problem at all ? 

Mr. Voelker. Could I respond to that ? 

Mr. Rangel. Yes. 

Mr. Voelker. We do have a system that provides identification be- 
tween nonuniformed police officers and uniformed police officers. We 
found it to be very effective. I really don't think we want it highly 
publicized. It is known throughout the police community ; it is known 



19 

throughout the police community within the city. We have a system 
that we can change on a day-by-day basis, that permits identification 
between and among the officers. 

Mr. Rangel. My question is a serious one, because of a lot of things 
that are happening in cities throughout these United States. 

Many black officers off duty, especially if they live or work around 
my community, have to be very careful in how they attempt to effect 
an arrest, or to show they have a pistol, for fear some brother officers 
might overreact. That is a problem we have to deal with and it just 
seems to me in that outfit you might be more subject to well-inten- 
tioned attacks by your brother officers. 

But certainly, in the middle of the night, between 6 p.m. and 2 a.m., 
you have to think rather fast to get that code out, if the perpetrator 
looked better off than you did, and a brother officer was coming, try- 
ing to decide which one was apprehending whom. 

Mr. Callier. Normally, with myself working with a team of three, 
and one of us usually stays back in case police officers are respond- 
ing, to let them know that there is a black police officer at the scene and 
they will usually give them the clothes I have on, the color of the 
coat, and so forth. 

Mr. Rangel. But you do dress more discretely when you are not on 
duty? 

Mr. Callier. Yes. 

Mr. Lynch. Patrolman Callier, in that regard, I wonder if you, or 
perhaps Chief Voelker, could tell us how many members of this unit 
have been wounded in line of duty during the past year? Do you have 
those figures? 

Mr. Voelker. None by gimshot. There has been one man stabbed, 
although not seriously, this year. There have been many officers who 
have been punched and struck with various weapons and knocked to 
the ground and kicked. 

As far as the potential for danger, I think there is a considerable 
potential for danger in this kind of an operation. I think we have ad- 
dressed it in advance. I think the fact that we do have a system of 
identification, that we do operate primarily in three-man teams, the 
men receive extensive training, all indicate an awareness of this 
danger. It is very dangerous. I think providence must have intervened, 
because we have not had any serious injuries. 

Mr. Lynch. In other cities — one city in particular — operations 
similar to this one have met with a good deal of criticism because it 
appears that a high rate of official violence has occurred. 

Commissioner Murphy, I wonder if you could respond and tell us 
whether, in the course of operating this unit, patrolmen are engaged 
in more shootouts, more acts of violence, than would be the normal case 
in police operations? 

Commissioner Mitrphy. I think, as Chief Voelker points out, the 
mission of the unit is such that the men are exposed to danger on 
almost every mission, but their restraint, the use of force by the officers 
in the citywide anticrime unit has both been commendable, and the 
use of violence, legal violence, has been extremely limited. 

We are proud of that. We really do not have even what I could 
describe as a pattern of complaints that the unit uses force excessively, 
and I think Chief Voelker has pointed out what a good record we have 
had, even for the people in the unit. 



20 

So we are very pleased with the restraint, and this is something we 
constantly stress, to avoid the use of force and especially weapons, if 
at all possible, even to the extent of retreating or devising a new 
strategy. Of course, we don't teach the men to lose a criminal who has 
committed a violent crime, certainly. But restraint is something we 
stress, day after day, and I think Chief Voelker's outstanding leader- 
ship has been a factor in this regard. 

Mr. Rangel. Chief, would your response be the same in connection 
with the tactical patrol force ? 

Commissioner Murphy. Congressman, I am proud of the restraint 
of the New York City police officers, generally. The work of the tactical 
patrol force, again, is unique and unlike — incidentally, we have signif- 
icantly reduced the size of the tactical patrol force and one of the 
ways in which this unit was formed was to reduce that unit. 

They are another unit I am very proud of. They work under very 
difficult circumstances, especially because they move from precinct to 
precinct, night after night. We are all concerned. I think all of us at 
this table understand that that is not the ideal way for the uniformed 
police officer to function. 

The ideal way is for him to go into the precinct, into the community, 
to introduce himself, to be identified, and to be supported and accepted 
by the community as a police officer they know. 

The mission of the tactical police patrol force, unfortunately, mov- 
ing about the city to handle crime control and any incident that has the 
potential for disorder, that mission is such that they are not known and 
they are stranger policemen to a certain extent, and this results in their 
using rnore force, I would say — and I don't have data with me — than 
the ordinarily uniformed police officer. 

Mr. Rangel. Commissioner, nobody is more unknown to the com- 
munity than this outstanding outfit we are talking about this morn- 
ing. How would the mobility of the tactical patrol force allow them 
to use more restraint or less restraint than other police officers ? 

Commissioner Murphy. Because the missions are different. If we 
have a crowd, if there are demonstrations, or picketing, or serious 
disaster, or any kind of minor disorder, the tactical patrol force is the 
unit we send in to deal with crowd control and to deal with tensions 
of crowds, which is a very different mission, not to take anything away 
from these officers, and at least one of them has served in the tactical 
patrol force with distinction. 

I think that other mission does put them in a different position. They 
are also required, the tactical patrol force now, to deal with conditions 
such as large crowds congregating on street corners for one reason or 
another. They may have to be used to help move the crowd along. We 
emphasize community relations and the patient approach, and I think 
they do an outstanding job in that regard. They do, because of their 
mission, meet more incidents that may require the use of force. 

Mr. Rangel. But you do believe they are necessary, more so than 
the local police precinct, where the tensions are building up, where 
one might know the captain, et cetera ? 

Commissioner Murphy. Congressman, my own view of it is I wish 
we didn't have to have any uniformed police officers, other than those 
permanently assigned to a precinct. Because I strongly believe in the 
value of the police officer being known. That is the basic concept of 



21 

our neighborhood police team approach, and as you know, we even have 
new resident police officers. 

They are real heroes in my book because they try to police the 
neighborhood where they live, and that is not an easy mission because 
of all that is involved, and residents coming to them with their com- 
plaints and bothering them 24 hours a day, and so forth. 

We have reduced the size of both our tactical patrol force and our 
special event squad, because Chief Cawley and I both believe strongly 
in the neighborhood policeman, whether he is on the team or just one 
of the precinct officers. 

But I am not at the point where I feel we can do away with our 
tactical patrol force yet. I wish the problems of crowd control and the 
potential for disorder were so low that we felt we didn't need any. 

Mr. Rangel. What is the size of that force now ? 

Mr. Cawley. Approximately 40 in the tactical patrol and about 25 
or 35 in the special event squad. A combined total of 75. 

Mr. Rangel. \Vhat about the PEP squad? I forgot what the letters 
stand for. 

Commissioner Murphy. Preventive enforcement patrol. 

Mr. Rangel. Are they still in operation ? 

Mr. Cawley. We have decentralized that down to 28 and 32. 1 think 
there are units of 10 in each of those 2 precincts. At one time, as you 
know, we operated from the moral level. We brought it back into the 
community where we thought it would be more effective. 

Mr. Rangel. So the total strike force of the PEP is 20 ? 

Mr. Cawley. I believe at this time it is 20; 10 in each of the 2 
precincts. 

I would also like to make this point, if I may. In a recent report 
from Chief Voelker, he indicated that during 1972 there were ap- 
proximately, at least an estimated, 10,000 contacts with the citizens 
of New York City, resulting in a total of 9 complaints about the 
actions of our police officers in the citywide anticrime section. 

Mr. Steiger. I wanted to ask Mr. Callier, how long are they able 
to stay in a given area without calling your cover, and how will this 
exposure affect your future cover work? Either one of you gentlemen 
who wishes to respond. 

Mr. Callier. That depends on the type of operation we are haying. 
If I feel that the way I am dressed now is actually blown, I will either 
switch coats with my partners, or I will carry a wig and put it on. 

Mr. Steiger. From your own experiences, do you find that the people 
you are anxious to apprehend are kware of the existence of your 
operation ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Callier. No. In many cases, I have been approached by prospec- 
tive muggers to team with them in order to mug another person. 

Mr. Steiger. Have you had the same experience ? 

Mr. Garritani. I found in some cases they are aware we are some- 
where in the area, but they are not quite sure where we are. And if 
we follow what we feel might be a perpetrator long enough, he does 
commit the crime. It is a question of frustration he has to commit the 
crime, and when he knows to do it. 

Mr. Steiger. You are telling us then that staying under cover is not 
the problem the layman might think it is and you are not supported 
as greatly, at least, as I would assume. 



22 

Mr. VoELKER. I wonder if I might respond to that ? 

Mr. Steiger. Certainly. 

Mr. VoELKER, I think our two objectives, we have a short-range 
objective — we are looking to take this relatively invisible policeman 
and putting him where the crime is most likely to occur. He is going 
to get closer to the crime scene, hopefully. He will make a better 
observation, a high-quality arrest, and enhance the chance of 
conviction. 

In the long range, I think we want to sow the seeds of uncertainty 
in the minds of the street criminal as to just who the police officer 
may be. He is certainly not only the man in blue; he may be any of 
those we described before — the taxidriver, the truckdriver, the old 
woman. 

So I don't feel the exposure hurts these officers for that reason and 
for the reason that, be it notwithstanding, he could be an old woman 
tomorrow, but he could be anything, a cabdriver, a student. He is 
liable to be in the north end of Manhattan tonight and the south end 
of the Bronx tomorrow. 

Mr. Steiger. That was my question. You gentlemen are in the city- 
wide end of 200. Do you know from talking to your brother undercover 
officers in the precinct if they have had to move around because they 
are inclined to be spotted by the criminal element within the precinct ? 

Mr. Callier. Because of the closeness of the contact we have be- 
tween teams, we are able to, if one team feels they are actually blown, 
their cover is blown, what we do is get in touch with another team and 
have them pick up where we left off. 

Mr. Garritani. We had an incident like that last week, which points 
it out pretty vividly, and I think we can thank the price of meat for 
being able to make that arrest. 

One of the teams spotted what they thought were several youths 
breaking into a closed meat market. It had a screen in the front door 
and apparently they were working on a lock. But they also felt the 
young fellows may have them made out as police officers. So they called 
for another unit, and myself and my partner happened to be nearby, 
and with the benefit of binoculars we stayed a block and a half away 
and watched the group ; and we enabled the other unit to drive away 
and let the perpetrators see them drive away, and their fears were 
dispelled and they continued to work on the lock, break in the meat 
market, and we wound up getting six arrests out of that. 

Mr. Lynch. I wonder if you can tell us what kind of automobiles 
you use and what kind of communications equipment you carry. 

Mr. Garritani. We have several makes of late model cars we use, 
non-police-type automobiles. We have our own van walkie-talkie sys- 
tem for communications. We have step-vans, we have telephone com- 
pany trucks. Yellow Cabs, Gypsy Cabs, and a great assortment of 
unmarked police cars, but totally nonrelated police vehicles. 

Mr. Lynch. These then are not the standard kind of unmarked 
police cars ? 

Mr. Garritani. That is correct. They would be just like any other 
car on the street. 

Mr. VoELKER. If I can elaborate on that. We were very fortunate 
to receive slightly over one-half million dollars in Federal grants in 
the latter part of 1971, which was used to purchase, among other 



23 

things, 83 sedans, some step-vans, surveillance truck, binoculars, tele- 
scopes, cameras, some protective equipment, and some theatrical 
makeup which, believe it or not, is quite valuable in this kind of an 
operation, to give the man the opportunity to change his appearance. 

But the sedans, as you alluded to, were not the standard, heavy-duty, 
four-door, dark blue or black that in our minds are known to child 
and criminal alike. We have Torinos, LeManses, Skylarks, golds, reds, 
hardtops, whitewalls, chrome trim; and none at all with the look of 
police vehicles. 

Our communications system is UHF system, rather sophisticated, 
which permits an anticrime man with a hand-held walkie-talkie to 
talk to an anticrime man anywhere else in the city. 

Mr. Lynch. I believe you have asked for an additional amount of 
Federal funds for this year ; is that correct ? 

iVIr. VoELKER. We have, sir. The amount is $735,000. It has been 
approved. Among other things, it will be used to purchase 140 vehi- 
cles, the vast majority of which Avill go on to the precinct teams. Among 
these are sedans, econovans, and yellow medallion taxis, which are 
highly effective as surveillance vehicles. 

Air. Lynch. Is that LEAA support? 

Mr. VoELKER. Yes, it is. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you use LEAA money for anything other than 
equipment in this program ? In other words, the salaries are regular 
N.Y.P.D. salaries? 

jNIr. VoETvKER. Yes, sir: that the uiatching funds for the cities are 
in salaries. Just for, basically, the equipment I mentioned. 

Mr. Lynch. I would like to address one question to you, 
riiief Cawley. One of the values, it would seem, of a program like 
this is to create in the minds of so-called street criminals an appre- 
hension that people other than uniformed people might be policing; 
and in that regard, does the department have a policy about pub- 
licizing this program and, if so, what is the policy ? 

Mr. Cawley. Yes ; we have publicized rather extensively the exist- 
ence of both the citywide anticrime section, as well as the 800 men 
assigned to the precinct level. There has been considerable newspaper 
coverage, television coverage, national magazine coverage. We go out 
of our way to let the wrongdoer, the criminal in New York City, know 
that if he is on the street and contemplating a mugging, he may be mug- 
ing a police officer. I think it has been very successful, 

]\Ir. Lynch. Is there any way, as police administratore, you can make 
a judgment, not just on the number of arrests Avhich have been made by 
a unit such as this, but as to the possible deterrent effect it might have ? 

Mr. Cawley. Measuring deterrent effect is exceedingly difficult. 
It is something, I guess, we have been chasing for many years. It has 
proved to be very elusive. 

I think the combination, thougli, of the uniformed patrolman, mar- 
lied, together with the civilian clotJies — un.ifoi-med pati'olmou cou- 
pled with the detective investigative capability, all three working 
together, blending as a team, must liave a positive effect, but 1 can t 
give an estimate as to what. 

Mr, Brasco. Would counsel yield at that point ? 

I wanted to welcome you, Conunissioner, and your stall', and say that 
I apologize for being late but my flight this morning was delayed. 

95-158— 73— pt. 1 3 



24 

In any event, in a city of millions of frustrated people with tlie disa- 
bilities you have to work with, I want to say I believe your department 
has done a fine job. 

Mr. Rangel. I might add, Commissioner, that proves he is not iim- 
nino- for mayor ; rig-ht ? 

Mr. Brasco. You are right, Charlie. Commenting on the deterrent 
effect of the undercover operation in a portion of the district I repre- 
sent, we have a housing development that liad a murder in a local rec- 
reation center and many acts of violence around the development. As a 
result, the New York City housing police stationed a similar force in 
the area, and many arrests were made within the first 2 days of their 
being in the vicinity. 

I can tell you that crime dro])ped in the area, where heretofore it 
had been abnormally high. 

In that controlled setting of the housing development, the deterrent 
effect was most effective, and I think it is an excellent way to fight 
crime ; and the psychological effect, beyond that, is important. 

Commissioner iSIuRPHY. I nm delighted to hear you say that. Con- 
gressman. I said earlier, Cliief Cawlev is reallv the initiator of the 
citvwide program. I think he is modest. 

I am completely convinced two factors — shifting manpower fi'om 
after midnight to the before midnight liour and authorizing precinct 
commanders to use 10 percent of tlioir personnel in civilian clothes, 
and the creation of the citywide unit — have had a tremendous effect. 

I agree with Chief Crawley that it is very difficult to accomplish 
this, but I have heard from people in the narcotics treatment side of 
this total pi'oblem of crime tliat addicts coming in to treatment have 
indicated that the streets ai-en't as easy to work as they were. We don't 
want to take credit and say we are pushing addicts into treatment 
programs, but it is possible that is having that effect. And I think the 
more we can do, what you just described, to make a housing project 
or an area of the city safer, I think we are accomplishing something. 

Mr. Brasco. On that same subject matter, during the course of the 
narcotics hearings which we had in the middle of last year, we had 
several undercover people from your department who testified before 
this connnittee, and I would sa}- that the same thing held true there, 
where they were able to get into the high schools to effect arrests. 

As a result of the overall testimony, it was shown to be a most posi- 
tive weapon and as a result the Board of Education of the city of 
New York took some steps in the direction of attempting to provide 
more safety in the schools by first recognizing there was a problem as 
you people pointed out. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Commissioner, I wonder if you could tell us whether 
or not it would be your judgment that this program has now be- 
come institutionalized within your department and, if so, have you 
made any plans to continue and/or expand its operation? 

Commissioner Murphy. Well, I have very strong feelings it has been 
a most successful program and I think a citywide unit as institutional- 
ized now, and we are in the midst of very active discussion at the 
moment for enlarging the citywide anticrime program. The dilemma 
is where to draw the people from, but I am currently inclined very 
much toward enlargement. 

Mr. Rangel. Mr. Counsel, may I inquire? 



25 

Chief, there is no question thut this section of your force has been 
widely accepted in the connnunity and generally believed to Ixi suc- 
cessful, and, certainly, your conviction record substantiated that. Coun- 
sel asketl whether or not aou intend to institutionalize it and I thought 
your answer was going- to be based on a consideration of manpower. 

Perhaps Chief Cawley could explain once again the problem we in 
the community have in connection wdtli deploying the men that you 
have with existing budgetary restrictions. It is hard to determine how 
much of a deterrent the foot patrolmen are, but we continue to have the 
same problem — and I assume other cities have it — where the layman 
and the person in the street say they wants more foot patrolmen. The 
geographic area has not increased the population has increased and 
without taking away from the good work being done by these men,, 
they are not, in fact, deterrents because of lack of uniforms. 

The answer has been that you can cover more ground with the squad 
car than the foot patrolman can. Is it still your belief the visibility 
of the foot patrolman does not outweigh the flexibility of the squad' 
car ? 

Mr. Cawley. In order to be responsive to the tremendous service 
needs of the community. Congressman, I think the radio car is the 
most economical and effective way of providing the highest level of 
service. If we could afford it, we would certainly like to have more 
men on foot patrol. We do not have that luxury at the moment. 

We have tried to take both sides of the street, thougli. We ha\-e in- 
stituted a number of programs and one of which comes to mind is the 
Park, walk, and talk concept. 

We have tried to require officers during particular times of their tour 
of duty to get out of the car, to walk on the streets of the community, 
and to meet with the business people. 

We have put in a program I call, responsive patrol. That program 
is designed to deal with what I call ''unstructured time." Only about 30 
percent of a uniformed patrolmen's time is consumed in mandated 
services, so he has quite a bit of time that is available to us to direct 
his energies and suggest where he could better spend that time. 

So we have tried, in that part of his time, to get him to leave the 
radio car, to get out and walk. But right now, we have been through 
an additional process. We are in the process of hiring more people. 
Hopefully, in the very near future, we will have additional personnel 
that we can consider how to best assign them and where to best assign 
them. But right now, I do believe the most effective way of using the 
resources that I have is to keep them assigned to radio multipatrol duty. 

Mr. Rangel. This sounds like a breakthrough. Meaning, if more 
money was available and you had more manpower, you would con- 
sider more foot patrolmen rather than expansion of the radio car 
sj^stem i 

Mr. Cawley. That will depend, of course, upon the analysis of the 
local needs on the part of the precinct commander. That, again, I go 
back to our setting in, the commissioner setting in, a concept ()f de- 
centralization of duty. We have had each precinct commander to con- 
tinually evaluate his problems, to come up with the best use of re- 
sources made available to him. 

If the commanding officer of tlie precinct believes the best way of 
solving many of his problems would lje to run on RMP planning^^ 

Mr. Raxgel. What is RMP? 



26 

Mr. Cawley. Radio motor patrol. And then the balance of those 
resources that are used in scooter patrol, foot patrol, we would en- 
courao-e them to think through their own problems and suggest to us 
hoAv to best use the people assigned to them. 

Mr. Rangel. Wouldn't more foot patrolmen want to be elevated to 
the squad cars ? I don't know. But isn't that something like a better as- 
signment than pounding the beat ? 

Mr. Cawley. No; I don't think it is necessarily viewed as a better 
assignment. I think, if the best place to use a police officer would be on 
the scooter or on the foot patrol assignment, that officer would not 
■consider it to be a lesser assignment than one in a car. Cars are kept 
'quite busj^, as you know. 

Mr. Rangel. I won't get into that, the Avay they are kept busy, but it 
just seems to me you are asking a lot of the command if most of its men 
would want cars, and, heck, cluring the cold, bitter winters, it seems 
to me a car m.akes a heck of a lot of difference — whether you are in 
the sti'eet or in the car. 

But that being what it is, are you saying that now the department is 
:so decentralized that if you were voted more funds that the local pre- 
•cillct commanders would decide whether there would be more foot 
patrolmen or more radio cars? 

Commissioner Murphy. I would like to respond to that. Congress- 
man. As you laiow, we have been in the job freeze in the city for about 
3 vears and that means we have suffered an attrition of well over 2.000 
police officers and well over 1,000 civilian employees. So it is a 
kind of 10-percent attrition over 3 years. 

When I was public safety director here in Washington, in 1968, for 
the first time in, I think 10 years, I brought the department up to 
quota of 3,100 officers. In Washington, D.C. 

Now in Washington, there are 5,100 police officers, the last I heard. 
Those of us in the policing world, when we meet with the distinguished 
Chief Wilson in Washington, we say to him, "You are a lucky fellow; 
you have wall-to-wall cops." 

In Washington, Chief Wilson is blessed Avith 6.5 policemen per 
1,000 of population. We have less than four policemen per 1,000 of pop- 
ulation in New York City. Congressman, I assure you, if we had five 
policemen per 1,000, we would have a lot more on foot patrol. If we 
had 6.5, we would haA^e wall-to-wall cops in your district. 

Mr. Rangel. You deal with the population figure ratio to the police 
officer, and I assume that is the best Avay to do it. From a layman's 
point of view, however, while the population has expanded geographi- 
cally. New York City has not increased, so that we could have the same 
number of policemen in any given area as we believe we used to have 
before the expansion of the squad car. 

Commissioner Murphy. Well, there are a number of other factoids, 
Congressman. As a result of better working conditions, officers have 
longer vacations, more paid holidays, time for training. We don't 
really have available the same amount of street time per officer that 
we had a few years ago. 

Another factor is the time lost in court. The number of times an 
officer must go back when he makes an arrest. 

So the truth of the matter is — and I know Chief Cawley and I have 
both come under fire for shifting more on the basis of crime incidence 



27 

and tliat is wliat we have been doino-. so Miat also there lias been a net 
loss of manpower in your district, Ibelieve, because we have had this 
serious loss citywide.' The distribution of officers citywide, I believe^ 
has improved for your district. 

That, is, the percentage of all of those available for precinct work 
has improved because in Totenville, for example, the merchants feel 
they don't have sufficient police protection. I think you know where 
Totenville is. It is true, we reduced the size of the force in Totenville 
and some other outlyino- precincts, trying to get a distribution more ia 
accordance Avith the incidence of crime and the calls for service. 

But I am sorry to say, because of the total attrition in the depart- 
ment, there has been a decrease from what you had some years ago. 

Mr. Eaxcf.l. I appreciate the scientific input you brought to the 
police department. Xo one can successfully argue against the proposi- 
tion that you have increased the effective utilization of the force. But 
getting more policemen, really, is a political matter in a sense. I was 
the sponsor of the so-called fourth platoon bill in the New York State 
Legislature and I know the argument in State legislative bodies will not 
be scientific but will, in fact, be political in nature, as each legislator 
attempts to reflect the feeling of the people he represents. 

So my real question, is : notwithstanding your technical argiiments on 
the utilization of manpower, to the layman, the foot patrolman 
represents a large part of the solution of the problem. I am asking 
you. Chief, what number of men do you need to enable you to reach 
tliat point where you have already used as much manpower for the 
radio squad car as you can, and then you can begin to assign the excess 
to v\iiat the people believe the solutions, from a layman's point of view, 
of having more visible evidence of police presence. 

It seems to me from an emotional point of view, most people believe 
there is no substitute for the foot patrolman, whether it is for better 
police-conmiunity relations, or as a deterrent to crime. If, politically, 
we were to ask the State legislature for more money for more police, 
it would be embarrassing if you came up saying these additional men 
would be used for more radio cars. 

^h•. Cawley. Again, I am not trydng to avoid the question. I have to 
come back to the fact that there has been a 2,000-man attrition in the 
last few years. 

]Mr. Eaxgel. We know what we have suffered and we know the 
difficulty with the New York City budget to bring you back up to 
standard manpower. But somewhere along the line, with all of the 
politicians talking, we have to find out how many men you think 
A\ ould bo necessary to effectively patrol the streets of New York, and 
do everything that you want to do. 

Chairman PErPER. We will have a 10-minute recess. 

[A brief recess was taken.] 

Chairman Peppee. The committee will come to order. 

Gentlemen of the committee, I thought we would like the first pres- 
entation made and then we would ask questions. 

Mr. I.YXcir. I wonder if we could at this time call Lieutenant Hubert 
of the auto crime s(iuad to explain to the committee what the function 
of that imit is, and what its succevSS rate has been ? 

Statement of Frank Hubert 
Mr. Hubert. Good morning. 



28 

The auto crime unit is a uniform force. It works in marked and 
unmarked autos and the main thrust of the unit is the auto larceny 
problem. 

Our command is citywide anticrime section and we are under the 
command of Chief Voelker. We patrol all areas of the city where the 
auto larceny problem is hig-li and we respond there on. primarily, 
statistical analysis, although we will respond upon a request of a local 
precinct commander. 

I was going to utilize the flip chart, but I see it is down. I guess the 
best way to reflect upon achievements of 1972, we have a complement of 
64 field patrolmen. It represents 0.22 percent, or, better yet. one-fifth 
of 1 percent of the entire department. 

It effected 1,758 arrests during the year 1972, of which 1.58o were 
for felonies. This figure represents 90 percent of the total arrest picture 
for this unit. It has effected 899 arrests for a grand larceny, auto. This 
represents 9.4 percent of all grand larceny auto arrests effected in the 
New York City Police Department. 

Of our total arrests, over 1,200 are directly related to auto larcenies. 
In addition, the auto crime unit has effected 16 arrests for bribery, 
which reflects 3 percent of all bribery arrests in the city. 

An additional function of our unit is that we Avill respond upon 
request to any precinct whereupon a precinct patrolman has what he 
believes to be on auto larceny and he is unable to identify the car or 
identify the documents involved in the car. We responded during 1972 
on 552 occasions, resulting in 337 arrests resulting from the identifica- 
tion of the vehicle in question. 

I thi ik our most impressive figure is that we have recovered 2.078 
stolen motor vehicles, with an estimated value of $2.6 million. We 
arrive at this figiire by using the i-etail figure for the recovered vehi- 
cles ; we deducted any damage on the vehicle ; and then I airain reduced 
this figure by 10 percent, to bring it as close as I could to the real value. 

Chairman Peppi:e. Have you any figures on the age groups which 
are primarih^ responsible for auto thefts ? 

Mr. Hubert. It really doesn't lock in. We run the whole gamut. We 
have the professional thief. We have had one as old as 52 years old. 
And Ave moved down to the 40-year-old age bracket; 30-year-old age 
bracket. I would say, about the only answer I could give you in this 
particular area, that the joyriding, transportation thief would be the 
young individual. 

As we go into a professional thief, where he is stealing tlie car for 
parts, or he is stealing the car for resale, Ave would go into a middle-age 
bracket, say, starting at 30 years old. 

C'hairman Pepper. Thank you. 

Mr. Hubert. You are welcome. 

Of these recovered vehicles which I just mentioned, 1,084 Ave re 
recovered in arrest situations; 994 Avere recovered in nonarrest 
situations. 

I don't contribute this dramatic decrease in grand larceny, auto, 
Avhich Avas 21.6 for the year 1972, solely to the efforts of our uiiit. But 
I do feel the formation of this unit has filled a long-neglected void 
that existed betAveen the detective bureau's auto squad, Avhich pri- 
marily investigates major auto theft rings, and the uniform force, 
Avhich lacked the knoAvledge and expertise to correctly identify an 
auto. 



29 

But it has proven, to me at least, that a limited number of highly 
motivated and trained men wliose efforts are directed to, very spe- 
cifically, a narrow area of the total crime picture, have caused a decrease 
in auto larcenies. 

Along with the creation of the auto crime hearing in March of 1972, 
the patrol services bureau decided to further expand its program 
against auto-connected crimes, and into existence came the auto crime 
squad. Using as a cadre, men from the auto crime unit, eight patrol- 
men from each patrol precinct received 2 days of training iji the auto 
crime field. 

Upon completion, the patrolmen returned to their commands and 
were available to assist and train precinct personnel in the various 
crimes connected with auto theft. 

As the value of this course became evident, it was expanded to include 
lieutenants, sergeants, and specialized units. Over 1,400 members of 
this department attended this course during 1972. 

With a view toward providing a much-needed service to the public, 
we are currently engaged in developing a program where a specific 
day of the week — we are thinking of Saturdays, between 10 a.m. and 
G p.m. at this time — we would make our expertise available to the 
motoring public by having a location where anyone contemplating 
purchasing a used auto could have it inspected by our personnel to 
insure it is not a stolen vehicle. 

We feel this would reduce the luunber of incidents where a pei*son 
unknowingly purchases a stolen vehicle. A side effect of this program, 
we are hoping, is to curtail the auto thief's market for his goods. 

We also had published in two major newspapers a list of w^arnings 
for the used-car buyer to follow in purchasing a used auto. 

I feel that these combined endeavors, plus the awareness by other 
members of the department of the availability of willing expertise 
at their disposal, has made a significant contribution toward the reduc- 
tion of auto larcenies in the city of New York during the year 1972. 

I thank you for your time and attention. 

Mr. Brasco. Lieutenant, I don't know whether it is your area of 
jurisdiction specifically, but one of the things that I find particularly 
distressing is in the area of stolen automobiles where those who would 
take them for transportation, joyriders, then leave them some place 
on the street. 

Mr. Hubert. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Brasco. If there is an automobile on someone's block for 2 or 3 
days, and it hasn't been moAed, and no one is familiar with the auto- 
mobile, then I think the average citizen is aware enough to know that, 
at that point, it is probably a stolen automobile. 

The car is not taken off' the street and youngsters in the area start to 
strip the automobile, and that happens rather quickly. Obviously, two 
things happen : the fellow's automobile that might be in good shape 
other than just being taken for the joyride is now stripped beyond 
repair, many times burned ; but particularly distressing is the fact that 
the youngsters who strip the cars wind up as defendants charged with 
either petty or grand larceny. 

Does your department have the authority to integrate this removal 
with the department of sanitation, who I understand has some re- 
sponsibility? Also, I understand that there is a contract given out 



30 

by the city through the police department to private tow operators 
who are suppose to take this automobile off the street. 

Commissioner Murphy. I am just going to say a word about that, 
Congressman. It is true that the department of sanitation has had a 
responsibility and the police department has had a responsibility, 
and private contractors are involved in taking away the junk cars. We 
don't have a perfect system yet, but I do believe there has been a marked 
improvement in the past year or two. 

The problem is complicated. Some people, as you probably Imow, 
abandon cars on the streets. They Avill frequently take the license 
plates off. In other words, they won't pay the small fee to have the junk- 
man take it off their hands. 

I agree with you that, unfortmiately, there have been examples, 
and too many of them, of a car in relatively good condition not recov- 
ered quickly enough, not taken in off the street, and it has been 
attacked and, in short order, is no longer a good car. 

There have been some irregularities as well. I think we are improving, 
but we don't have the final answer. However, either Chief Cawley or 
the lieutenant will probably give you more specific information. 

Mr. Hubert. With reference to your question, you imply the young- 
ster, upon taking a mirror from the car would "be charged with the 
grand larceny of the car? 

Mr. BRi\sco. Not of the car but larceny with respect to takino- parts. 
Obviously, when the owner of the car is found, and it is a stolen auto- 
mobile, he is the complainant. I am not indicating any defense for the 
theft of parts from the auto, but it is a great temptation to take some- 
thing from an abandoned automobile, particularly in poor 
neighborhoods. 

There is just no way you can keep the kids away from that automobile 
wlien they know it has been sitting there 4 or 5 davs, and it doesn't 
belong to anybody in the neighborhood. That is my point. 

Mr. Hubert. A lot of times, what happens is they find it cheaper 
when they wish to get rid of a vehicle to just leave it where it is, remove 
all of the identification and let the vehicle sit. 

Initially, when the police patrolman responds, he checks to see 
whether logs exist on the particular vehicle. If it is a stolen vehicle, 
we can move it right away. If it is not stolen, it goes to the sanitation 
program on removal, which sometimes, unfortimately, takes 2, 3, 
4, or more days. 

But we have a problem storing the vehicles. In the pounds we have 
where we store tlie vehicles, space is at a premium at all times. 

Mr. Brasco. Could I ask one more question, Mr. Chairman ? 

In the same area, another disturbing situation I found when I was 
in the district attorney's office in Brooklyn was that when that police 
officer Avould apprehend someone in possession of a stolen automobile, 
he would lodge charges of grand larceny with respect to the stolen 
automobile, uninsured motor vehicle, unregistered vehicle, several 
charges with respect to traffic violations. 

So that the police officer then is placed in a situation — which never 
made any sense to me and I communicated with the district attorney's 
offices about it and I tell you about it as it is in your area of juris- 
diction — where that police officer now has got to go, if there "is an 
indictment, to the supreme court with respect to the grand larceny of 



31 

the automobile. The misdemeanor charges are left to the criminal 
court of the city of New York, and then in Brooklyn, he has to go 
over to the comthouse on Pennsylvania Avenue with respect to the 
traffic violations. 

I found in tliose cases, once it is tried and there is a conviction or 
a plea is obtained in the course of conviction, these things are taken 
into consideration by the judge in the supreme court; except that what 
is happening is it is costing so much time, effort, and money because the 
police officer is then running to the criminal courts, and running over 
to the Pennsylvania Avenue courthouse in Brooklyn. I have seen 
cases where a man has actually gone to prison and when he is let out, he 
finds out there is a warrant at the jailhouse waiting for him. 

He is picked up and brought back and put into the mill again in the 
criminal courts to take care of the misdemeanor or other charges, the 
traffic violation, that arose out of one transaction. 

It just seems to me a total waste of manpower and money that would 
have to be expended to keep that man in the system in three courts. 

Mr. Crawley. Mr. Congressman, I would like to respond to that 
because much of what you said, the department has recognized. And I 
think one of the things we have done in the last 18 months or so is take 
a very hard look at the quality of arrests being made in the multiple 
auto situation as you just described. 

We have instituted central booking facilities in the Bureau of Queens, 
Kichmond, and last week in the Bronx, where the quality of arrests and 
the — well, almost the validity of the arrest, is it a necessary arrest, 
is very caref uly examined. And if it doesn't meet very high standards, 
we try to divert it from the system, into some other referral process, 
or on some occasions, with the concurrence of the district attorney, 
we will go the 343 route. You know what that is. So we are very con- 
cerned with that, recognized to be a problem ; and I think we are dealing 
with it in a very ongoing sense. 

Chairman Pepper. Could we move along, Mr. Lynch. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Commissioner, it is our undei-standin.g then, and 
please correct me if I am wrong, that the auto crime unit functions 
under the general guidance of the citywide anticrime section and 
this adds another capability to that section ? 

Unless there are further questions in that regard, I wonder if you 
might introduce the young lady at the table and tell us what her 
assignment is in your department. 

Commissioner JMurphy. Thank you, Mr. Lynch. 

With us is Lt. Julia Tucker, who commands the rape analysis 
investigation unit, which is a relatively new unit in the New York 
City Police Department. Lieutenant Tucker is also assisted by female 
detectives. 

This unit lias been created for a number of reasons. We were dis- 
cussing earlier the problem of unreported crime, and those of us in 
police work have been aware for a number of years that one of the 
crimes that may be least reported is the crime of rape, for a variety of 
reasons. 

The victim is embarrassed ; the victim for a number of reasons may 
feel that it is a reflection on her in some way, the male police officers 
frequently have difficulty in obtaining the cooperation of the female 



32 

victim because the victim is embarrassed about describing the partic- 
ular act involved. 

Because we want to devote more attention to this very serious crime, 
we looked into some of the problems that exist in connection with the 
l^olice depai-tment's approach to the problem, and came to the con- 
clusion that it was worth experimenting, at least, with the use of female 
detectives for taking the reports, interviewing the victims, and doing 
the kind of analysis that would make us more effective in identifying 
and apprehending the violators. 

Lieutenant Tucker has headed this unit for the past several months. 
She in one of our outstanding leaders in the department. I am very 
happy to have her with us today. She will describe some of the work 
of her unit. 

Mr. Brasco. Mr. Chairman, if I might interrupt. At the moment, 
there is a quorum call going on. I am wondering whether or not we 
could take a 10-minute recess and then we can all hear the lieutenant ? 

Chairman Pepper. It is appropriate to take a recess so we can rini 
over to answer the quorum call. We will be right back. 

[A brief recess was taken.] 

Chainnan Pepper. The committee will come to order. 

Statement of Julia Tucker 

Mr. Lynch. Lieutenant Tucker, I wonder if at this time you could 
describe to the members of the committee exactly how it is that your 
unit functions within the department and what changes, if any, have 
been eft'ected by the presence of your unit ? 

Miss Tucker. Well, first of allj I am sure many of you are aware 
of the unique problems involved m investigating rape cases. This is a 
very personal crime and that woman is \'ery sensitive at the time of 
interview, and subsequently. She frequently is too embarrassed to even 
report the crime, and I think this was one of the paramount reasons 
the commissioner had in establishing the unit. That, coupled with the 
fact that the niuTiber of forceful rapes had gone up significantly and 
the clearance rate on rape is not, shall we say, as good as we would like 
it to be. 

These were the main reasons for setting up the unit, which is com- 
posed solely of female detectives. First of all, we receive copies of 
all complaints made on forcible rape, forcible sodomy, and their 
attempts. We I'eview these cases ; we have them coded and keypunched 
into a computer in the hope that patterns will be established where 
perhaps an individual has raped more than one woman. This has been 
found to be true. 

Most of the time, if a man rapes once, he will rape over and over 
again. 

Now, once we have determined a pattern, my woman will go out and 
reinterview the victim and hope to obtain additional inf onnation which 
may have been lost by the interview with a male officer. We have been 
very successful in this regard. Generally, the w^omen will indicate they 
were too embarrassed to tell a specific detail ; and we have been fortu- 
nate enough to make several apprehensions based just on this type of 
information. 

We also will take in complaints directly from a female. We have 
established a special telephone number — 5tT-RAPE, in the hope that 



33 

women will I'onipmbor it and if they have a problem, will call us and 
o-ive US the details. Since tlie telephone number has been established,, 
women have called. In fact, women have called from all over tho 
country to demonstrate and to imply to us they were \evy pleased with 
the fact a unit such as this w^as established. 

In addition to that, we also will <io out whenever a male officer demon- 
strates or indicates to us that a female officer is needed. iVIany times 
durinir an investiiration by a male officer, they will realize that perhaps 
they are not netting all of the details, and if a woman were present, 
the' woman would feel more relaxed and then come up with something 
she ma V have left out. 

In connection with the unit, we have also expanded the concept of 
specialization, and male officers are now selected and screened for their 
sensitivitv and experience in this area, and work exclusively on rape. 
This and'our unit, I think, will really be very effective. In fact, I know 
it will be effective. 

In addition, in the future, with the assistance of the Police Foun- 
dation, we are hoping to perhaps find a model for exactly how to 
liandle rape cases. There are many, many problems involved in han- 
dling rape. Hospitals, the courts — not the courts, actually, the law, 
is rather demanding — and certain evidence must be obtained and if 
proper training is not given to the detectives or the officers, aiid to the 
public themselves, much evidence is lost which then handicaps the 
irivestigation. 

I think that is kind of a total of what we are doing and perhaps 
if vou liave any questions- 

Mr. Lynch. Is your unit funded by the Police Foundation ( 

Miss Tucker. We have just received Police Foundation funding; yes. 

Mr. Lynch. What are those funds for ? 

Miss Tucker. Initially, they will be for a research director and 
assistant and personnel to help us in the research, in finding the best 
way of handling rape cases, and also for various equipment. 

We had hoped that perhaps, and we will, actually, have photographs 
of rapists on microfilm and my women will be able to go out into the 
field with poi'table viewers and let a woman sec all the people that have 
been arrested for rape. Many times women are too embarrassed to even 
come down to headquartere to view these photographs, and I am quite 
sure many cases would be solved if this were possible ; and it is now 
possible. 

In addition to that, the women are trained in investigative tech- 
nifiues and when they go out on an interview they will lift fingeii^rints 
if there are any available and they will have composites made, using 
identity kits. Hopefully, with the foundation funding, we w^ill get a 
new machine. It is called the montage machine — it is quite unique, 
actually. It is kind of an advance identity kit. 

In tiiis machine you will be able to take pait of a photograph, 
]-»erhaps a chin of an individual, or a nose, and put them all together; 
and yon are able to see a clear picture, or at least have a very good 
picture of who you are looking for. 

]Much of tlie' money will be going to equipment that will help us in 
our investigative techniques. 

]\Ir. Lynch. Since your unit was created, has there been an increase 
in the number of repoited rapes within New York City ? 



34 

Miss Tucker. Yes, there has been. I would say approximately a 
20-percent increase, which we were hoping for and anticipating. 
Because, of course, unless we get a clear picture of exactly how many 
rapes are being committed, we can never really deploy our people the 
way we should. I am hoping that more and more women will con- 
tact us. Because I don't feel it is actually there are more rapists; 1 
think the same number of rapists are just raping more women. 

Mr. Lynch. To what do you attribute the increase in the nmnber 
of reported rapes? Have you publicized the existence of your unit? 

Miss Tucker. Oh, yes ; I have been on television several times, and 
in the newspapers. We have tried to reach community council meetings 
and various community groups, women's liberation groups; actually, 
as many people as I can possibly get hold of, in order to allow women 
and let women know that we are here to help them. 

Mr. Lynch. Lieutenant Tucker, several weeks ago you told some 
members of our investigatory staff that one of the functions of this 
unit would be to serve as a central intelligence data-gathering unit. 
I wonder if you could explain to the committee what vou mean by 
that ? 

Miss Tucker. As I mentioned before, all of the cases are coded. "VVe 
have set up a special coding syst-em and it goes into the complete phys- 
ical description of the individual, the modus operandi, and anything 
else that is miique about the person. 

Chairman Pepper. Excuse me just a minute. We have another vote 
on the floor. We will have to take a recess so we can run over and vote. 

Corjiiaissioner, I understand you have to leave at 1 o'clock? 

Commissioner Murphy. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 1 am sorry, but I must 
get back; but Chief Cawley will stay here and the other members of 
the department. 

Chainnan Pepper. Will you be able to come back after lunch? 

Commissioner Murphy. I am sorry ; I won't be able to. 

Chairman Pepper. Well, I will miss the vote. I want to ask the com- 
missioner about a few tilings that could be done other than is being 
done now. 

How much Federal aid have j'ou received for the New York City 
Police Department ? 

Commissioner Murphy. We have received approximately $10 
million. That is my recollection, Mr. Chairman. We can get a precise 
figure for the record. Of course, we have a very large budget from city 
funds. 

[The information referred to above was not received.] 

Chairman Pepper. About what percentage is that of the total expend- 
itures that you make for the police department of New York? 

Commissioner Murphy. It would be less than 1 percent. 

Chairman Pepper. Let's just suppose that Congress would make 
available substantial additional funds and suppose you could get 
substantial additional funds from the city of New York. How would 
you employ those funds in order to further reduce crime in the city 
of New York? 

Commissioner Murphy. If we had large additional funds, Mr. 
Chairman, we would have many more officers in miiform in our pre- 
cincts ; we would probably increase this unit, which we are thinking of 
doing now; and we would put officei-s in any number of other assign- 



35 

nients. But we, would have greater visible patrol if we had sufficient 
fundin<r. 

(Miaiinian Peppp:!?. You, in your opening statement referred to the 
bottleneck, or the obstacle, of the prosecutino- attorneys and the couits. 

I saw in the Times a statement by District Attorney Monrola of 
the Bronx that if he didn't do anythino; but prosecute murder cases in 
the next year, it would take all of the time that he had. Would you 
think that might be true ? 

Commissioner MuRmr. A very small percentage, less than 5 percent 
of those indicted for felonies in his county, as I recall it, are brought 
to trial. 

Cliairman Peppee. So he said, under the pressure that he bears, that 
he has to have plea bargaining in order to make any progress at all in 
the disposition of his court docket. 

Commissioner Murppiy. Well, I agree with that; and I would never 
propose, doing away with plea bargaining, Mr. Chairman. But I am 
not sure that 95 or 96 percent of the cases should be plea bargained. 

Chairman Pepper. If there were additional monej% the prosecuting 
attorney area would also be one which would well be the subject of 
additional funding? 

Commissioner Ml-rphy. Oh, yes. And, in New York City, we ad- 
mittedly are permitting a greater share of the funds to go to the courts 
and prosecutors and corrections, rather than the police department, 
because that is Avhere the need is greatest, I believe. 

Chairman Pepper. Do police officers feel such a degree of frustration 
in tlie disposition of cases because of the delay of the courts in dis- 
posing of the cases ? 

Commissioner jNIurphy. Oh, yes. We have been frustrated because 
the courts are unable to hold enough trials to expedite the handlmg of 
serious cases, and they just don't have the capacity, it seems, to deal 
with the volume of Avork we take in. 

Chairman Pepper. In thinlving about hoAv we can further reduce 
crime, in addition to the excellent job you have done by these innova- 
tiA'C procedures you are revealing here today, a great deal of additional 
help is needed in the area of the prosecuting attorney's offices and the 
area of the courts ? 

Commission.er ]Murphy. Yes. I believe that. 

Chairman Pepper. The same thing applies to the area of corrections. 

The Chief Justice of the Uiiited States, speaking in New Yorl: a 
year or 2 ago. stated that 75 percent of the people who are confined 
in our correctional institutions are returned Avithin a relatively shoit 
time after release for having committed another crime. 

Do you regard our correctional system today, with its inadequa- 
cies and imperfections, as being a serious contributor to the crime 
we liaA'e today? 

Commissioner Murphy. Yes; I do. I think Ave are not correcting 
people or helping them. I Avouldn't certainly put all of the blame 
on the correctional institutions, but they don't have the funding to do 
many of the things they should be doing; and there are lots of prob- 
lems about finding work for people Avhen they leave institutions. 

Chairman Pepper. As I recall, Avhen our' connnittee went up to 
Attica, the Friday of the weelv in Avhich the tragedy occurred. Gover- 
nor Rockefeller said, "I knoAv just as Avell as anylDody that Ave need 
to improve and modernize the jn-ison system of Xcav York/' 



36 

But he turned, I believe it was to Senator Dunn who, I believe, was 
chairman of the legislative committee on crime, and he said, "I be- 
lieve it would cost $100 million." I believe the senator said perhaps 
$200 million to modernize completely the correctional system of New 
York. 

You have your Attica, we have our Raiford in Florida, a great 
State prison, 50 or 100 percent overcrowded, out in the rural area, 
where there is no opportunity for halfway houses or job employment. 

You would put great emphasis on improving the correctional system 
also. You police, no matter how good a job you do, can't do it all. You 
have to have the cooperation of these other units in the administra- 
tion of the justice system . 

Commissioner Murphy. Definitely, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. How adequately would you say the public au- 
thority is able to deal with the drug problem in the city of New York ? 
How adequate is the present treatment and rehabilitation program 
in respect to the drug addiction problem in relation to the crime you 
have in New York City ? 

Commissioner Murphy. Well, during the past year or two we have 
seen a marked increase in the number of addicts being treated. There 
are now 58,000 addicts in treatment in New York City, and it may 
very well be this helps to explain the decrease in crime last year in 
New York, because addicts who are depending upon crime to support 
their habits commit a great amount of crime. 

Chairman Pepper. You say about 53,000 addicts are being treated ? 

Commissioner Murphy. That is correct. Yes. 

Chairman Pepper. How many addicts do you estimate there are in 
the city of New York ? 

Commissioner Murphy. Estimates range from 100,000 to perhaps 
150,000. Some would estimate higher. 

Chairman Pepper. It may well be that no more than half of the 
drug addicts of New York City are being included in treatment and 
rehabilitation programs of today ? 

Commissioner Murphy. That would be a good estimate, I think. 

Chairman Pepper. And if there were additional treatment and re- 
habilitation facilities available, do you think that would also tend 
to reduce crime in the city of New York ? 

Commissioner Murphy. I think so. I think we must face the fact 
that the addict needs treatment; that a jail or a prison is not the place 
to cure an addict. When he leaves, all the experience seems to tell 
us he will go back to crime and back to the use of drugs. 

Chairman Pepper. There must be an enormous amount of property 
stolen in this country every year. That must run into the hundreds of 
millions, if not into the billions of dollars. I know my wife and I 
lost several thousand dollars' worth of our property, including a car 
right in front of our home, and we never heard anything about it. 
Itis going on all the time. 

Must not there be a system of fences? Somebody has to dispose 
of that property. These robbers, these burglars, they want money. If 
they are drug addicts they want money to buy a drug. They have 
to dispose of that property rather soon. 

What has been your experience as to a system of professional fences 
that exist in your area and probably exist in the country? Is there such 
a thing ? 



37 

Commissioner Murpjiv. I certainly believe there are fences; and 
when we are successful in identifying one, it may help us to recover 
a great deal of stolen property and to solve a great deal of crime. I 
am sorry to have to say, though, too many thieves are able to sell their 
stolen nierehandise right on the streets of our city. I am also sorry to 
say, many businesses, thought of as legitimate, will purchase the 
stolen property. 

So 1 think the fence plays a part, but I don't think he is the whole 
answer. 

Chairman Pepper. In respect to organized crime, do you think that 
there is more that we can do than we are now doing to reach the top 
people who deal in the drug business, or wlio are in the drug traffic? 

Commissioner Mltrpiiy. Mr. Chairman, I think in New York City 
we have a motto. In fact, Mr. Ambrose has been kind enough to say 
that the arrangement we have in New York City of our department 
workmg on a day-to-day basis, as a matter of fact the same units and 
the same officers with the Federal agents, is the ideal arrangement 
because investigations can then be prosecuted either under the Federal 
laws or the State laws, and for other reasons as well; exchange of 
intelligence information being one example. It is highly desirable there 
be a close working relationship. 

I don't think we are doing all we can do, but I think we are improv- 
ing and I think we are reaching people at higher levels. 

For example, in our department last year. Mayor Lindsay approved 
an appropriation to us of $1.25 million for information and "buy" 
money for narcotics. Previously, we had only a fraction of that amouiit, 
and as a practical matter, to reach the higher level people in the drug 
traffic, "buy'" money is needed in large amounts. 

I think we can do nuich more, but I am not optimistic that we will 
ever be able to totally stop the illegal drug trade while the profits 
remain as great as they are. People will take risks. 

Chairman Pepper. Would you say the authorities. Federal, State, or 
local to a relative moral certainty, are aware of who are the top orga- 
nized crime figures in the drug traffic? 

Commissioner Murphy. AVell, I think, Mr. Chairman, we have good 
intelligence and good information about who many of the top-level 
l^eople are. It is extremely difficult to make strong cases against many 
of them because the higher they are in the structiu^e the more they 
seem to operate far removed from the drugs and the money, and they 
ai'e hard to reach. 

Chairman Pepper. T don't know whetlier you heard of it or not, but 
we are going to have a witness l)efore this committee who is a profes- 
sor at a university in this country, who has the theory that I have 
entertained for some time. The theory is that we might be able to use 
the injunctive process against some of these figures when we have a 
moral certainty they are the top figures, or among the top figures, of 
organized crime in the traffic in drugs, but are not able to convict 
beyond a reasonable doubt in a criminal case, on the theory that it 
would be analogous to enjoining the violation of antitrust laws. You 
can get an injunction against violating some of the antitrust laws, 
which is a ci-iminal oifense. 

This professor's theory is all of you people together, the Federal, 
State, and local people, would ha\e enough evidence to go before a 



38 

Federal judge and make a prima facie case that "X" was indeed one 
of the hierarchy of the traffic in drugs and he would be enjoined by 
that judge and a prima facie case made by the authorities from par- 
ticipating in such an activity. 

Then if he were later on found to be still trafficking, it would be 
easier to find enough evidence to get the judge to find him giiilty of 
contempt of court than it would be evidence that would convict him 
beyond a reasonable doubt in the criminal court. If something like 
that could be worked out, it would give you all a new weapon ; would 
it not? 

Commissioner Murphy. Yes. I think that might have considerable 
potential, because we need all of the tools that we can get that will 
work for us. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Murphy, if you will just take a minute more, 
our chief counsel, Mr. Nolde, would like to ask you a question. 

Mr. NoLDE. Commissioner Murphy, your citywide anticrime unit is^ 
of course, doing a tremendous job in specializing in the kind of street 
crime attack that we have heard about today. It has been proposed that 
the police sliould be free from liaving to deal with gambling and pros- 
titution and mariliuana possession, so as to permit officers to concen- 
trate on street crime. 

What is your response toward that proposal ? 

Commissioner Mitrphy. Well. I think we can't ignore those crimes, 
as^ difficult as enforcement of those laws may be ; because organized 
crime figures are involved in those crimes and make enormous profits. 
I don't tliink there is anv way we can separate street crime from oi'ffa- 
nized crime, because they are very closely related, as a matter of fact; 
an outstanding example being narcotics. While organized crime peo- 
ple are getting rich in the narcotics traffic, the addict is committing 
street crime every day. 

I certainly am pleased tliat Ave liave offtrack betting, legalized off- 
track betting in New York City, and perhaj^s some "more forms of 
gambling should be legalized, because the gambling laws are quite un- 
enforceable- But while those things are illegal and the profits are 
enormous, organized crime will be in those areas of activity. 

So we try to strike a balance between what percentage of our re- 
sources are applied to organized crime enforcement, and what per- 
centage to the patrol and other functions, and what percentage to anti- 
crime work. But we are aware that there are some who feel little or 
none of the resources should be applied to organized crime. I disagree 
with that. 

Mr. NoLDE. But if we legalized some of these activities, would it not, 
in fact, eliminate some of the organized crime problem ? 

Commissioner Murphy. Indeed. I think, as a matter of fact, the 
situation in New York State and New York City for many yeare has 
boon hypocriticnl. We continue to have laws on the books' that the 
people do not believe in. Few, it seems to me a minority of New York 
City residents, for years have thought gambling to be immoral or 
wrong, and yet the laws were there and it kept the police officer in the 
middle. 

Shortly after becoming police commissioner, I publicly stated we 
would not enforce the blue laws, the Sabbath laws. There had been 
corruption, abuses, as part of the enforcement work of the depart- 



39 

ment, and we just stopped that. Now, we do enforce tlie laws when 
there are complaints and circumstances call for it, but it is another 
example of the dilemma of the police. 

Now, I certainly don't believe in le^^alized prostitution, but perhaps 
the criminal law is not the best weapon against prostitution. We may 
devise some strategies under the civil law. We may begin to under- 
stand that the prostitute may be more a victim than a criminal, if 
you will, and that she needs to be dealt with as a sick person. 

And certainly it is my belief that the history of this Nation, in 
dealing with the narcotics problem, has been a history of hypocrisy 
in that we have attempted to solve the problem by the use of the 
criminal law, that the criminal law can never solve. 

I am delighted, with in the past couple of years, the Federal Gov- 
ernment has finally tipped the balance, in spending more money now 
in treatment than on enforcement of the narcotics laws. I certainly 
conmiend the President for that. I think it is fair to say it is a law 
and order administration. I am delighted to see enlightenment in the 
treatment of addicts. 

jMr. NoLDE. On that point, what is your reaction to Governor Rocke- 
feller's proposed mandatory life sentence without parole for convicted 
hard- drug pushers ^ 

Commissioner Murphy. That proposal is not practical. It wouldn't 
work. The district attorney would have his hands tied. It would be 
more difficult to obtain convictions, I believe, and the district attorney 
would be unable to use what is the standard weapon of the district 
attorney; that is, to deal, with one person involved in a criminal 
conspiracy, in order to get convictions against people at higher levels. 
So I don't think that is a i^ractical matter. 

One thing it fails to do is distinguish between the addict pusher 
and the nonaddict pusher. I think it is impossible to be too severe on 
the nonaddict drug trafficker who gets rich on human misery and 
death. But the addict who pushes is another breed, it seems to me, 
and we must make that distinction. The Governor's proposal, it seems 
to me, does not make that distinction. 

Mr. NoLDE. Thank you Commissioner Murphy, for your very infor- 
mative testimony here, which is but one more basis for your eminent 
reputation as this Nation's most professional and progressive police 
commissioner. 

Commissioner Murphy. Thank you, Mr. Nolde. 

Chairman Pepper. Gentlemen, Mr. ]Murphy has to go. 

Do you have an}^ other questions ? 

Mr. Brasco? 

Mr. Brasco. Getting back to something, I suppose called the vice 
squad. Is there still such a concept, Commissioner, or did you change 
that ? 

Commissioner Murphy. No. We never in my memory had a unit 
called a vice squad. Gambling and prostitution has been dealt with 
by the plainclothes unit, as we always called them. 

Mr. Brasco. When I was in the DA's office, unless it got that name 
attached to it without being officially entitled, it was Imown as the 
vice squad. 

Conmiissioner Murphy. I assume they owe that to the headquarters 
plainclothesmen. 

95-158— 73— pt. 1 4 



40 

Mr. Brasco. Eio;ht. I always felt the department placed too much 
emphasis on the gambling and prostitution end of it, and I felt it 
created more problems than it solved. 

Did I understand you to say, in placing deemphasis in this area, 
you reduced the complement of that sc|uad ? 

Commissioner Murphy. What I did say v,as that I feel that the 
police department has been in the middle and continues to be in the 
middle in being expected to enforce gambling laws that citizens don't 
lielieve in. We have fewer officers assigned to gambling enforcement 
now. We are making fewer arrests, but we are striving for higher 
quality arrests; and we are striving to reach people at higher levels 
rather than the street runner from the lowest level of bookmaking. 

Mr. Brasco. It has been^I don't know whether it is still the 
[jolicy — that tlie activity of a police officer was determined by tlie 
number of arrests he made, not the number of convictions he obtained. 

Conunissioner Murphy. We have changed that, Congressman. It 
v/as commonly known as tlie sheet, and the sheet is dead, we like to 
say, and under a new arrangement. 

You see, the gambling enforcement pre\'iously was under each 
patrol division and bureau conunancler. It no longer is; it is now in 
the organized crime patrol billet under Deputy Commissioner William 
]McCarthy, and I believe he has succeeded in eliminating the quota 
system and sheet, and people are evaluated on the quality of their 
work, even if they don't make arrests. 

Mr. Brasco. I am very ghid to hear that. I thought j^ou were moving 
in that direction. I wasn't completely up to date. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Eangel. 

Mr. IiANGEL. Just one question in terms of the investigation to the 
pro])erty clerk matter. 

Other cities are having similar type problems in maintaining con- 
trol over Avhat is confiscated. Who is finallv in charge of that investioa- 
tion? There was some problem between the city office and the State. 

Commissioner Murphy. The special prosecutor, Mr. Nadjari. 

Mr. Rangel. He finally assumed jurisdiction? 

Commissioner Murphy. Yes ; he did. 

Mr. Eangel. Again, I want to thank you for coming down here and 
helping us wrestle with problems otlier cities are having. We certainly 
commend you for the wonderful job you have done in restructuring 
and redirecting the police department in New York. 

Commissioner Murphy. Thank you, Mr. Congressman. I appreciate 
your support on some of our common interests in narcotic enforcement. 

Mr. Eangel. And our conflict in other areas. 

Commissioner Murphy. It is a pleasure. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Lynch, do you have any other questions ? 

Mr. Lynch. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. INIurph}', I want to extend, on behalf of the 
committee our very deep obligation for your coming here and helping 
us so valuably as you have. You are one of tlie oustanding men in the 
world, in my opinion, in law enforcement. We are very grateful to 
have you dedicated to what you have been doing in the New York area 
as an exam])le for the Nation. We hope you can get some more help 
to do even more than you have been doing in the past. 

Thank you. 



41 

Commissioner Murphy. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. It is alwaj^s a 
pleasure to work with you. 

Chairman Pepper. We will take a recess until -1 o'clock. 

[Whereupon, at 1 :10 p.m., the hearing in the above matter was re- 
cessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. this same day.] 

AracRNOON Session 

PANEL OF NEW YORK CITY POLICE OFFICIALS— Resumed 
CAWLEY, DONALD F., CHIEF OF PATROL SERVICES; 
CROWLEY, ROBERT L., SERGEANT, NEIGHBORHOOD PATROL 

TEAM COMMANDER ; 
EISDORFER, SIMON, DEPUTY CHIEF INSPECTOR, SPECIAL OPER- 

TIONS; 
FREEMAN, ARTHUR A., DEPUTY INSPECTOR; 
LUHRS, ROBERT E., DEPUTY INSPECTOR; 
ROGAN, JOHN F., DEPUTY INSPECTOR ; 
SIEGEL, JOSEPH, INSPECTOR, AUXILIARY POLICE; AND 
TUCKER, JULIA, LIEUTENANT, RAPE INVESTIGATION AND 

ANALYSIS SECTION 

Chairman Pepper. The committee will come to order, please. 

I believe vou wanted Lieutenant Tucker back, ]Mr. Lynch ? 

]\Ir. Lyxch. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. You may proceed, Mr. Lynch. 

Mr. Lynch. Lieutenant Tucker, just before we broke for lunch, you 
were describing- to the members of the committee the intelliijence func- 
tions which your new unit will be perlormino-, 

I wonder if you could summarize that tesitmony for us, please. 

Miss Tucker. We take each particular complaint, review that case, 
and we look for certain information, which we then code and keypunch 
to have stored in the computer. The type of information we glean from 
the reports are relevant to the particular perpetrator's ciescription, his 
complete physical description, his clothing at the time, anything 
unique or diii'erent about his ai)i>earance ; also, his method of operation, 
the M.O. Also, various details about the victim. 

It is felt, perhaps, if we cannot get a pattern just based on the in- 
dividual perpetrator's description, or ]\LO. we might be able to find 
that he is selecting a certain type victim. 

This is the basic type of" information we are gathering from the 
various complaints ^^•Bhave received. 

In addition to that, we also map or chart each pattern case on a 
citvwide map, feeling that perhaps Ave might be able to get some pat- 
tern that way, or at least be able to distinguish where he may strike 



again 



Mr. Lynch. Do you send intelligence information out to precincts 
within the city I 

]^Iiss Tucker. Well, at the present this information is available on a 
need-to-know or call basis. However, in the future, as we grow, I would 
like to disseminate the information out to the field commands, to the 
 district coimuands. 



42 

Mr, Lyxch. Lieutenant, it was your testimony this morning that 
tlie crime of rape is a crime that is difficult to get convictions on, for 
a number of reasons ; is that correct ? 

]Miss Tucker. Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Lynch. So that the intelligence function that your unit does 
serve, or is attempting to serve — giving minute details about certain 
things about the ]3erpetrator — would be especially useful in locating, 
apprehending, ixv.d trying rapists ; is that correct? 

Miss TucKEK. It is our hope ; yes. I think the more information we 
can gather, the better our chances will be in getting a conviction. 

In addition to that, also we have to learn the type of evidence we 
must bring to court. There are many situations of thing's we might not 
have been knowledgeable about previously that might just be able to 
be utilized in getting a conviction. 

Mr. Lyncpi. I wonder if 3^ou would tell us how r.iany reported rape 
cases have there been in New York City since the first of this year i 

Miss Tttcker. Up to date, we handled approximately 1,000 cases. 

Mr. Lynch. That is somewhat higher than is normal ; is that correct ? 

Miss Tucker. Yes. It is about 20 percent over last year. 

Mr. Lynch. I have no further questions of the witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Lieutenant Tucker, what is the penalty for rape 
in the State of New York ? 

Miss Tucker. It is a class B felony, and you get up to 25 years. 

Chairman Pepper. Ordinarily, how long do they stay in prison be- 
foi'c they are paroled ? 

Miss Tucker. If a conviction is obtained, I would say about T years. 

Chairman Pepper. About 7 years ? 

Miss Tucker. That is the length of time I heard that most of them 
are doing. 

Chairman Pepper. Have you heard of there being repeaters among 
the rapists once they are released from prison? 

Miss Tucker. Yes; many times. This crime seems to lend itself to 
recidivism and generally, if a man is arrested and sent away, when 
he comes back out he is often again arrested for rape. 

Chairman Pepper. If a man is con^-icted a second time of rape in 
New York, what sentence will he ordinarily get? Is there a separate 
statutory offense provided ? 

Miss Tucker. You mean would he do a longer period of time if he 
were arrested a second time on this ? No. 

Chairman Pepper. For a second offense, the punislunent wouldn't 
go up or anj^thing ? 

]Miss Tucker. Nothing of this type. 

Chairman Pepper. The same way if he were convicted a third time 
of rape, the sentence again would be as an ordinary rapist? 

Miss Tucker. If he was considered as a three-time offender, a multi- 
felony offender, then lie would get life. But that does not happen too 
frequently. And as I said before, it is very, very difficult to get a con- 
viction on this type of crime. 

Chairman Pepper. Other than some sort of emasculation, is there 
any treatment for oversexed people, or for a perverted mind ? Is there 
any medical treatment, comparable to the treatment you give a drug 
addict, that would be of any help ? 



43 

Miss Tucker. There appear to be two different types of rapist. One 
is someone who actually does need some type of medical, or shall avq 
say mental, treatment and the other appears to be a fairly normal 
individual who perhaps is a little bit more violent than your everyday 
personality and seems to take out his drive in this way. 

But he is apparently not sick ; and treatment, I don't think under 
these circumstances, will really benefit him. 

Chairman Pepper. Have you any other suggestions to make as to 
how the police departments of the country could better deal with the 
problem of rape? 

Is there anything more you could do if you had more money? 

Miss Tucker. As far as treatment of the rapist ? 

Chairman I^epper. Any aspect of the crime of rape or to deter the 
crime of rape ? 

Miss Tucker. What we are going to be doing and, of course, the 
more money we have the more involved we could become in this, is to 
actually go through each particular step. 

The hospital is an area which definitely needs attention. The treat- 
ment sliould be unified as far as every hospital wherever you would 
take a rape victim, should be standardized. They should take certain 
tests from the woman and treat her in a particular manner. 

One of the biggest complaints I have had from victims of rape is the 
treatment they received at the various hospitals, more than even many 
people indicate, the fact the male officer may be insensitive, have a 
traumatic reaction to a woman. However, this I have seen very 
rarely in New York and it has been 3 months I have been working in 
this field, and I can actually say there has only been one situation where 
an indication of insensitivity on the part of a male officer was expressed 
to me. 

However, there were many indications that treatment in hospitals 
was very negative, shall I say. 

^Ir. Cawley. Mr. Chairman, I want to say that it is precisely those 
questions you have raised that we hope to be able to arrive at answers 
to, and which led to the development of this very unit. There is a great 
deal of ignorance and lack of knowledge concerning the crime of rape. 
"We don't have a profile of a rapist: we vrould certainly hope that 
part of that Federal project and the funding ])roject we are going- 
through Avill put us in a better position throughout the Nation, all 
police agencies, as to how to better deal with the problem of rape. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief, by the way, are all offenders, anyone who 
commits an offense, perpetrates a felony anywhere in the country, 
recorded in the FBI computer system so that any police department in 
the country can check up immediately on whether anybody has an 
arrest or conviction record and. if so, for wliat ? 

Mr. Cawley. Any fingerprintable crime would be eventually 
recorded in the FBI crime statistic sheets, and we would become 
knowledgeable about it. It may take a day or two in order to get the 
information, but we would get the information. 

Chairman Pepper. I have heard of instances at home of Avhere a 
judge would l)e about to pass sentence on a convicted person and would 
find out that person was before another court for trial on another 
charge, or had lieen convicted in another court or courts of other of- 
fenses. I know the probation officers ordinarily are supposed to check 



44 

up, but a lot of times they don't seem to know about it by the time 
they begin the prosecution of the case. 

You mean only a felony is finoerprinteil ? People charged Avith a 
felony, are they ahvays fingerprinted when they are arrested. 

Mr. Cawley. Yes ; they are. 

Chairman Pepper. And they go into the FBI files ? 

Mr. Cawlet. They go in from Xew Yoi-k ; yes. 

Chairman Pepper. And you can get those very quickly from the 
FBI when the case comes up ? 

Mr. Cawley. I am not certain about the amount of time, the turn- 
around time in getting the information, but it is a reasonably short 
period of time, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. One other question, Lieutenant Tucker. 

Of course serious consequences may derive to the victim of rape: 
Possibly venereal disease, pregnancy, and the like. 

Is there any public assistance available to a rape victim under those 
circumstances ? 

Miss Tucker. The hospital treatment that I mentioned provides this- 
type of service to the woman, where antipregnancy shots and shots- 
against venereal disease are administered to the woman. At least in 
New York this is part of the hospital treatment, in most of the hospi- 
tals. And that is the treatment we are hoping will be administered in 
every hospital in the city. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Wiggins. 

Mr. Wiggins. Lieutenant Tucker, why don't you gcit convictions ? 

Miss Tucker. First of all, the corroboration requii'oment in Xew 
York is such that it becomes very difiicult to get a conviction. The- 
law requires that at least some cii'cumstantial evidence be presented 
to support the woman's allegation that she has been raped. 

Frequently, what happens in this type of crime is there is no one- 
around to see the attack take place, and if there is no medical con- 
firmation that a rape took place, there cannot be a conviction on the 
rape at all witliout medical corroboration. And this becomes a prob- 
lem. 

Mr. Wiggins. Well, rape, as you know, is a conmion law crime 
involving the nonconsejitua] act of intercourse. Usually, the difficul- 
ties invohed are the issue of consent and the issue of peneti'ation. 

Would it be easier, in your judgment, if legislative bodies would 
abandon this common law notion and merely address themselves to 
a sexual assault and make that the crime, without the difficulty of 
proving some of the elements of a common law oifense of rape '. 

Miss Tucker. I think that might be easier and it might direct the 
problem. Because at present it is ^"ery, very difficult to get a conviction 
because of this corroboration requirement. 

It has been brought to my attention by many of the women's groups 
that they feel perhaps the law sliould be the same for every crime, that 
the defendant has ways of protecting his own rights that the law has 
built in, and that they should be given the same opportunity, and that 
corroboration shoulfl not l)o required in this ty])e of criiue. 

Mr. Wiggins. Well, so long as a consentual act is not an oliVnse — • 
and in most States simple fornication is not a crime — it does take 
something to negate the defendant's assertion that the young lady 
consented to his overtures and perhaps some corroboration is in order. 



45 

It has ahvays botliered mo that wo put the A'ictim throiioh tho ordeal 
of tostifiyno- to tlio iiiinuto details of a sexual assault in order to prove 
something that comes down to us from the middle ages; namely, that 
an act of penetration in fact occurred, when that really doesn't go to 
tho gist of society's interest in this matter. 

A person has been subjected to a daiigerous, liumiliating assanlt 
that may or may not have involved penetration. That doesn't lessen 
tlie offense to my mind one bit. And insofar as you make recommenda- 
tions to legislative bodies who enact these State laws, I would urge 
upon you to recommend to them that the}' consider abandoning this 
historic burden which we place upon victims and prosecutors ; namely,, 
proving penetration. 

Miss Tucker. Yes. 

Mr. WiGGixs. Do 3'ou think that is a good idea. Chief? 

Mr. Cawt^ey. Yes; I think anything that would minimize the diffi- 
culties that women encounter in trying to describe the details of that 
crime would certainly be beneficial. Anything that we can do — and 
that is one of the purposes of instituting the unit itself — to make it 
Aery easy for a woman to speak with a woman abont a very intimate 
act and very intimate crime. I think it would be beneficial. 

]Mr. Wiggins. I missed the earlier part of your testimony on this 
subject, but I gather the thrust of it is you want to make it easier for 
the victim to relate the circumstances and you think it is easier if she 
speaks directly to a woman about these circumstances. 

I think most police calls are made to males and a male ]iolice officer 
may respond in the first instance. Is that the case typically of a rape 
situation ? 

Mr. Caaat^ey. That is true. 

Mr. "WiCtGins. Do your policies indicate that tho police officer on the 
scene, Avhen confronted with a possible rape or at least the allegation 
of one, does nothing at that point and takes the J'oung lady into a 
secluded place for a woman to iterrogate her? 

Mr. Caavley. Xo; Ave have not gone in that direction, nor do we 
intend to. If I can just back up for a moment : The creation of the imit 
Avas designed to accomplish seA^eral different objectiA^es, one of them 
being the woman could communicate with a woman much more easily. 
Another, and very important part of it, is the study and the 
identification of patterns of the^e crimes and, hopefully, identifying 
individuals who are multiple offenders. 

So quite a bit of the energies currently vested in Lieutenant Tucker's 
operation is to analyze the patterns of crime and study Avhere they 
occur, Avith the hope of identifying the people responsible for it. 

The male detectiA^e Avho receives the complaint initially does con- 
duct the investigation. The complaint report is forAvarded to Lieu- 
tenant Tucker's rape analysis section Avhere they try to ])ull together 
pictures, overall jiicturos. and they do folloAv up on selected bases at 
the moment ; and hojjefully we will have the capability at some point 
in time of a followup interA'ioAV in all instances. 

Mr. AViGGixs. One of the things about rai)e that has troubled me 
is that it is not an offense that one would expect organized crime to be 
in\'olA'ed in. You would think it would be pretty much a function of 
population ; that is, out of OA^ery 100.000 people, there Avould be so many 
rapes, and it Avould be pretty constant around the countiy. 



46 

But it is not. Two and a half times more rape per 100,000 population 
occurs in my city of Los Angeles than occurs in Cincinnati. How 
would von account for that ? i • o 

Mr. Cawley. It is a very difficult problem to get to. I thnik one ot 
the major problems has been a number of rapes have not been re- 
ported. Just why people might be more willing to report a rape that 
occurred in Los" Angeles as opposed to Cincinnati, or any place else, 
is difficult to answer. 

I am not sure whether your first statement might not be correct; 
it would be reasonable to assume in a given population group there 
might be x percent of those people who would be involved in that 

crime. 

Mr. Wiggins. If that is true, the difference in statistics is simply a 
difference in the reporting of crime, not in their actual incidence. That 
may be the case. It may be your procedures will produce a dramatic 
increase in the incidence of rape reported to you and, of couree, the 
numerical incidence of rape may, in fact, remain the same. 

Mr. Cawley. We expect to receive a substantial increase in the num- 
ber of rape reports. The preliminary and early indications are that 
we are getting more complaint reports. A lot of them are coming di- 
rectly into Lieutenant Tucker's office, which I think is significant, in 
that "that might have been a rape that would not have been reported 
had we not provided the female with the means of reporting it. 

Mr. Wiggins. Thank you, Chief. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Winn. 

Mr. Winn. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Lieutenant Tucker, "do the reports that you get on rape come from 
any specific area ? In other words, from certain districts where there 
is known high usage of drugs, high usage of alcohol, et cetera. 

Miss Tucker. I would say, generally, it is spread out almost evenly. 
There are, of course, some areas in the city where I think it is prob- 
ably more densely populated, but the number of rapes are also higher. 
However, there does not seem to be any link with narcotics or 
alcoholism. 

Mr. Winn. Would it be more prevalent in the low-income areas, 
middle-income areas, or high-income areas : or is it pretty well spread ? 

Miss Tucker. As I said before, it is pretty well spread around. 
There do seem to be areas where it is higher. Trenchant groups are 
a little higher than other areas. But then again, it is pretty evenly 
distributed. 

Mr. Winn. Is there a tie between rape and robbery? 

Miss Tucker. There are many rapes that are connected with rob- 
beries. I wonder at times if perhaps that is also increasing. What might 
possibly happen is if an individual realizes that he is going to get away 
with raping a woman and he breaks into her house or is robbing her, 
he feels he has nothing to lose. 

Mr. Winn. Would there be any tie between Avhat may have started 
out as a rape and ended up in murder ? 

Miss Tucker. Well, we have homicides that are connected but, you 
know, not all that many, really. 

Mr. Winn. It would be hard to tell, too, i^robably. 

Mr. Cawley, you made a statement a minute ago that I don't quite 
understand. You said you have these meetings and you pull together 
wath overall pictures. 



47 

I don't know what you mean. You mean tlie vague image of the word 
"picture"' or actual photo-type pictures ^ 

Mr. Caavley. I am sorry. I should cLarify that. I am talking about the 
rape analysis unit receiving copies of all of these rape complaints 
that are received throughout the city. In an elfort to identify whether 
or not there is a concentration of rapes in a particular area, with the 
view of trying to identify whether one or two people might be respon- 
sible for that particular concentration of crime. So when I talk about 
pictures of crime, I am talking about the concentrated patterns of 
crime. 

Mr. Winn. You are talking about patterns ? 

Mr. Caw^ley. Rather than pictures. 

Mr. Winn. Do you use actual photo-type pictures of those who 
might be known rapists in those areas, if the pattern develops ? 

Mr. Caavley. Maybe I can ask Lieutenant Tucker to respond to that. 
She did earlier at the first session. 

Mr. Winn. I am sorry. I would like that. 

Miss Tucker. If we see a pattern develop, what I generally will do 
is have the women go out and reinterview all of the victims of that 
particular pattern. For instance, if we feel there may be 10 cases that 
the same perpetrator has committed, one of my women will go out and 
reinterview all of the women, hoping to gather additional information. 

During the coui'se of these interviews they will make composites up 
there, or they will bring the women down to our latent section and 
have them view photographs of all known rapists. 

They may also even hook them into burglaries and various other 
crimes that may be connected. If an individual is quite young, the 
perpetrator, frequently he may have been arrested for auto thefts. The 
girls ar© trained investigators so they are familiar with the various 
other crimes that might be connected wnth the rape, and therefore 
try and utilize everything they can to link these cases to a perpetrator. 

Mr. Winn. We have read recently, from time to time, about the 
pros and cons of having women police on the streets, dressed as sexy 
womeUj to entice men of this type, or maybe just men in general. 

I suppose that is where the controversy comes in — leading a man 
on the street to believe that that woman is available, either for prostitu- 
tion or pickup. Are you involved, or are any of your policewomen in- 
volved, in this and what is your thinking on whether this is construc- 
tive or whether it hurts the image of the police department? 

Miss Tucker. We don't utilize our women in this way. 

First of all, I think it would not be too effective. You could have a 
girl on the street for months and have no one bother her, actually. 

Mr. Winn. In New York ? 

Miss Tucker. True. In New York, too. I have lived in the city all 
my life and I have never been attacked. 

Mr. Winn. I didn't mean attacked. I mean propositioned; and I 
suppose it is harder for a man to figure out if it is a prostitute in New 
York, or a girl that wants to be picked up. But I can't believe a gal 
can walk the streets of New York very long without an attempt being 
made, which might result in an assault or a rape. 

Miss Tucker. As I said before, I don't utilize the women in that 
regard, especially in the rape area. And I am not involved with the 
other section of having women out relative to the prostitution com-- 
plaints, et cetera. 



48 

Mr. Winn. But the New York Police Department does have a group 
of women out in that field; like Washington, D.C., did for a while? 

Mr. Cawley. I would like to respond to that rather than the 
lieutenant. . 

On occasion we have used policewomen decoys in the Times Square 
area to deal with particular problems, but it is not a program that is 
an ongoing program. 

Mr. Winn. Wait a minute. Would you clarify what those particular 
problems are, and then we would like to find out what your results are. 

Mr. Cawley. Well, for example, if we had a problem in the Times 
Square community, as we will on occasion, where we received informa- 
tion that a procurer might be looking to approach a young lady and 
convert her, if you will, into prostitution we will put out a female 
detective in that location to see whether or not that is or is not a fact. 
That is one type of decoy that we might use, and have used. 

Another type would be where we want to emphasize the fact that 
the penal law in the State of New York also has a penal sanction for 
the patronizer of a prostitute. We will put out, and have on occasion, 
these women to see whether or not they are solicited and in fact taken 
to a location for an act of prostitution. We have used that on occasion. 

Now, as I said, it is not a long-range program ; it is generally insti- 
tuted on a short-term basis. I am not conversant with the results of 
the program so I could not give you statistics. 

Mr. Winn. I think it is very interesting along the lines that Mr. 
Wiggins brought up— and I am not defending Watergate, believe 
me— but we have, according to your remarks that I heard just as I 
came in — convictions up to maybe 7 years for rape and 4 years for the 
kidnapping of an admiral's daughter, but 8 years for the tapping of 
opponent's political headquarters. I think it is kind of interesting. I 
am not looking for an answer from any of you. 

Tliank you very much, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. j\Ir. Rangel. 

Mr. Rangel. Lieutenant, did you give any testimony as to the rela- 
tionship between convictions and arrests in connection with perpetra- 
tors? 

Miss Tucker. No. 

Mr. Eangel. Well, I can see where the assistance that you are giving 
to the general public, or rather women specifically, would give you 
more information in order to make more and better arrests ; but what 
happeiis to the rules of evidence in court on corroboration ? Have you 
heen able to effectively deal with that through the district attorney's 
office ? 

Miss Tucker. I have been in connection with the district attorney's 
office and in contact with them ; and as I mentioned before, also with 
the hospitals. 

I think the problem, as far as corrolioration, is something that has 
to bf' attacked nt all angles and a ])art of the problem is the fact, first 
of all, that women themselves don't realize the significance of, for in- 
stance, running home and taking a shower after an attack which will 
eliminate any evidence that was there. This has to be something, I 
think, that is also an educational program, where a woman, if she is 
attacked, must realize there are certain things she must do, as much as 
she may wfint to forget the incident. If we are going to have any sue- 



49 

res? at all in convictinor a person, "we lune to have some tools to Avork 
Avith. 

I am looking in, as I said, with the D.A.'s office, so they will give us 
some guidelines as to exactly what is needed for a conviction. There 
are many odd, or shall I saydiU'erent, things that may be around that 
we may be able to utilize. One in particular is a bite file that we are 
creating. If a woman is bitten you can take a photograph of the bite, 
and when we apprehend the person involved we can take a cast of his 
mouth and match that up with the photograph. 

It is actually evidence, concrete evidence, that can be used in court. 

It is similar to fingerprints. This is just one area that we are finding 
out al^out that we are going to be utilizing, and are utilizing. I am sure 
there are many other things we are going to be able to find out that 
will help us get convictions. 

Mr. Rangel. I suppose you agree a change of the law might be more 
effective in the work that you have done ? 

]Miss Tucker. Yes. There has been a change in the law in New York 
and I don't think we can actually at this point evaluate it and say it 
didn't lielp at all. I think it was May of last year that the law was 
changed, and although there are still problems as far as I can see, 
I would like to see exactly how effective the law is and if we can work 
with it. 

Then after everything we have done, and as tightened up as our in- 
Aestigations have become, if we still are not able to get a conviction 
then I think the move has to be to try and change the law. 

Mr. Raxgel. What is your batting average in terms of arrest and 
convictions? 

Miss Tucker. The convictions have l)een very low, but actually, as 
far as the new law is concerned we have had few cases come to court 
under the new law. So I don't think I can evaluate it at this point. 

]\Ir. Raxgel. Well, your department is doing a tremendous job in 
getting pul)lic support, but how do you explain if a woman goes 
tlirough all of these embarrassing things, even with a sensitive in- 
vestigator, only to find the perpetrator back on the street? I think this 
is one of the things, from the layman's point of view, that makes you 
wonder wliy should you get involved and subject yourself and your 
family to this so-called embarrassment, if, in fact, you don't have the 
convit-tions. 

How do you cope with that ? 

Miss Tucker. First of all. we are looking now to try and get a con- 
viction on the cases and at least today you can get a conviction on an 
assault if the woman Avas attacked. Avhereas last year at tlie same tinie 
you couldn't get a conviction on an assault. If it was connected with 
tlip rape, you lost tlie whole thing. 

rhai]'inan Peppku. What is tlie new law to which you refer? 

Miss Tucker. Actually, the old law required an eyewitness, someone 
standing there and testifying to every step of the way. You had to 
testify to penetration, the act. everything had to be corroborated by an 
eyeAvitness. Today that is not nex^essary. 

But you do need circumstantial evidence to support the evidence. 

Chairman Pepper. Corroborating evidence Avhich may be physical ? 

Miss Tucker. Right. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Keating? 



50 

Mr. Keating. I "woiild like to ask a couple of questions, and if I am 
repetitious, I apologize. Say so and I won't recall testimony which 
took place when I wasn't here. 

I have been concerned al^out this rape law as well. We had a rather 
celebrated case in Washington at one of the universities here ; and as a 
result, there has l3een much Avritten about it and much discussed about 
it, and much discussed about changing the law. 

Subsequently, there were some instructions, I gather, to female em- 
ployees on the Hill, and they told them what to do under certain cir- 
cumstances. And they said to submit so that you don't sustain any 
serious physical harm or injury, or maybe even loss of life; but also 
tliat if you do, your chances of winning your case in court are very 
slim. 

Now this, I guess, is what we have to get around, to make a law very 
effective in this ai'ea, and I am wondering how you cope with that 
specific thing, so far as proof in court is concei-ned. 

First of all, do jou tell the Avoinen to submit so they don't sustain 
physical injury if you are out talking about this subject anywhere? 

Miss Tucker. No, I don't. I think as far as submitting or not. it 
has to be up to the woman herself. This is a decision she is going to 
have to live with. I do exjilain the pros and cons as to what will hap- 
pen to the women. I don't think anyone can judge the position a 
woman is in at a time like that and say, "Gee, I think you should 
submit," or "No, fight to the death," because a woman may submit 
and for the rest of her life condemn herself for submitting; whereas, 
another woman may fight and be seriously injured. 

I think it has to be something that at the moment when this hap- 
pens she, herself, has to make this decision. I don't think it can come 
from an outside source. 

Mr. Keating. How are we ever going to shore up the laws at all? 
There is almost a presumption if she does submit that she did so 
willinglv and nr-t under any duress. 

Miss Tucker. This is the problem ; but I think there has to be some 
recognition that a woman may feel she cannot cope with fighting a 
man, and there is no shame and disgrace in submission in a case like 
that. But, unfortunately, the laws are such that if there is no physical 
damage to the person of the victim, it is very, very difficult to prove 
that she did not go along with it, 

Mr. Keating. And in, that event, when you have an incident such 
as occuri-ed at George Washington University. I think statistics some- 
times will show there has been an increase in this kind of a crime after 
there has been an acquittal in a case that has gotten a great deal of 
notoriety. I think there is likewise an indication thei-e are a few cases 
of reporting an incident of rape for a short period of time after such 
an incident has occurred. 

Miss Tucker. That may be true. Many of the women I ha^e spoken 
with are disheartened with the law. What we generally do, though, to 
prepai'e a woman for the experience she is going to go through in 
court is go with the woman — I have one of mv girls assio-ned to her — 
to try, as I said, to prepare her for the experience she is going to ha^■e 
to undergo. 

But many cases don't even reach the trial level. They are dismissed, 
or they take a plea, because they feel the corroboration requirements 



61 

have not been met and tliat the case wouUl not be won if it went to 
triah So it is a problem and we are aware of it; and we are trying to 
do everything we can to tighten up our investigations in the hope that 
if there is any fanlt on our pail we will see it, and recognize it, and 
correct it. And if it isn't on our part, and if it is tlie law that defi- 
nitely needs correction, then we are going to do e\er\ thing we can 
to try and change the law. 

;Mr. Keating. Now, I don't know what your procedures are, but I 
know several instances involving incidents — exposure and also rape 
cases— where police officers were totally insensitive to the situation 
to the point where these girls that were involved in the incidents were 
suggesting to all of their friends that whatever happens don't have 
anything to do with the police because they are going to give you a 
ver}^ difficult time ; they are going to act as if they don't believe you. 

Now, really, it is a prelude of what they are going to experience in 
the courtroom, but is there some way to stop this? This is a very real 
problem in raj community, your community, everywhere else. I think 
women get together and they talk and they ask "'\^niat's the use?" 

Miss Tucker. I have gone out and given many talks to various 
groups of women in the hope of reaching them and making them 
understand that we are there and we want them to come forward, and 
we will be as sympathetic and understanding as possible. 

I know all of the women I have working for me, and myself in- 
•cluded, cannot listen to a woman who is reporting the crime of rape 
and not have the hair on the back of their neck stand up. It is such 
a really heart-rending situation. And it is a situation that will prob- 
ably stay with that woman for the rest of her life. I think that none 
of us can lose sight of that and I know as long as I am in charge of 
the unit it won't be lost sight of. 

We are trying to also expand this as I mentioned earlier. We do 
have specialization in rape, and male detectives are selected and 
screened for their sensitivity in this area because it is a crime that 
stays with the victim for years. I have had phone calls from women 
who were raped 8 to 10 years ago. I spoke to a woman just the other 
day. I have gotten letters — I have piles of letters — indicating how 
happy the women are to know we are there and that they have someone 
to talk to. 

Apparently, in a crime like this, it is difficult to even speak to your 
■own family about it. Somehow, even your husband or your mother 
M'ill say, "Gee, don't talk about it; you forget it." But the woman 
'doesn't want to forget it. 

I am hoping that with the establishment of this unit and perliaps 
■other units throughout the country — ^because other police departments 
have also written to me expressing their ho]3e they could follow suit 
and asking how we set up our unit — I think it will make a big dif- 
ference. Once the women know that they can come forward, I think 
we are going to be able to apprehend the perpetrators. 

Mr. Keating. I agree with tliat; and being sympathetic to the 
woman's position in tlie matter I have to say tliat if someone seeks 
your advice, or iny advice, or some member of the panel, whether or 
not to prosecute, if you get in that area, there must be some reservation 
in telling people to go ahead and prosecute, Imowing what they are 



52 

going to go through and knowing the difficulty that they are going 
to be confronted with. 

Miss Tucker. I don't agree, really. I have experienced this and I 
have spoken with women, and I said to them, "Look, we may have a 
problem, but we are all working at this together and if we don't go 
forward, if you don't come forward to the police and let us know how 
many crimes are realh- being committed out there, we are never going 
to be able to do a ny thing with the problem." 

As far as convictions are concerned, that will come. You have to take 
one step at a time. I think one big issue is getting the women to come 
forward and report the crime. 

Mr. Keating. Is there any effort being done at your level, and at 
the prosecutoi-s level, to cope with the problem of corroboration in the 
courtroom at this time ? 

You have a new law as you indicated. What does this law require ? 
You told us what the old law requires. Tell us what the new law 
requires. 

Miss Tucker. The new laws still require some form of corroboration, 
but it can now be some type of circumstantial evidence. You do have to 
prove that a rape was actually committed. You also have to prove that 
the person forced you into the rape. But as I said before, we now don't 
have to have an eyewitness. 

Mr. Keating. Is pure assault a lesser crime overall ? Is pure assault 
a lesser offense so the judge or the jury determining the innocence or 
guilt can find them guilty of a lesser offense without retrial ? 

Miss Tucker. Yes. 

Mr. Cawley. Mr. Keating, if I may. This unit was created in the 
middle of December. That is when the concept really came into the 
fore. Then the next several months we had been in the process of try- 
ing to build it, so that many of the concerns that you have are oui's. 
and we would hope when we get enough of a base to analyze and study 
we will be in a position to understand the problem somewhat better 
and, hopefully, come up with some better answers. 

Mr. Keating. What I am saying in questioning here really relates 
to all offenses and all criminal trials in a sense. It just is more serious 
in this, because I think it happens more frequently. I think that. No. 1, 
people have grown to tolerate certain levels of crime over the last 10 
years. 

Second, I believe that people hesitate to become involved because the 
judicial system is slow and witnesses have to come back repeatedly to 
the courtroom, and they lose wages each time, and it is very difficult 
for the poor pereon who is a wage earner, an hourly wage earner, to 
keep coming back. I think there are a lot of things like this that kee]) 
people from wanting to report crimes. The victim, for example, feels 
he is going to lose more from his place of employment. 

Now you, myself, and the courts, have to make it more convenient 
for the people to get involved in the prosecuting of these crimes so they 
will be willing to come forward. We have to make it easier for people, 
and we have to encourage it. We don't have to make it a penalty they 
must pay, either in wages or adverse publicity, et cetera, to get these 
convictions. 

Mr. Cawley. I agree with that. 

Mr. Keatin{}. I just think it is an attitudinal thing Ave have to over- 
come. A lot of people don't vrant to serve on juries because they are 



53 

treated like cattle. There are just a lot of tliiii<>-8 in the very human 
treatment of individuals that can help overcome this crime problem. 

Mr. Cawley. I a<>ree. 

]\Ir. KEA'nx(!. It really rests Avitli you and myself as a lef>-islator, 
and the judges, to really' start doinc ^vhat is necessary to get this job 
done. 

I didn't mean to get carried away, but T want to thank you very 
uuicli for youi' testimony. 

Chairman Peppeii. Mr. Wiggins. 

Mr. AViGGixs. As you all know, the penalty for the crime of rape 
has been in a state of transition in this country a long preiod of years. 
It Avasn't too many years ago that tlie death penalty was a connnon 
penalty for the crime of rape. It was one of several categories of capital 
otfenses, and still exists, if it is authorized at all, in some States. It 
does not exist in the State of New York. 

Do any of you have any observations about changes in the penalty 
for rape, in terms of (.a) getting convictions, and (b) the increase or 
decrease in the incidence of rape ? 

]SIr. Caavley. Would you repeat the last part of that ? 

]Mr. WiGGix s. Yes. 

One of the notions that we clierish is that the stiffer the penalty the 
more deterrent the impact will be upon possible violators. The penalties 
for rape liaA'e diminished in your State. Have you noticed a greater 
or lesser incidence of rape as a result of tliat changed penalty ? 

Ml". Cawley. There has been an increase in the number of reported 
rapes in Xew York State. I can't, however, relate that increase directly 
to the severity of the penalty. I am not able to say if because we no 
longer have a death penalty, or the death penalty is not one of the 
punishments that will be given to a convicted rapist, that the number 
of rapists has increased because of that. But there has been an increase 
in munbers of reported rapes. It is a matter of statistical fact, 

]\Ir. WiGGix's. Tlien let me pose a speculative question this way: 
If your State legislature, in a fit of passion, were to reimpose the death 
penalty, to the extent it is constitutional to do so, for the crime of rape, 
do you think it would haA^e any impact upon the instance of rape in 
your State? 

Mr. Cawley. Tliat is a very difficult question to answer directly. I 
think one impact upon the crime of rape and upon crime in general, 
the most serious crime, Avould be if moi-e of the people that Avere con- 
victed of the serious crimes, rape included, Avere imprisoned, if that 
were possible. I think Commissioner Murphy, before he left, indicated 
tliat someAvhere in the neighborhood of 95 percent of the crimes re- 
sulted in plea bargaining, and in many instances convicted felons are 
not confined to ])iison at all. 

So I think in that sense that if we had a greater assurance of im- 
l)risonment for crime, pai-ticularly very serious crime, that might have 
an impact on it. 

]Mr. WiGGixs. Certainly muggings, Avouldn't you say? 

Mr. Caavley. That is correct. 

Chairman Peppeij. T^ieutenant Tucker, out of your experience have 
you formed any opinion as to Avhat type of weapon a Avoman might 
use, or Avhat would be the best Avay for her to protect and defend her- 
self, in case she is attacked ? 



54 

Miss Tucker. I don't think a weapon is tlie answer, because a man 
can easily turn a weapon against the woman herself and it can then 
be more serious than before. However, I think if most women were 
knowledgeable about street fighting and knew the areas where to 
kick — if somebody tried to gash out someone's eyes, or kick them in the 
shins, or groin area — I think things of this nature for all women to 
know would be probably a lot better for the woman herself. 

Chairman Pepper, Referring to corroboration : A lot of the cases I 
read about is where the man used a knife or threatened to cut the 
woman's throat if she didn't jdeld. 

Miss Tucker. Yes ; but what happens is if he is not arrested immedi- 
ately with the knife there is no evidence that this actually occurred. 
it is her word against his unless she was cut and there was physical 
damage to the Avoman. This many times happens. 

Chairman Pepper. That is what I said: There isn't any physical 
damage on the body if she jdelds against having her throat cut. 
Mr.'^Rangel? 

Mr. R ANGEL. I just wanted to find out whether or not you know how 
many members of the New York City Police Department reside within 
the city of New York. 

Mr. Caweey. I would take an off-the-top estimate of about 60 per- 
cent. 

Mr. R ANGEL. Now, it is still the law. I believe, that a New York City 
policeman is really on duty 24 hours a day ? 

Mr. Cawley. That is the written regulation ; yes. 
Mr. Rangel. If New York City was able to get more members of the 
police department to be residents of the city of New York would not 
that improve the efficiency of the police department ? 
Mr. Cawley. Yes ; I would say yes. 

Mr. Rangel. Well, have we ever tried to do anything to encourage 
or to give incentive for more residents to become policemen? 

Mr. Cawley. As you know, Mr. Rangel, the civil service examina- 
tions are given by the civil service commission, and by current law 
people living in some five or six neighboring communities within New 
York State can compete for those positions. So that people living in 
Nassau, Suffolk. Westchester, Brooklyn, to name a few, can live in 
.those communities and still be hired as New York City police officers. 
Mr. Rangel. I laiow since the Lyons laws was disposed of, we do 
have this; but I was just wondering from the chief of police point of 
view whether or not your office would be supportive of any type of 
legislation which to me would create almost an automatic increase in 
ilie number of policemen that would be available for any political 
subdivision. 

Mr. Cawley. I am in favor of working out some type of arrange- 
ment where we can increase the number of New York City police 
officers coming from within the confines of New York City. There are 
a lot of options that might be available there. We have tried, absent 
their being able to change the law at the moment a lot of different 
tactics — the Community Service Order being one — with a long-range 
vieAv of perhaps having that as a preliminary step toward a man 
.achieving the rank of patrolman. 

'•■ Of course, that is not a career ladder at the moment; although it is 
something we seriously thought about. We are anxious to increase the 



55 

number of emploj'ees that live in New York City and work in New 
York City, but we do have the problem of dealing with the existing 
law, which is always a difficult one. 

JMr. Rangel. Do you have the problem in terms of your own regula- 
tions and your upward mobility of tliose policemen that not only M'ork 
then for the police department, but have elected to live in the city of 
New York? Would you not be in a position to promote these men at 
a different rate of speed than perhaps those who lived in New Jersey 
and outside the New York City area? 

Mr. Cawxey. You are talking about positions above the level of civil 
service rank of captain ? 

Mr. Eaxoel. No. I thought the police commissioner had made it 
very clear that those officers that, for example, were involved in suc- 
cessfully bringing about bribery convictions, the promotions would be 
handled a little differently than tliose officers that were not actively 
involved. Is that not so ? 

Mr. Cawley. If the commissioner said that, he was talking about 
promotion opportunities that exist outside of civil service promotional 
oj^port unities. They would be men promoted to the rank of detective 
who would have their career path accelerated because they partici- 
pated in a particular program. 

Mr. Rangel. Don't you have preferential assignments where you 
could lielp out a patrolman a little better that lived in the city than one 
who didn't? 

jNIr. Cawley. Any preference that we show toward any of these 
assignments would be based primarily upon whether he had the skills 
and talent for the position. 

INIr. Rangel. Say the 6 to 2 shift ; don't they get a little something 
extra for volunteering for the so-called force platoon? Don't they get 
more than the fellows that just take the normal flack? 

Mr. Cawley. They have the niglit differential pay but anyone work- 
ing between the hours of 4 p.m. and S a.m. receive that. Again, the 
assignment to any specialized unit would be primarily dictated upon 
what the skills were as opposed to where he lived. 

Mr. Rangel. If I were a policeman and lived at 182d Street and 
Lenox Avenue, I know I would be on duty 24 hours a day ; and I am 
receiving tlie same pay as someone tliat loaves tlie community aud jrives 
that new community outside the city of New York the benefit of all 
of his expertise and training. 

Could you support the fact that I will get preferential pay be- 
cause I am exposed to my law enforcement responsibility more than 
someone that lives outside the city of New York ? 

l\Ir. Cawley. You mean extra compensation for living within the 
city? 

Mr. Rangel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Cawley. It is something I had not seriously considered, but I 
certainlv will think a])Out this as a possibility. 

Afr. Rangel. You agree the police that do live in the city are ex- 
pected to give a little more to the city than those that live outside of 
the city? 

Mr. Cawley. I would agi-ee a man who lives in the city 24 hours a 
dav. 7 days a week, is certainly much moi-e responsiA'e to take a police 
action than a man who comes in 40 hours a week. 

95-158— 73— pt. 1 5 



56 

Mr. Rangel. And that would lielp the police department service 
the peoi)le in New York City, would it not '? 

Mr. C'aw^ley. I would agree with that. 

Mr. Brasco. Chief, I am under the impression that mont of the 
patrolmen start out on the job living in the city of New York, and then 
move out. And based on that, isn't there something tliat can be done 
to hold theui in the city l Or is the reverse true, the majority of police- 
men being recruited now are being recruited from outside the confines 
of New York City i 

Mr. Cawley. Very frankly, in answer to that question, it would be 
strictly a guess at this point. I am not sure whether we are hi ring- 
more people Avho li\e in the city and subsequently move out, or ^ice 
versa. 

]Mr. Brasco. Chief, Congressman Rangel asked Avhether or not you 
would support a change in the law, if that is what is necessary, so 
that, by statute, preferential treatment, all other things being equal, 
can be given to patrolmen who remain in the city ? 

Would you be in favor of that kind of approach? 

Mr. ( 'aweey. I would certainly be in favor of the new employees 
that we are bringing aboard, and we are hiring quite a few this year, 
if there was one way of having them live within the city and stay 
within the city, that would be preferable to the system that we now 
have, where they work within the city but can live outside of the 
city. 

Mr. Brasco. I am not suggesting we ask those already living outside 
the city to sell their homes and come back. Obviously, I am not 
talking about that kind of chaos that would be created in one's personal 
life. I am talking about new employees, specifically. 

Mr. Cawley. Ideally, we would like to have city employees em- 
ployed l)y the city and live within the city. There are a number of 
problems, as you know, including housing conditions and a lot of 
other factors that would have to be carefully studied by a number of 
people before change could be made in the existing law. 

Chairuian Pepper. Miss Tucker, I believe that finishes your inquiry. 
Thank you very much. We commend you for your great work. 

]Mr. Tvynch, would you go ahead ? 

Mr. Lynch. Yes, sir. 

Seated next to Chief Cawley at the witness table is Deputy Chief 
Inspector Simon Eisdorfer. ITuder his command is the New York 
Police Department Robbery Stakeout Squad. 

I wonder. Chief, if you could describe to the uiembers of this com- 
mittee what the robbeiy stakeout squad is, how it operates, and what 
has been its rate of success over the past 5 years it has been operating ? 

Statement of Simon Eisdorfer 

Mr. Eisdorfer. Yes. 

This stakeout unit, as it is called. Avas formulated in 1968. 

Due to the increase in robberies, due to the increase in homicides 
onto business people, due to the increase in the availability of hand- 
guns, and also because of community pressures, we formed this unit 
in 10f)S, consisting of 40 patrobnen with adequate superiors. 

These pati'olmen were selected as volunteers. They were given 
psychological testing as to their stability; they were trained in marks- 



57 

niansliip ; in tlie laws of a nvst, evidence. They were trained specifically 
to work inside, to cope WMtli this robbery probleni. 

Although we have only 40 men, and we are now down to 32 men 
because of attrition, we feel that these 32 men do have some public 
impact to alhiy the fears of the conununity. We select the location 
upon the coniphiinant's application to his local precinct commander. 
Usually these business people have been held up more than once. 
Usually the perpetrators that appear on the scene have been the same 
on more than one occasion. 

"VVe select our location, keeping in mind the safety of the public, the 
safety of the people using the business premise, the safety of the offi- 
cer and, of course, the safety of the ownier of the business involved. 

We use diti'erent types of weapons. We use either rifles or shotguns, 
whichever the location that we select to secrete the patrolman suits 
us best. 

AVe usually stay in one location for a minimum of about 30 days. 
With 32 men we can onl}- cover, roughly, about 15 locations at any one 
time. It we feel that the robbery potential has diminished because of 
our presence there, or because it is known that we are there, we don't 
stay there longer than 30 days. 

If we feel that we may have some impact we do stay there beyond 
the 30 daj'S, although we may not have any contact with any criminal. 

The'men.are adequately suited. We use bulletproof vests. Most of 
the time w^ have ho contact with the criminal. About 25 percent of 
the time w;e do luive contact, and usually when we do have contact, we 
are successful in either apprehending or injuring the criminal. 

Last year, 1972, we covered predominantly 24 locations. We had 
seven. contacts, and out of those seven contacts we had nine arrests 
and five injuries. This year so far, on a 3-month period, we covered 
six locatiohs; we had tw^o contacts with the criminals for a total of 
five ari-ests^ 

We tried to keep the officers in this unit for a mininnnn period of 
2 years, and then we try to rotate them to give to them different duties. 
We don't like to keep them in here beyond the 2-year limit. 
_ We can't pinpoint our effect exactly. On a transient area, an area 
like Times Square, an area where we have manj^, many people, I doubt 
whether we have any impact at all. But on a local business area, a lo- 
cal shopping area, we have considerable impact and, usually, if we do 
have one contact within that premise, within that store, and it doesn't 
reoccur, then it does have. 

Mr. IJyxcti. Chief, it is my understanding that in the past 5 years 
of operation you have had approximately 200 stakeouts 

Mr. EisDOKj^ER. Yes, sir. 

Mr. LYNcii [continuing]. And in approximately 53 of the stakeouts 
there was a confrontation with armed robbers, and that in 25 of these 
confrontations armed robbers were killed by stakeout s<iuad officers. 

Are those figures substantially correct? 

Mr. EisDoRFKR. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Lyxcu. You indicated there were five injuries in 1972. Were 
those injuries fatal ? 

Mr. Etsdoim'ei:. Five fatal : yes, sir. 

Mr. Lyxcti. To the robbers ? 

Mr. EisDoKi'KR. Yes, sii-. 



58 

Mr. Lynch. How many businessmen have you lost since you oper- 
ated this unit ? 

Mr. EisDORFER. We haven't lost any. We had two i)atrolmen in- 
jured — shot. I recall having one shot in the fall of last year — shot 
in the stomach. He lived. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, the FBI crime data shows that in 1968 you 
had a rate of robbery of approximately 485 per 100,000. In 1971, 
that rate had risen to 790. In our earlier dicussions with you when 
we were up to see you with our investigators, you indicated it was 
difficult on a city wide basis to judge the effectiveness of this kind of 
operation. But you also indicated that in certain sections of the city, 
it was the department's view — and it certainly was your view — that 
a stakeout would, for a given period of time after a confrontation, 
reduce the number of robberies in that locale. 

Do you have any data that could substantiate that judgment? 

Mr. EiSDORFER. No; I don't have any data on that score. But as a 
rule that does happen. We do remain in after we do have a confronta- 
tion. 

The people already know we are there — the business pople know 
we are there, the local community knows we are there — and I think 
that in itself has a positive settling effect on the crime rate within 
that immediate locale. 

Mr. Lynch. Can we infer then that armed bandits come from the 
locality in which they commit robberies? How do they learn about 
your operation ? 

Mr. EiSDORTER. It looks like they do come from that immediate 
locality. As a rule they do. We find they do come from a close vicinity 
to the premise which they hold up. 

Mr. Lynch. Are your operations publicized in any manner? 

Mr. EiSDORFEJR. As a rule, when we do have any shootings it ig 
publicized. It does come out in the newspapers and people learn about 
it; yes. 

Mr. Lynch. I realize you don't advertise the fact you are staking 
out the XYZ candy store, for instance ; however, does the department 
publicize the availability of this service, and does it publicize as a 
departmental policy the existence of this special antirobbery squad? 

Mr. EiSDORTER. I don't think we publicize it as a rule, but I know 
all of the business people know of its availability. 

INIr. Lynch. Chief, of the 25 armed robbers who have been killed in 
confrontations with your men, have you had occasion to check the 
criminal records of those armed robbers, and if you have, could you 
tell us how many of them were recidivists? How many of them in 
particular had prior armed robbery arrests and/or convit^tions? 

INIr. EisDORFER. I don't have the figures for it, but I will tell you the 
majority of the people are recidivists; they do have prior armed 
robbery arrests. 

Mr. Lynch. Would that information be available from your depart- 
ment ? 

Mr. EiSDORFER. Yes. 

]Mr. Lynch. Could you send that to us ? 

INlr. EiSDORFER. Yes, sir. 

ISIr. Lynch. We would appreciate that. 

[The information requested was not received.] 



59 

Mr. EiSDORFER. I would like to point out, INIr. Lynch, that in the 
last contact we did have with five people that held up a grocery store, 
four out of the five had prior convictions of armed robbery — five 
arrests. 

Mr. Lynch. I do have one further question, Chief. Let me preface 
it by saying that Commissioner JNIurphy this morning in his testimony 
indicated the city wide anticrime section had not generated any adverse 
publicity, nor was there any unusual level of violence connected with 
it in the discharge of police functions. Obviously, in this robbery stake- 
out operation, there is. 

There are a lot of people who are being killed. They, of course, 
were people who were in the act of committing felonies. Nonetheless, 
what effect does this have on the department's image in the city? 
Have you been criticized for this unit? Have newspapers or magazines 
criticized the existence of this unit ? 

Mr. EiSDORFER. I would say when it was originally instituted we did 
have criticism. I would say in the past year that the people are asking 
for this service. "We are not getting criticism for the past year. 

Mr. Lynch. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Tell us, Chief Eisdorfer, how are your men de- 
ployed in a given store, say ? 

llllr. EiSDORFER. They are deployed according to where the money 
is kept, where the exits are, where the entrances are, and where the 
customers pay their bills. In other words, at a supermarket the cash 
registers are usually at the end of a line at which the people line up 
at the checkout counters. We have to be very careful in any location 
like that. 

Chairman Pepper. The officer is hidden under the counter? 

Mr. EiSDORFER. No; we usually have various methods. We put up 
various installations which we get behind. 

Chairman Pepper. I see. 

Mr. EiSDORFER. It blends in with the local decor. 

Mr. Brasco. Mr. Chairman ? 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Brasco ? 

Mr. Br^vsco. In connection with some of your comments, Chief, 
again I contend from an experience in my own district that you do 
have an impact. As a matter of fact, one of those shootings in which 
a policeman was injured occurred last year in an A. & P. on Lincoln 
Boulevard, around Van Sicklen Avenue, that was in my district. 

The police officers on the stakeout team were shot at. However, I 
do know, as a result of your confrontation and activity, the string of 
stores that were constantly being robbed in that area did decrease. 

I do find it particularly disturbing that there are only 32 men on 
your squad, with respect to availability; and that is one thing I find 
disturbing throughout that we haven't been able to develop the size 
of the force in the city that is required to meet the increase of crime. 

I suppose it is not really your problem. It is a problem of getting 
funds, either from the city, State, or Federal Government to enlarge 
your capabilities. 

With respect to the criticism that might be leveled, I think that 
that kind of a squad has a specific mission and it is kind of a difficult 
mission to perform when people are already in a shop with their gims 
drawn, and apparently becoming more and more like cowboys in the 



60 

city, which leads me to the question of capital punishment with respect 
to certain types of felons. 

And— do stop me if I am wrong — but it has been my own experi- 
ence, again drawing from what I was used to in the D.A.'s office, we 
get a number of cases in which people can be prosecuted with robbery, 
but if they went in with unloaded weapons or "dummy up starter 
pistols," tiiere was at least, in my opinion, from that experience a 
very distinct feeling on the part of the would-be perpetrator that he 
didn't want to get involved in any shooting because he knew there 
was an ultimate penalty to pay if he did shoot somebody and killed 
him. 

I am wondering whether or not, in your experience as a policeman, 
you have been able to get the same kind of feeling. Today there are 
more guys with loaded guns and shooting up the town, like the wild 
west, and whether or not that dovetails with capital punishment with 
respect to, in this case, felony murder. 

Mr. Cawley. I don't have any statistics that would indicate whether 
or not more simulated guns are being used as opposed to real loaded 
guns. However, my sensing is there are manj^ more loaded weapons 
being carried, rather than simulated weapons. 

I would also like to just backtrack for a moment and speak about 
the 32 men currently assigned to this unit. This unit was instituted 
5 years ago, as Chief Eisdorfer indicated. A year ago, at the begin- 
ning of this year, January 1 of 1972, the detective bureau was reorga- 
nized on a specialized crime basis. As a result of that reorganization 
there are detective district squads in each area of the city whose sole 
responsibility is to deal with the j^roblem of robbery. 

In many instances, ovei- and above the service provided by stakeout 
unit operations, the detective bureau engages in the same type of plant 
activity, based upon locations that have experienced large numbers of 
robberies. 

So we are not addressing the problem ; we are centralizing it to any 
greater extent we are in the current commitment, but we have a large 
number of detective investigators that deal with the robbery problem. 

INIr. Brasco. So vou are saying your complement stakeout is much 
larger than 32? 

]\Ir. Cawley. I am saying the stakeout unit per se, and by its form 
of operation, is a relatively small one, but the detective operation 
which has the bigger responsibility for dealing with the robbery prob- 
lem in its district does employ and plant stakeout activities as part 
of its operational activity. 

INIr. Beasco. "Would there be any figiire as to how mucli the combined 
units would be ? 

Mv. Cawley. I wouldn't have any statistics available as to how 
many stakeouts or plants the detective bureau undertakes. 

INIr. Eangel. Do they work together with the central stakeout ? 

Mr. Cawley. There would be very few instances, unless I am wrong 
about this. The detective bureau would be instituting, by virtue of its 
analysis of the robbery problem in its district, its own stakeout for 
plant operation rather than stakeout. It doesn't stay in there on a 
stakeout for 30 days. 

If it runs into a liquor store problem, for example, it identifies and 
makes the prediction perhaps the next robbery that will occur in_ a 
liquor store in this district will be one, two, or three, and they will 



61 

put the detective personnel in those li({uor stores anticipating this 
might be where tlie next crime occurs. 

Sir. Brasco. Do either of you oentlemen want to comment on capital 
punishment, with resj^ect to select classes of homicide^ 

In this particular case, commission of armed robbery? 

Mv. Cawley. "We have capital punishment in Xew York on a very 
selective basis, as you know. The killino- of a police officer, and one 
or two others. Many, many studies lia\e been done over many, many 
years as to whether or not capital punishment in and of itself is a 
strong deterrent. There has never been any firm conclusion drawn, 
to my loiowledge. 

Mr. Brasco. I agree. I was asking from your experience as a police 
officer. Obviously, we are not going to get answers to questionnaires 
from guys who said, "I changed ni}^ mind because the laAv was too 
tougli in that area." 

I was trying to get it from your own experience. As I said mine was, 
formerly, there were many more starter pistols and unloaded weapons 
used in holdups. It seems to me today everybody is carrying a loaded 
gun. 

Mr. Cawley. In answer to that, I think I mentioned to Mr. Wiggins, 
in my own view, it is the certainty of the punishment, the fact it will 
be administered, that is a much more eloquent factor in itself. 

]\Ir. Wiggins. Chief Eisdorfer, wouldn't you agree most robberies 
are reported? 

i\Ir. Eisdorfer. Yes. 

.Air. Wiggins. It turns out that New York City has the highest rate 
of reported robberies of any citv in this country. How do you account 
for that ? 

Mv. Eisdorfer. I think, populationwise, we have the greatest 
population. 

Mr. Wiggins. I am talking al)out rate per 100,000 population. 

3Ir. Eisdorfer. Possibly it could be because we are close; we have a 
seaport. We are traders, possibly people obtain the weapons easier to do 
these crimes and can get them easier within the city of New York. 

i^.Ir. Wiggins. What is the weapon of choice for robbery ? 

J\lv. Eisdorfer. Usually a handgun. 

Mr. Wiggins. The opponents of handgun legislation are always 
pointing to the New York Sullivan law as an example of a strong but 
ineft'ective gun law. I am not sure I know the provisions of the Sullivan 
law. but I gather it requires a signature to obtain or possess a weapon 
at all. 

Mr. Cawley. That is true. 

i\Ir. Wiggins. Do you have an observation as to whether it is Avork- 
ing. and if not — I think the answer is no — whv not ? 

Mr. Eisdorfer. I think the ease with which these hand weapons are 
obtainable is the main reason why the Sullivan laAv isn't Avorking. 

]Mr. "Wiggins. Where do they get them ? 

^Ir. Eisdorfer. The weapons come in from other States which have 
gun laws permitting the carrying of guns. They may come in from 
other areas which permit the manufacture, or the assembling of these 
weapons. 

Also, I believe they may come in on the harbor, on boats, railroads, 
airplanes. There may be burglaries in this respect. That is how they get 
into this market. 



62 

Mr. Wiggins. Well, I suppose that the importation of handguns is 
a subject that Congress could address itself to, but do you really think 
that is going to have any impact on robberies in your city ? 

Mr. EiSDORFER. If it would be countrywide. If it would affect the 
whole country, I think it would have considerable impact throughout 
the United States. 

Mr. Wiggins. I don't know for a fact that it is easy to possess hand- 
guns in Texas, but if one would believe their reputation at least, every- 
body packs a six-shooter down there. I notice the robberies in the city 
of Dallas are at the rate per hundred thousand of 195.3, whereas in 
the city of Is^ew York, as of the year 1971. the rate was 790. That is 
a dramatic difference, and I suspect that the obtaining of a weapon 
in Dallas is a relatively easy matter. I assume that. 

Do you have any observations ? 

Mr. EisDOKFER. iSTo. 

Mr. Cawxey. I would like to at least make a comment, Mr. Wiggins. 

Mr. Wiggins. Yes. 

Mr. Cawley. The statistical process of gathering nationwide crime 
sense is one way of truing to measure the crime problem and you can 
compare it with other jurisdictions. I don't think the system is com- 
pletely flawless by any means. I am sure you are not suggesting that. 

Mr. Wiggins. That is why I asked the question whether or not 
robberies are reported. I kind of think robberies, like homicide,' are 
reported, and we start with a fairly common statistical base. That is 
my assumption. You can challenge it, of course. 

Mr. Cawley. I would like to bring up a point. I don't care to chal- 
lenge it. The statistics are done on resident population, unless I am 
mistaken. I would like to just interject the thought here that in addi- 
tion to having 8 million residents in the city of New York, that during 
the course of the business day somewhere between another 2 and 3 
million people probably come into the city. 

I think that might be one reason why ci'imes are committed on a 
greater number of people, in terms of the base structure, and then 
when the number is arrived at, it is divided into a smaller base. 

Mr. Wiggins. That is not, in fact, the case here. It could be. but it is 
not. For example, the population base of New York, for purpose? of 
these statistics, is 11.6 million, which doubtless includes the greater 
New York area and not just the Manhattan area. 

Let's take another city with which we are familiar. Washington, 
D.C.. has a population within the confines of the District of Colum- 
bia of 800.000 or 900,000, but the statistical base upon which these per- 
centages are computed is 2.9 million, I think that includes surround- 
ing counties as well. What I am saying, Chief, is that if there is an 
imperfect base it is imperfect for the rest of the country as well, and 
thev suffer as you do. 

The difference is so dramatic in New York City with respect to rob- 
beries over other major areas that I am curious, and I welcome any 
explanation for it. Especially, given the reported strength of your 
gun law. 

Mr. Cawley. Well, the gun law is strong. We do have, and we 
have spoken about it frequently, the problem of Saturday night spe- 
cials and the availabilitv of weapons on much too broad a l3ase for 
anyone who cares to really pick one up for $20, or some of them retail 



63 

at $18. The totally inacceptable availability of handguns is one 
problem. 

We do have a narcotic problem in New York City: there is no ques- 
tion about that. We have a lar;!ji:e number of addicts that would proba- 
bly give us a bigger potential pool of people that are ready to com- 
mit crime. 

There are entirely too many robberies: there is no question about 
it. We are aware of it. We are making progress in that area. I can't 
really tell you why, but there are six times more robberies in New 
York than there might be elsewhere. 

Mr. Wiggins. Can you tell me why the rate of robberies has almost 
doubled in New York in the last 4 years ? 

Mr. Cawley. Well, we are having a lot of difficulty with the total 
criminal justice system in New York. We pointed this out before. Our 
courts are clogged. A lot of the people we arrest go into the system and 
return to the system. We do have almost a breakdown at points in the 
criminal justice system that have to be addressed, I think it is a critical 
problem in New York and we have been trying to deal with it. 

]Mr. Wiggins. One would think there might be some rough correla- 
tion between homicide and robberies. At least you have a dangerous 
weapon involved in both cases. The homicide rate in New York is not 
out of line with the rest of the country. It has not doubled, for exam- 
ple, in the last 4 years, whereas, robberies have. Although I don't have 
an answer, apparently you don't, either. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Wiggins, if I may, it is interesting to note that 
there was an incredible jump in 1965-66 in the New York robbery 
status, and I do recall — I believe you had a commissioner who came in 
in 1965, but I may be Avrong on that— distinctly because that was the 
time when the National Crime Commission and the D.C. Crime Com- 
mission were looking at this problem, and that the New York Police 
Commissioner announced a new policy on reporting robberies and in a 
1-year period it more than doubled. 

Can you address that? 

Mr. Cawley. I believe it was 1965, and it pertained to all reports of 
crime. I think at the time Commissioner Leary was appointed. He 
was very much concerned with the accuracy of the crime-reporting sys- 
tem and insisted that the system function properh^ and that all crime 
reports be recorded. And there was a substantial increase. 

Mi\ Lynch. It went from 88.9 in 1 year up to 213.5 the next, which 
is a remarkable increase. This would lead one to believe that a very 
substantial number of robberies prior thereto were going unreported. 

Was there, in fact, a change not only in policy regarding reporting, 
but a change in the criteria for a robbeiy ? 

Mr. Cawley. Well, clearly, there was a policy statement, as I recall 
it — it has been some while ago — to the effect all crimes had to be re- 
ported and reported precisely as described by the victim. 

There was also the hairline that existed in whether it was legally 
existent at that time, between the grand larceny classification and 
robbery. 

Mr. Brasco (presiding). Whj' don't we take a 5-minute break? 

[A brief recess was taken.] 

Chairman Pepper. The committee will come to order. 

jNIr. Lynch, will you proceed ? 



64 

Mr. Lyxch. Mr. Chaimian, are there further questions on the rob- 
bery stakeout squad. If not, we wouki like to move along. We have 
three other programs to discuss. 

Chairman Pepper. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief Cawley, I wonder if you could call to the witness 
table the representatives from the neighborhood police team, from the 
auxiliary police, and from the crime prevention squad. 

Chairman Pepper. As I understand it, you have three programs. 
We will defer the questions until Mr. Lynch presents the three pro- 
grams and then we will open for questions'. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief Cawley, I wonder if you could ask Sergeant 
Crowley to give us a brief presentation descrilDing the nature of opera- 
tion of the new neighborhood police team concept. 

Mr. Cawley. Fine. I have Sgt. Robert Crowley from the sixth 
precinct. He is a neighborhood police chief. Let me give a brief back- 
ground of the program. 

l^Hien Commissiojier Murphy became police commissioner of Nev/ 
York City he instituted a neighborhood police team concej)t in the 
77th precinct. That was the first. Since that time we have added ap- 
preciably to the number of neighborhood police teams tliroughout the 
city. We now have 70 operating in some 40 precincts. Basically, tlie 
concept has the twofold objective of crime control and improved 
police/community relations. 

I have asked Sergeant Crowley, based on his firsthand knowledge 
and information, to acquaint you with that. 

Sergeant Crowley. 

Statement of Robert Crowley 

Mr. Crowley. Basically, the idea behind the neighborhood police 
team is to take one first-line supervisor — in the case of our department 
that would be a sergeant — and assign him proportionately that per- 
centage of the available precinct manpower in connection with the 
same percentage of crime in a given area. 

As in my case, they have chosen two sectors — in that area tliere 
was 26 percent of the crime of the precinct. Therefore, I was assigned 
26 percent of the available manpower in the precinct. My duties were 
to devise new methods of patrol, to attempt to reduce the crime 
through the community by involving the community in our efforts, 
to try and initiate their interest in their own problem and see wliat 
we could do as far as directing their efforts into reducing the crime 
problem. 

I was allotted 40 men at the original inception of the precinct. Since 
then, I have been allotted an additional 4 units, so that I now have 
44 patrol officers under my command. 

We had, as I said, instituted different programs through community 
block associations.^ We have developed new techniques" in patrol be- 
tween the communitv and ourselves. We have been successful in reduc- 
ing crime in tliat given area by approximately 50 percent over the 
past 22 months. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, in order to move along and expedite our proceed- 
ings here, I wonder if we could now have Inspector Rogan discuss 
briefly the crime prevention unit. 



65 

Mr. Cawley. Deputy Inspector Rogan is on my right. He is the 
commanding officer of the crime prevention sqnacl. 

In addition to liaving a crime prevention squad that operates, and 
is assigned orally to my office, there is a crime prevention patrolman 
assigned to each of the "^72 patrole-d precincts throughout the city. 

I will ask Inspector Eogan to give you some understanding of 
what the purposes are and what our programs are. 

Statement of Joseph Eogan 

Mv. RoGAX. With the thought in mind of the ability of the citv to 
place a uniformed patrolman on the street — the cost is increasing- 
year after year after year — I think it was felt that we must find a way 
to utilize every means of physical security. By that I mean hard- 
ware, alarm systems, all of those things that can in some way help 
to reduce the crime rate without actually committing more men. 

In that regard, we do have 40 men located in our central office and 
70-odd men in the various precincts of the city who have gained 
a certain level of expertise in use of alarm systems, locks, closed- 
circuit TV, and other methods of reducing crime which depend mainly 
on the hardware itself, other than the personal service. 

In the past year we have conducted over 15,000 surveys in private 
businesses, and in 85 percent of those cases we found that their 
security was inadequate. In over 60 percent of the cases where we 
made recommendations, we had compliance from the owner of the 
business. 

We also maintained a speaker's unit where we can send out a 
detective, converse him with a particular crime situation, be it robbery, 
burglary, rape, cargo theft, whatever it may be, and speak to a group 
whose interest is mainly in that area. 

We also conduct at our police academy a security management course 
three times a year. This is intended for the civilian security director 
of a corporation or firm, in order to take the expertise that has been 
gathered on a nationwide level and keep all of these people up to date 
in the recent innovations of crime prevention. 

Then we recently have been assigned to administer the city's block 
security program. That is a new program that is just in the develop- 
ing stage. 

We also encourage the precinct crime commission patrolmen with 
the help of tlie people in the neighborhood that organize programs that 
have a specific meaning to that neighborhood themselves. Sometimes 
centrally directed programs for the city at large may fail to meet local 
needs where those needs are particular. 

One precinct may have, for instance, a very large incidence of auto 
larceny where another has a very high incidence of robbery. Through 
the methods of the use of the time penachrome we try to find the 
single crime in the precinct that is causing the most public concern 
and address that on the local area. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, I wish yon now would call on Auxiliary Police 
Inspector Siegel and Deputy Inspector Luhrs to describe this very siz- 
able auxiliary police force and how it operates within the context of 
your overall department operation. 



66 

Mr. Cawley. I have Deputy Inspector Lulirs, commanding officer 
of the auxiliary police services section, and with him is Inspector 
Joseph Siegel, who is a member of the auxiliary police and has been 
for over 20 years. I will ask Inspector Luhrs to give you an under- 
standing of the extent of the program, and then Inspector Siegel might 
lell you how he sees it from being a member of the auxiliary police. 

Statement of Robert E. Luhrs 

Mr. Luhrs. Mr. Chairman, gentlemen : What you heard today here 
deals with what the police departments themselves are doing to at- 
tack the crime problems. What I would like to address myself to is 
what the system is doing. 

I think in New York you will find the largest and I believe the 
most successful auxiliary police force in the entire country. We are not 
new. The auxiliary police program has been with us since 1951. It is 
there for every city to have by Federal mandate. But in our city we 
have generated the force which has increased over twice in the last 
year and a half to a size now numbering 5,300 men and women. 

There are over 600 women involved ; there are over 450 young men 
between the ages of 17 and 21 involved. Our purpose is to be dressed 
in a uniform and qualify to participate in this program. And by uni- 
formed patrol have the physical crime deterrent effect that a member 
of the force might have. 

I might add that we are not policemen, that the auxiliary will never 
be a policeman. Our purpose is to serve in a nonenforcement situation. 

Chairman Pepper. Excuse me. Are they armed ? 

Mr. Luhrs. They are not armed, sir. Some are armed because they 
:are licensed to carry a weapon for a purpose other than being an 
auxiliary policeman. They carry a night stick and they carry a walkie- 
talkie, which is tuned to the same frequency as our police communica- 
tions system. But we have a group of men and women who are respond- 
ing to community needs. We do not accept everyone. A person must 
enroll, must be fingerprinted, must take a 10-week course, must be 
qualified, and the fact he has a previous criminal record does not nec- 
essarily disqualify him. But then he must purchase a uniform which is 
identical to the police uniform I wear. 

With some exceptions, the patch that he would wear shows the word 
"Auxiliary" and the shield is a seven-pointed star rather than our 
identifying shield. 

He then is directed to patrol an area he knows is in his own com- 
munity. He is responsible directly to the precinct commander. And I 
wouldn't care how many we had, unless the police department was 
fully in back of the program, and Police Commissioner ]\Iurphy is. 
And Chief Cawley is. And Chief Kahn is; and every high-rank- 
ing officer, down to the police commander, is directly responsible for 
generating this valuable community resource that he has and must 
use. There is no better crime prevention program than an individual 
citizen who performs voluntarily in an area he knows, among people 
he knows. 

No one gets paid and we want no one to get paid. Because then we 
know they come to us for one purpose and one purpose only. It is an 
excellent program. We have 15 fully equipped emergency vehicles 



67 

responding to the needs of tlie community and serving as an adjunct 
to our emergency service division. 

We are now in mounted patrol, using police department horses, 
which would normally not be used. We have a harbor patrol because 
our area is composed of extensive waterways and people patrol their 
own vessels in and out of the waterways as auxiliary policemen and 
policewomen. 

Last month, gentlemen, our auxiliary gave 56,884 hours to the city 
of New York, receiving not one penny in return. This is a purely volun- 
tary organization that has far-reaching effects. Anyone can do it ; any 
city can do it. We will be willing to help any organization, anyone who 
wants to find out more about our program. I would be most hap]:)y to 
help them develop this force, which can really make an effect in the 
conununity. 

I would like to add one thing more : We talk about the blacks being 
apathetic or the Spanish being apathetic, but 22 percent of our force 
is black. Whatever the ethnic composition of the precinct, that is tlie 
ethnic composition of the auxiliary force. About 15 percent are His- 
panic and we give courses in Spanisli to those who would better learn 
in their language. We have 100 Chinese who perform in unifonn in 
the areas that they have knowledge of. 

We have an excellent organization, a successful organization. We 
will not have a paper army. If you cannot give us the minimum num- 
ber of hours we don't want you. And I think this is why we are suc- 
cessful. We are a disciplined, uniformed organization that performs 
in all enforcement functions. 

iNIr. Winn. What is the minimum number of hours you referred to? 

Mr. LuHRS. They are required to perform 4 hours a week and they 
are permitted to perform a minimum of 20 hours a quarter if because 
of illness or job situations they cannot get to us. 

But we know they do perform an average of 12 to 14 hours each 
month. 

Mr. Cawley. Inspector Siegel will now give you the benefit of hav- 
ing been a member of an auxiliary for 20 years. 

Statement of John Siegel 

Mr. Siegel. I am glad to have the opportunity to come before this 
body after serving 20 years as a volunteer. I am speaking for the 
volunteers, not for myself. 

For a good many years it was a thankless sort of job, where people 
were not paid and they had to buy their own uniforms, pay for their 
own transportation, and lay out moneys of their own to go out in 
uniform to patrol the city of New York. 

It is only in the jiast 21/4-3 years, that we received what we call the 
pro])er recognition for our efforts. 

We are glad that Commissioner ;Mur]:)hy, and the mayor of the 
city of New York, and Chief Kalni and Chief Cawley have actually 
got behind this program. 

I think we can best emphasize first the iini)ortance of the auxiliary 
police to the: city of New York by a release that was made by Police 
Commissioner Murphy. Tliis was as recently as November 1971. He 
announced an expansion of the department's use of oiviliaii volunteers 



in the fight against crime. The commissioner indicated that he felt 
the present auxiliary police program was not being used to its fullest 
potential, and stated that it is his intention to mesh the volunteer 
services of the auxiliaries into a regular operation of the department 
so they function as a new adjunct of the services rendered by the 
uniformed force. 

Further, Commissioner Murphy said that it was incumbent upon 
the local field commanders — that is, the captains — to use the auxiliary 
police in imaginative and innovative ways. Commanding officers shall 
liot take lightly their obligation to incorporate their valuable resource 
into the department's efforts to curb crime in the street. 

This is a statement by the police commission, Commissioner Mur- 
phy. The auxiliary police are always available for that special service 
the}^ could render as a volunteer. The volunteer, as you laiow, gen- 
tleman, is nothing new. We had voluntary firemen through the his- 
tory of our country. Voluntary deputy chiefs wliere tlie police depart- 
anent can afford a well-paid police department. And the auxiliary 
police, by their uniforms being similar to those of the police depart- 
ment, create a great deterrent to crime on the streets by merely 
patroling in pairs with a club and uniform. 

The fact they are not armed is not visible to the average person be- 
cause they w^ear their jackets and coats and one doesn't know they 
haven't got a gun. 

The community relationship that exists with the auxiliary police, 
and the public, and the police department is a tremendous factor for 
the police department and for the public because they meet in the 
police station, the stationhouses throughout the city, the auxiliary 
places in 70-odd precincts. They are well received, thanks to police 
department leaders. 

The captain down to the lieutenant and sergeants and patrolman 
welcome the auxiliary police. They cooperate to the fullest extent and 
we liave been the last couple of years issued walkie-talkies, which are 
actually a very important arm for the auxiliary policeman, because 
he presses the button and has the assistance which he needs in an 
emergency. 

Incidentally, each year we have participated in several hundred 
arrests or aided in arrests in various parts of the city, and we have 
prevented unknown amounts of crime by our presence. 

We have been issued the use of the police horses in recent months 
because the men who are patrolling in the parks, mounted, paid for 
their horses and they felt they should contribute the police horses 
instead of the men paying out of their own moneys. We liave these 
men trained at the police remountable stable and are using the police 
horses on a regular patrol basis now. 

The park units have been issued patrol cars as a pilot program, to 
have auxiliary police actually in the patrol cars that may not be used by 
the regular police or when not used by the regular police. So they 
are out in the field where they can be seen by the public. 

I said in the beginning that I am glad of this opportunity to bring 
out the fact that for over 20 years we have had men besides myself 
serving that long, others 15 years, 12 years, without nny obvious recog- 
nition of their service to the comuuuiity. I think it is a grand thing 
that you have this committee asking to hear about the auxiliary police, 
the first time we are able to voice this out of this sort of basis. 



69 

I wisli to thank tlie g-entleman. 

jNIr. Cawley. If I may, 1 would like to give you a specific instance 
where we recently expanded the type of duties that auxiliary police 
officers can perform, and then show you how much savings you can 
realize from it. 

We always police the St. Patrick's Day Parade. It is generally a 
large commitment because of the number of marchers and observers 
and the celebration that usually comes after. SomeAvhere in the neigh- 
borhood of 1.400 police officers. This past year, this past parade, we 
were able to invest just approximately 800 uniformed officers and 
used 400 auxiliary police officers, meaning that the 400 that we had 
previously committed on a good 8- to 10-hour tour on a parade situa- 
tion were able to remain on patrol in the communities they were 
assigned to. 

Chairman Pepper. Very good. 

Anything further, ]Mr. Lynch ? 

Mr. Lynch. Sergeant Crowley, as a neighborhood police team ser- 
geant I take it that in your neighborhood j^ou have a considerable 
amount of authority ; that in essence you act as a chief of police for 
that neighborhood ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Crow^ley. That is correct. 

]Mr. Lynch. And you indicated to the committee that in your neigh- 
borhood you had 44 patrolmen, and in the past 22 months you had 
reduced the crime rate in that neighborhood by 50 percent. 

]Mr. Crowley. Yes. sir. 

Mr. Lynch. How do you account for that ? What did you do that a 
precinct commander would not have done ? 

IMr. Crowley. Well, you must understand, I still serve under the 
precinct commander. I consider myself a source of referral for his 
problems. 

Mr. Lynch. How large is your area ? 

Mr. Crowley. It is 18 square blocks. 

What we did in the first instance was to change all of the posts, 
after analyzing the crime situation, where we normally wouldn't have 
had this authority. This is the difference this program gives you. The 
first-line supervisor has the authority whereby the rules and proce- 
dures of our department are automatically suspended in that given 
area and I, therefore, had the authority to move on my own volition 
when I see the need to move in certain areas. n ■- ; n 

No. 1, we created all new posts after realizing I had a very high 
burglary rate. Cars were being broken into and projierty removed 
was extremely high. 

Based on the simple fact that geographically you could park more 
cars on the side streets than on the main avenues, I moved into side- 
street patrol. That had an immediate effect on crime. At one time we 
had approximately 800 cars a year in that small area being broken 
into ; the following year, we were down to 180, 

We are still yet to hit a hundred in the past 10 months. 

We have developed our own intelligence system within the team 
whereby every criminal complaint is registered within that area. I 
have one specific individual -who will contact the complainant if 
the complainant has seen the perpetrator, and we will go into an in- 
depth consultation with that individual as to the modus operandi 
of the criminal. 



70 

What we are looking for is a repeater in the area. We have developed 
our OAvn photo system. We felt the patrol force, as tlie uniform force 
and the lirst line needed to more to expand from within to help, and 
what we have done in this instance was develop our own photo system 
which the community, over a year, paid for the film and what not, 
whereby we could take an individual who had robbed and immedi- 
ately bring him into our office at that time and question him, show him 
pliotos, where again he will receive the service by the investigator later 
on. 

It is just based on the intimacy of a given neighborhood. 

We tried to develop a causation factor in every major crime. I like 
to use in this case an instance where we had a very high crime rate 
in a given area. On assessing the area we found out there was a social 
service building that was forcing the individuals who were waiting to 
get into the building to stand on the street for 6- and 8-hour periods. 

We felt this caused an awful lot of problems. We contacted the so- 
cial services agency; we asked them to provide for a waiting room, 
which they did; and immediately the crime rate dropped down. 

There are certain types of patrols we developed. Let us say we had 
a large transient hotel where you could get a room for $6, and in the 
immediate area of that hotel and "within the hotel we had a very high 
crime rate. We developed a patrol to go right in the hotel four times 
a day where in that instance you might not catch many people in the 
act of crime, but you establish a police presence immediately, again, 
would show a reduction. 

We had a problem with shoplifting and pickpockets within stores. 
We were able to develop through the State penal law an interpretation 
on the felony or burglary whereby someone reentered that building, 
that store, a second time; rather than charge him with the minor 
crime of petty larceny we were now legally able to charge him with 
burglary. The store cooperated by formulating a little card that they 
paid for, having the individual sign it, and we used that as corrobora- 
tion in court to sustain the felony conviction. 

We also have gone into a perpetrator trial, whereby, to eliminate the 
footman, the time he must spend within a ])recinct should he bring in 
a suspect, or in the arrest case, and he fe«ls this individual might have 
committed other crimes, we have an individual file which we developed 
and can immediately tell if this man is wanted, based on his physical 
description. 

Mr. Lynch. Are your men mostly on foot patrol or in patrol cars ? 

Mr. Crowleit. In my instance, I utilize footmen. The team is really 
sui>posed to be flexible, according to the area it is assigiied to patrol. 

Mr. Lynch. You liave 44 men in an 18-square-block area. Is that a 
higher proportion tlian a regular precinct captain would have in a 
similar area ? Do you have more men, in other words ? 

Mr. CuowLEY. Yes. These men are taken directly from the precinct. 
It is a reapportionment. 

Ml-. Lynch. I understand that. But would a typical precinct com- 
mander in New York City — perhaps Chief Cawley could answer that 
better— 1)6 able to deploy 44 men in a given 18-square-block area? Is 
that high, normal, or low ? 

Mr. Cawley. The number of men that were assigned to the neigh- 
borhood police team by the precinct connnander is dictated by the 
workload that existed within that particular area. 



71 

Mr. Lyxch. So there woiiklu't necessarily be a higlier saturation 
than liad been tlie case in tlie past ^ 

Mr. Cawley. It shoukl be the same percentage assionment. Tliat 
44 men represented 5 or G percent of the total com})lement in that 18- 
block area that was the ijerccntage of the problem there, to try to 
match up the number of people with the percentage of the problem. 

Mr. Brasco. Would counsel yield at that point? 

It would seem to me then, Chief Cawley, that basically we are 
agreeing with the premise set forth by Congressman Kangel earlier 
this morning about the eti'ectiveness of the foot patrolman; and it 
just seems to me no matter how you work it out statistically, that in 
this neighborhood police team concept you have in that i8-square- 
block area, particularly the area that Sergeant Crowley is talking 
about, more men than you ever had before in the institution of that 
patrol. Isn't that correct ? 

^Ir. Cawley. Let me ask Sergeant Crowley to respond to that. He 
is closer to it. Is that a fact ? 

Mr. Crowley. At one time there were only 16 men covermg those 
2 sectors. That 18-block-square area represented 2 radio-car sectors. 
At one time there would have been 16 men assigned to those 2 cars. 

Mr. Brasco. Now you have 40 ? 

]Mr. Crowley. Possibly a few footmen. 

]Mr. Brasco. Now yon have 40 ? 

Mr. Crowley. Yes. You have to understand, again it is based pro- 
portionately, 100 percent on the ratio of crime to men assigned. We did 
put in more men. 

Mr. Br^vsco. I understand that, but I think it speaks for the equa- 
tion where you do have a high-crime area, if you are able to give it 
the special attention you are obviously giving this particular 18- 
square-block area with foot patrolmen in combination with auto 
patrol, that the crime significantly drops in the area. I think that is 
Avhat we were talkiiig about this morning. I am not quarreling on how 
you statistically base it, how many men go into the area ; but it seems 
to me what you carve out of what is a high-crime area, or you go to 
work in terms of doing the job you just described, we get results. 

Again, it is unfortunate we don't have enough of these teams oper- 
ating; and I suppose it is because we just don't have enough police- 
men to go around. 

^ Mr. Rangel. But the chief said this morning that the most ineffi- 
cient way to use a policeman is as a foot patrolman, and the sergeant 
is now talking about the dramatic decrease in crime as a result of liis 
utilization of the foot patrol. Where is the conflict, Chief ? 

Mr. Cawley. Let me for a moment ask Sergeant Crowley. 

How many cars are presently covering that particular area ? 

Mr. Crowley. Two, sir. 

Mr. Cawley. And you now have liow many more men than you had 
previously ? 

Mr. Crowley. Presently 28. 

Mr. Cawley. And yet, I have to apologize for not being thoroughly 
conversant as to the percentage of men assigned to the sixth, and how 
many are in here. My understanding of the concept and the way we put 
it in, was that out of the total number of men assigned to the precinct, 
the precinct commander would determine where the neighborhood 
police team would be most effectively used, and then based upon 

95-158— 73— pt. 1 6 



72 

the existing workload in that area he would take that percentage of his 
resources and assign it within the particular area. That Avas the basic 
concept. 

I think, while I am hard-pressed to try and explain whether the 30 
more men that were assigned in there over and above what it would 
liave been, I find it difficult to equate what was to be done Avith what 
was done. 

Somehow, I figure it is not quite that bold. Mr. Congressman. There 
were 28 more than had been previously in there. If he is using more 
foot patrolmen because he has increased capability and he is driv- 
ing down the crime, then that certainly proves the point that if you 
saturate an area with a numter of foot patrolmen, coupled in with 
the use of radio and motor patrol cars, you will have a greater im- 
pact. That was the point you brought up this morning. 

I am not sure — while Sergeant Crowley is talking about a 50-per- 
cent reduction in his neighborhood police team area — what tlie total 
reduction of crime might have been within the total precinct, and 
whether the other adjoining sectors might have suffered a little bit. I 
have to look at the overall statistics. 

Mr. Rangel. That may be so. I don't even know the area Sergeant 
Crowley is involved in. but I am willing to take a gamble that there is 
a mucli closer relationship between the community within Sergeant 
Crowley's command as a result of these foot patrolmen tlian there 
could possibly be with that radio squad car, which I have to believe 
would attribute any decrease in crime, or certainly as it relates to 
conviction, since no matter how effective the policeman is you need 
the community support, especially witnesses, in order to be successful. 

Mr. Cawley. There are, 3klr. Congi-essman, disadvantages to motor- 
ized patrol. One is there is a definite lack of contact between the people 
and the men in the car. There is a better contact between the foot 
patrolman who is on the same post day after day. There is much to be 
said for that. There is a halfway position with the use of scooters. 
I think the point I was trying to make this morning was that I have 
a percentage of resources that I have to spend, if you will, and the 
most economic, practical, and efficient way that I have to spend that 
total number, covering the entire city at the moment, is to assign them 
for the most part to radio motor patrol. 

Mr. R ANGEL. I just don't understand why Sergeant Crowley, who is 
a miniprecinct commander, has not made the same determination since 
he has redirected 40 rnen to put them in 40 squad cars. 

Mr. Cawley. Well, there would be no need to put them in 40 squad 
cars, Mr. Congressman. AAHiat we try to do is on a total citywide basis, 
and I am sure the reason why there are only two radio cars working 
in that particular area is there are certain responses we must make to 
service calls and crime calls. 

We must maintain certain manning levels so we are responding to 
the calls throughout the precinct. 

I know one of the problems we had throughout the city with the 
neighborhood precinct concept: Because of the lack of service calls 
that come in the central communications facility we wind up often- 
times with something like 50 percent of our cars being outside of the 
neighborhood police team community they are working in. We are 
trying to work on that. 



73 

Mr. Kaxgel. What kind of service calls? Are these really police 
service calls or those that can be handled by other than police 
personnel? 

Mr. Cawley. They are calls that come into the 911 number and get 
pi'ocessed out over the years. Calls coming from the citizen of the local 
precinct that get out for service, reports of past crimes, reports of 
aided cases. The wide range of service the public expects of his police. 

Mr. Ltnch, Chief Cawley, let me clarify one thing. Sergeant Crow- 
lley has 44 patrolmen. I take it that is 24 hours a day ? 

Mr. Crowley. That is right. 

yir. Lyxch. You have approximating, a third except in the higli- 
'crime period of the da^-, basically on foot patrol. It would seem to me 
Ihat in any other 18-squa re-block area in the city you might have one 
ior two patrol cars patroling at any given time. Is that basically cor- 
rect ? 

Chief Caavley. That would be basically correct, but I don't think 
Sergeant Crowley is saying he has 44 men working in that particular 
iirea at the same time throughout the entire tour. 

Mr. Lyxch. I imderstancl that. 

Sergeant, from late afternoon up until midnight how many men 
anight you have on the beat in that 18-squa re-block area, maximum ? 

Mr. Crowley. The maximum number I would have would be eight. 

Mr. Lynch. Approximately, how many people live in that area ? 

'Sir. Crowley. A])])roximate 50,000. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, I have one other question on this program that 
2:)erhaps vou could respond to. 

I had the impression from Sargeant Crowley's testimony that he was 
at least on the verge of saying that he has a good deal more latitude in 
cuttino- bureaucratic corners than a precinct commander might ordi- 
narily^have. Is that the case? Have minichiefs of police, if you will, 
neighborhood police team sergeants, been freed of some departmental 
bureaucracies? 

Mr. Cawley. Yes. The neighborhood police team has, or the team 
chief has, and so has the precinct commander. Consistent with the pro- 
gram I have mentioned earlier of policy change on the part of Cominis- 
sioner Murphv. decentralizing the authority down to that precinct 
commander. "We expect the precinct commander to make hard judg- 
ments and o-ood evaluations and assessments of his problem and to re- 
spond to them, not to come up to the bureaucratic change, waiting for 
somebodv at the top to say, '*0K ; you can do that." 

But to do it and advise, this is what has been done. 

Mr. Lynch. Are you getting any kind of special funding for tins 

program ? 

Mr. Cawley. The neighborhood police team ? 

Mr. Lynch. Yes. ■■,.■, , i 

Mr. Caw-ley. I think perhaps at the outset we might have had some 
fundino- but there is no current funding to mv knowledge. 

Mr. Lynch. How will you go about evaluating its elfectiveness, or 

lack of effectiveness? -, , i i t ^i • i •<■ io 

Mr C^w-ley There has been a studv conducted, and i think it is 
in^the final stages of beinir drafted, by the Urban Institute. It was 
a l-vear studv comparing some of the NPT programs and precincts in 
whiVh the concept was activated, as compared with controlled bases. 
Mr Lynch, ^^^^len will that be completed : do you know { 



74 

Mr. Cawley. Frankly, I don't; but I had a conversation with Mr. 
Peter Block from the Urban Institute just within the past 2 weeks. 
I think it is in its final stag'es and could be available shortly. 

Mr. Lynch. Could that be made available to us ? It will be very help- 
ful in preparing- our final report. 

Mr. Cawley. I see no reason why it should not be. 

[The information requested was not received.] 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Rogan, in talking about the crime prevention 
squad, I had the impression that what you are really talking about 
is providing technical services to businesses, citizens, on a citywide 
basis; advising them, for instance, on burglar alarm systems and the 
like. Do you provide any kind of specialized crime prevention serv- 
ices to precinct commanders^ Do you organize programs for them 
or give them technical advice and assistance to particular problems? 

Mr. R(X}AN. The crime prevention patrolman is assigned to each 
patrol precinct and is under direct command of his precinct com- 
mander. I oidy exercise a staff supervision over him. These crime 
prevention patrolmen are trained ; we have an 8-day session once a 
month, except for the summer months, 10 months a year. As a matter 
of fact, I say on balance, that the precinct crime prevention patrolmen 
have come up with more innovations than has the central squad. 

Many of these programs have been done under the guidance of the 
precinct commanders. For instance, in one section of Queens one crime 
patrolman enlisted the aid of private taxicab companies that work in 
his area. He got a bank to install a direct line between the four private 
cab company dispatchers and the stationhouse. These cabdrivers now 
are actively calling in suspicious people or reports of crime. They are 
very active in finding lost children. 

This happens to be what you call an amusement-type area. This 
would probably not work in midtOAvn jManhattan, but in the area where 
this patrolman is involved it does woi'k. 

In another situation we had the rooftop marking program, Avhere 
you had the situation of helicopters more and more coming into use, 
and they find that the comnnmication between them and ground units 
leave a lot to be desired because of the difficulty in transmitting loca- 
tions. The patrolmen started the rooftop marking program. They have 
come up Avith a mnnber of innovations and most are under the guidance 
of their precinct commander. 

Mr. Lynch. How do you judge how effective a given program is? 
What, to date, have been the results of the number of surveys ? I believe 
you said 15,000 surveys of private businesses. When you do a survey, 
I assume the purpose of it is to advise the store proprietor he needs 
better security equipment, et cetera. 

Mr. RoGAN. Yes. 

Mr. Lynch. Do those people take your advice, and do you do any 
kind of followup ? 

Mr. EoGAN. We have found, as I stated before, that in SO to 85 
percent of the surveys we do there is a glaring lack of security in the 
premises involved. We resurvey 25 percent of the cases and "do find 
a rate of about 70 percent compliance with the recommendations. 

As this program has not yet finished a complete year, it is very 
difficult:, at this point to give a precise figure. In one of the operations. 
Operation Identification, we initially enlisted 1,800— and I know that 



75 

is an infinitesimal small figuro when you take the city as a whole — 
households in the operation identification program. Most of these 
people had previously been subject to burglaries. 

To date, the last figures I have, of the 1,800 participants only 3 had a 
recurring burglary and in 2 of these cases it was a family situation 
where the husband left and came back and stole something. Actually, 
out of 1,800 cases we had one actual matter-of-fact burglary. I realize 
the base is so small that we can't really count too much on this 
statistic. 

jNIr. Lynch. The base is small but I take it that would be a much 
lower repeat rate than would normally be the case ? 

]Mr. RoGAN. Yes. And I have great hopes for the program and hope 
to extend it citvwide very, verv soon. 

Mr. Lynch. Inspector Luhrs, you gave us some facts about the size 
of the auxiliary police force operating within the department. Could 
you tell us to what extent auxiliary manpower, in fact, free sworn 
officer manpower for street-level enforcement duties ? In other words, 
Mr. Siegel indicated that last month some 56,884 hours' service were 
donated by the auxiliary policemen. Does that mean 56,884 NYPD 
patrolman hours were saved for more pertinent enforcement functions? 

Mr. LuHRS. I don't think that would be the right analogy. Whatever 
number of policemen are in the precinct are performing services as 
you heard today. They are still there performing the services, but 
there are many areas which are uncovered or would need to be 
covered and I think our auxiliary forces serve in that capacity as an 
adjunct. "VVe do not replace policemen and I don't think we should 
measure what the auxiliary does in saving the police department from 
hiring a policeman. 

I thmk our way of looking at it is that the need is great, the com- 
mimity needs are there, and now we must generate the individual com- 
munity member to respond to the community needs which the police 
department is not going to solve. There are many situations within 
each community that will always be there. I think, rather than the 
individual coming out and complaining the police are not doing their 
task or doing their job, we ofi^er them an opportunity to come in and 
help the police do the task. 

Mr. Lynch. Is there a particular kind of activity which an auxiliary 
policeman ought to perform ? 

Mr. LuHRS. He does perform foot patrol now in pairs. We have 
vertical patrols involved in going through buildings with a member 
of the force; foot patrols, unused radio cars driven to location by 
regular men and manned by an auxiliary, and other auxiliary police 
going out in other situations. Horizontal and vertical patrols. They 
are out there for 4 hours. They are out there to give the individual the 
feeling of the presence of the policeman. They are out there to assist 
the community. 

^ They are going to reduce tensions and fears. I think we will con- 
tinue to grow and grow and grow until the level of acceptance is 
reached where an individual feels that he is then comfortable in the 
area in which he is living. 

Mr. Brasco. Would counsel yield ? 

Mr. Cawley, the testimony that all of you have given to us today, 
as far as I am concerned, is particularly exciting. I think they are 



76 

steps in the right direction. I have, again, personal experience with 
the neighborhood police team. I don't think there is much disagree- 
ment here in the community with the initial steps you have taken, but 
being a native New Yorker I know the rank-and-file patrolman talk 
about the low morale on the job and how he is upset and deeply con- 
cerned about what I and my colleagues might consider new innovations 
to fight crime. 

Has there been any lack of expansion of these particular programs 
described here today by virtue of the rank-and-file patrolmen and 
their associations not cooperating with what one might call the in- 
stitution of new ideas with respect to crime fighting ? 

Mr. Cawley, Mr. Congressman, change is never easily accepted by 
anyone. You can always anticipate whenever you go with new pro- 
grams and new approaches that they are not going to be accepted bv 
everyone. I am happy to say I firmly believe the bulk of the police of- 
ficers in New York City accept the programs that have been put in. 
We have been very successful, for example, with anticrime at the 
precinct level. That is done on a volunteer basis, a selective volunteer. 
We found more volunteers than we used because we are very careful 
who we put into those assignments. We have men volunteering for 
crime prevention work. 

We have men volunteering for neighborhood police team sort of 
duties. We have men volunteering for resident agents' work, which 
is extremely difficult. 

^ Dealing with the problem of morale is extremely difficult. What 
IS good morale? I measure a man's performance by what he accom- 
plishes. I can't give you tlie absolute statistics, but I will give you the 
general trend because it is an accurate one : Last year the nuinber of 
arrests made by the members of tlie uniformed service was well 
above what it had been the year before. They participated to a much 
greater extent in the traffic enforcement program. The number of 
parking violations summons were higher. The number of moving vio- 
lations were higher. They have been asked to participate in the execu- 
tion of outstanding warrants from the court. 

Mr. Brasco. I am not quarreling with tliat. I recall from speaking 
to members of the department and, indeed, the colloquy in the New 
York newspapers that each and every one of these programs that 
were instituted met with resistance, that members of the P.B.A. got 
on TV and in the press talking about the quota system, talking about 
the deterioration of the morale in the department with respect to 
particular programs where change was instituted. 

I suppose you answered the question when vou said that chano-e 
is not easily accepted. It seems to me the basicVriticism of the com- 
missioner, who I think is doing a good job, is by virtue of the fact 
he is attempting to chano-e systems in the department that have 
not been effective in the past. 

Mr. Cawley. There has been some criticism of programs v/hen they 
were instituted, both in the press and by the P!B.A. leadership, bv 
some of the men. Our efforts have been'fi-eared toward getting and 
receiving greater productivity, if you will, from those' people we 
do employ. 

I regret to tell vou that in some studies that were done there were 
cases where an officer might be employed for a 2-year period and 



77 



never issue a sunimons nor make an arrest. "When a man is working 
in a very busy community and men working along-side of him are 
making arrests, they are serving smnmonses, I think it is a perfectly 
legitimate mandated responsibility on the part of management to ask 
some hard questions about wliether the ofFicer is earning his day's pay. 

To the extent we began askhig some hard questions about — how are 
you earning a day's pay — there was some reaction to it. But, again, I 
tliink it was a very small ])ercentage, in spite of the fact it might have 
been reported otherwise. I think the performance we have achieved in 
the past years, every year, indicates the men were perfectly willing 
and did participate in most of our programs. 

Chairman Pepper. Anything further? 

Mr. Lynch. No further questions, ]Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Any questions by the members? 

]Mr. Wixx. I don't have any questions, but I would like to compli- 
ment you, Mr. Siegel, on your 20 years' experience. I have a lot of 
questions on that but I think you haA^e given a good explanation. I 
don't understand what legal authority this auxiliary has because we 
Inive civil rights groups these days that challenge everything a police- 
man does anyway. 

How are you i:irotected by the contribution of your time and 



energies ? 



Mr. Siegel. Inspector Luhrs would like me to pass. 

Mr. LuHRS. jMay I respond to that, sir ? 

The auxiliary has a legal basis by a Federal mandate in 1951, and 
the New York State Emergency Act of 1940, I believe it is. Tlie 
auxiliary, itself, is protected by workmen's compensation, which re- 
quires this department to have workmen's compensation for each 
such auxiliary and that is part of our local law. The auxiliaiy is pro- 
tected for medical coverage, for loss of income, just as all workmen's 
compensation cases might be. So we do have that coverage. 

]\Ir. Winn. And you have the right to arrest ? 

Mr. LuiiRS. You have the citizen's right to arrest. But what we also 
do is tell the auxiliary not to make an ai'rest. He is to back off and 
not have confrontation but call for a professional man and let him 
make the arrest. 

Mr. "Winn. That answers my question. 

Mr. Siegel. May I read this paragraph ? 

The auxiliary police corps was created under the New York State Defense 
Emergency ' Act of 1951 to help the regular police department in case of a 
CD. emergency that would be brought on by an enemy attack. Related laws passed 
between 1951 and 1959, enabled them to be used in other emergencies and placed 
them under the police department for training and supervision. 

Mr. Winn. Mr. Rogan, does your group work as public relations 
with the community? (^tlier than education, I am talking about, the 
installations of these burglary systems? 

Mr. RoGAN. Not directly. Naturally, there is a community relation- 
ship. 

yir. "Winn. Which one of tlie groups, then, would l)e involved, be- 
cause I would imaoine it would fall somewhere in this to educate the 
people that the police are there to help them rather than the reputa- 
tion that seems to be brought down that has lasted for years. How^ does 
that develop ? 



78 

ISIr. EoGAN". The department does have certain specialists in com- 
munity relations and is reallj' decentralized all tlie way down to the 
precinct level where the person primaril}' responsible for community- 
relations is the patrohnan on the street. 

Mr, Wink. Tliat is right; but what I am asking is how do you 
all of a sudden take the man who has been on the street 25 years, or 
15 years, or 10 years, and say, all of a sudden, he is not the bad guy, he 
is a good guy ? He wants to help you. 

Mr. EoGAN. Most of the patrolmen on the street that length of time 
have a firm belief that to the people who live on their beat he is a good 
guy, and all. I don't see any problem there. 

Mr. Cawley. If I may, We have a deputy commissioner who is 
specifically charged with community aifairs. He is involved in an on- 
going basis with the development of programs that promote this rela- 
tionship between the community and the police service. It is his 
personnel. They are decentralized, they work for the precinct com- 
mander, but he structures the central programs. And our community 
relations personnel attend the community council meetings, business 
groups; Inspector Rogan's personnel always address business groups, 
community groups — continually. 

Mr. Winn. He said that. That is why I thought maybe it fell under 
his jurisdiction. 

Mr. Caavley. It is kind of a twofold approach, this community 
affairs. This is very much a crime prevention program. It is tailored 
to do that. 

Mr. Winn. His? 

Mr. Cawley. Yes, Inspector Rogan's. 

Mr. Winn. His neighborhood crime prevention? 

Mr. Cawley. Through the educational process and through doing 
surveys and showing people how to improve their ability to protect 
their own property. 

Mr, Winn, As you mentioned, this has worked real well because the 
statistics you gave are very impressive. Somebody. I think, said some- 
thing about the number of women. 

]Mr. LuHRS. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Winn. One hundred? 

Mr. LuHRS. Over 600. Women are permitted to patrol, 

Mr. Winn. They are permitted to patrol? 

Mr. Ltjhrs. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Winn. You mean street patrol? Not school safety patrol? 

Mr. Ltjhrs. No, sir. They patrol the streets with two other uniformed 
auxiliaries. 

Mr. Winn. They have the power to arrest, but usually call_ for help ? 

Mr. LuHRs. But many of their talents are used indoors in clerical 
responsibilities. 

Mr. Winn. I see. 

I thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Brasco. Mr. Chairman, one last question of the chief. Why do 
we need three separate police departments in the city of New York? 

Mr. Cawley. I didn't know we had three. 

Mr. Brasco. Transit and housing and your department. It seems to 
me it would be more efficient as an operation if it was all consolidated 
under one. 



79 

Mr. Cawley. That is a subject I know has been carefully studied 
over a period of years. Quite frankly, I haven't seriously given it any 
great amount of thought. The transit authority, of course, is kind of a 
quasi-State organization under the NTA, but the housing authority is 
part of the city administration. I don't know their numbers at the 
present time; 1^500 is a figure that comes to my mind, or thereabouts. 

Mr. Brasco. Combined? 

!Mr. CA■s^^LEY. About 1,500 in housing. Transit is much larger, though 
I don't have that number; and the housing authority is specifically 
assigned to patrol within those project areas. Now, whether or not 
there is substantial benefit to be realized from a merger of the twO' 
agencies is something that would have to be given careful thought 
as to the pluses and minuses. 

Mr. Brasco. But you don't have any opinion as to whether or not 
it would be good ? 

]Mr. Cawley. I could probably sit and come up with some pluses 
and minuses, but I would have to give it some careful thought as to 
whether that would be the best approach to dealing with the problems 
of the housing. 

]Mr. Brasco. As I understood it, the bulk of those organizations 
would like to merge. I may be wrong. 

Mr. Cawley. I am not sure whether that is a fact or not. 

INIr. Brasco. The PBA hasn't thought too kindly of the merger. 

]Mr. Cawley. You might find it interesting dichotomy that where 
the patrolman level might want to merge, whereas the upper levels 
may not be, because of a number of practical reasons. But I think it 
is something that would have to be given a lot of study before I could 
give a response. 

Mr. Brasco. In closing, I suggest we ought to do that. I have a per-- 
sonal thought that if we had jurisdiction under one head — I don't 
mean the administration's superagency series in total — but if we had 
these crime units combined, I think they might be more effective. 

Thank you. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief, before this part of your presentation is 
concluded, give me a view of the compensation paid to the members 
of the police force of New York City, the scale and level of pay, from 
a new man and up. 

Mr. Cawley. They recently concluded a retroactive contract nego- 
tiation, so I don't think I can give you the precise figure. But I believe 
the starting salary probably comes in somewhere around $13,000 at 
this point. 

Chairman Pepper. That is the starting? 

Mr. Cawley. Yes. 

Chairman Pepper. Of a patrolman ? 

Mr. Cawley. I know the top salary at the end of 3 years is in the 
neighborhood of $16,000. That may include some longevity, 5-year 
increments. 

Chairman Pepper. The patrolman? 

Mr. Cawley. Patrolman is near $16,000. 

Chairman Pepper. Wliat is the next level of authority over him? 

Mr. Cawley. The next level would be sergeant. 

Chairm.an Pepper. What does that pay ? " 



80 

Mr. Cawley. Probably in the range of near $20,000. A lieutenant 
would be the next layer, getting- somewhere around $23,000 to $24,000. 
The captain is the next layer and I give you the figure rather than 
the increments : A captain by virtue of a conclusion of contract less 
than 6 weeks ago, is $30,000 a year. It is a high-priced executive. 

The deputy inspector is probably about $32,000 ; the inspector is in 
the range of $33,000; and the deputy chief Avould be $3-l:,500. The 
next rank level, if I may, is assistant chief. That salary has not been 
established as yet. The rank level above that is mine. There are four 
three-star chiefs in our department and I am one of them. That 
salary has not been established. And there is one four-star chief, who 
is the chief inspector in charge of the uniformed services in total. But 
the last established salary of the deputy chief is $34,500. 

Cliairman Pepper. How does that scale rank with the other major 
cities of the country ? 

Mr. Cawley. I have not compared it recently, but I tliink it 
wouldn't come off second best, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. I was thinking, tliat is pretty good. 

Mr. Bras^'o. Where do you take those examinations ? 

]\Ir. Cawley. I think it is too late. Congressman. You waited too 
long. 

Chairman Pepper. I am delighted to hear the salarv schedules vou 
have recited here today. I wish it were possible for some program to 
permit police officers, generally, over the country to get something- 
like tliat because I think they are entitled to it. 

I had a bill pending that a police officer would get an income tax 
exemption on the first $5,000 of his income, a way by which the Fed- 
eral Government, without any direct administratiAe expense, could 
add to the compensation of the policeman and fireman both. I think 
they ought to get more compensation. 

Thank you very much, gentlemen. You have all been very helpful 
and we commend you on the initiative and innovative imagination 
that you have displayed in these programs. We hope you are going 
to keep on pushing forward, trying better programs, and will be able 
to greatly reduce the crime we now have. 

We will take a 5-minute recess for convenience of the reporter. 

[A brief recess was taken.] 

Chairman Pepper. The committee will come to order, please. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief Cawley, the last item the committee would like 
to discuss with you in regard to the New York City Police Department 
is the so-called Williamsburg hostage incident. I wonder if you. Chief 
Eisdorfer. or Inspector Freeman could briefly describe for us how 
that incident took ])lace, when it happened, what the initial confronta- 
tion was, and how the police department reacted to it. 

Mr. Cawley. I would like to ask Chief Eisdorfer to give you the 
chronology of that incident from the beginning point to conclusion, 
and then any questions that you might have with respect to it we 
would be happy to respond. 

INIr. Eisdorfer. The initial incident started on a rainy Friday eve- 
ning at about 5 :30 on a cold January night ; January 19, at 5 :30 a 
call was received at police headquarters in our communications system 
that a robberj^ was in progress on Broadway. 

The exact address, I believe, was 927 Broadway in Brooklyn. This 
area is part of Bedford-Stuy. It is a heavih^ populated area. Broadway 



81 

is a business location, comprised of stores, with side streets containing 
tenements, four- five-, and six-story tenements. 

The initial call said a robbery was in projiress. The premise was 
called John and Al Sporting Goods Store, selling rifles, aimnunition, 
Coleman sto\-es, winter clothing, hunting gear, fishing gear, boats, and 
outdoor garments. 

At this time there were approximately 12 customers in the store. 
There were two owners in the store. The arriving patrolman, first 
radio car on the scene, found the front door closed. The premise was 
lighted up. They motioned to the owner through the glass door and 
the owner motioned them away, saying that the premise was closed. 
They thought it was very odd. They saw a man standing close to the 
owner with a rifle in his hand. The' rifle was not pointed at anybody, 
but they felt since the alarm was transmitted, something was wrong. 
They retreated to the outside. 

This store had one entrance and one exit. Tlie exit was on a side 
street. It was a corner store. Just at about this time, the sergeant also 
responded to the scene with another radio car. So we now had three 
cars close to the scene with approximately six men. 

At this time, a man with his hands up exited from the side exit. 
Behind him appeared men with rifles. The officers confronted these 
men from across the street. The men with the rifles from the store 
started to shoot at the officers. Tlie officers returned the fire. The man 
that was holding his hands up dropped to the floor and crawled away. 

The sergeant sent an officer after him and it appears that he was 
one of the owners of the store. The criminals then retreated into the 
store and shut the door behind them. The door appeared to be a steel 
door. 

So what confronted us at this time was a store comprised of three 
stories, a building, actually, containing sporting goods. Incidentally, 
we retrieved the owner unharmed. At this first initial contact we be- 
lieve we even injured and shot one of the perpetrators. The owner 
told us there were four perpetrators. 

At this time, the sergeant called for the emergency service division. 
Tlie emergency ser^-ice is a unit which has lieen trained with assault 
teams to contain an area. This division, besides consisting of the 
emergency service division, also has the special events squad which 
is a fi-roup of men working at daytime in high-crime areas for special 
e\-ents, plus tactical patrol force working in the evening from G at 
night on toward the morning. Also, working in high-crime areas. 

The sergeant sized up the situation as a hostage situation and called 
the emergency service division, which had been trained to handle these 
situations. The first emergency service lieutenant and truck arrived 
at the scene at about 5 :45. The lieutenant that responded to the scene, 
who also sized up the situation and called for additional help, verified 
it was a hostage situation, that there were 12 hostages, approximately 
4 criminals inside holding them hostas'e, and he asked for help. 

At this time, I was in Manhattan. Inspector Freeman was also in 
Manhattan, at different locations, and we all responded to the scene. 

Mr. "Wixx. How did they arrive at the fact there were 12 hostages? 

Mr. EisDORFER. It appears the criminals herded all of the hostages 
down to the main floor after this. Prior to trying to attempt to escape 
they tied them all together on the main floor. 



82 

Mr. Cawley. If I might interrupt for just a moment, because at 
tins point I think it is important for Chief Eisdorfer to give you some 
information about the hostage training program that we have insti- 
tuted in the department, as a result of an earlier hostage situation 
that occurred in a bank. 

We learned several lessons from that that might give j^ou some in- 
sight as to why the sergeant sized it up to be a hostage situation, 
where he then called for the special operations division personnel. 
Chairman Pepper. How many people do you have in that group ? 
Mr. EisDORFEK. We have approximately 350 men in this specially 
trained group. Of course, not all are working at the same time. But 
we contained this condition with much less specially trained groups. 
In September of last year we had experienced a hostage situation 
involving a bank, plus what we felt was happening throughout the 
world in political and terrorist hostage situations, and we decided to 
set up giiidelines. We felt that whether it was an aborted crime or 
whether it was a political hostage situation, fundamentally we felt 
it was a police problem and as such we had enough to go on to set 
up guidelines to contain tliis action; and, hopefully, through to a 
successful conclusion. 

Of course we Imew that a terrorist situation would involve some 
political considerations, but nevertheless, until that situation arrives 
we felt as policemen we should be there and contain it and should 
be in control. This situation fell into exactly our plans with reference 
to an aborted crime. 

Also to implement our guidelines and implement our plans we 
did set up a hostage training school. This school was set up in an 
abandoned area, Floyd Bennett Field, where due to the good graces of 
the Navy we were permitted to use their abandoned buildings in which 
we set up a situation in which we had a hostage situation, and which 
the hostages moved in transit to another location, and in which we 
had a third location where we had the same similar situation as the 
first location. 

In our guidelines we broke down our planning into three phases : 
phase I, the original location; phase II, the transit; phase III, to 
the new location. 

We coordinated all of the units. We have trained detective nego- 
tiators so that they would be trained to negotiate. We made use'of 
our department psychologist and our department surgeon to set up 
a profile for us on the type of person who would hold hostages so 
we would know the type of people we are dealing with and how to 
handle them. 

We gave this course to 500 members of the force of the rank of 
captain and above, covering the period of about 3 months. In fact, 
we had just completed this course 2 weeks before this hostage situa- 
tion occurred. 

The situation, as I said, was a moving actual situation, in which 
the officers, 20 officers at a time, were seated on a bus which had com- 
munication with the scene, in which we were able to observe the actual 
situation, hear what was happening on a system of communications 
and, also, at the same time move with the play role situation to any 
new location. 



83 

This training scene was stopped at critical points and the superiors 
were asked to evaluate the situation as to what thc}^ would do and 
wliat action they would take. 

Chairman I^ErrER. Did you communicate with the hostages on the 
inside? 

Mr. EisDORFER. At the actual situation we communicated with the 
hostages on tlie inside. AVe set up some system of communication. On 
the actual situation in Brooklyn we had the bullhorns through which we 
could communicate. "We also moved in walkie-talkies, so they could 
use a walkie-talkie on a special wavelength, and finally we moved in a 
direct-line telephone in which one of the hostages, one of the peojile 
on the scene, a doctor who was used to treat one of the injured hostages, 
brought in with their permission a telephone, just two telephone 
svstems, just among ourselves. A closed-line system. That is how we 
did that. 

Mr. Br-\.sco. That was an injured perpetrator, wasn't it? Not a 
Jiostage ? 

Mr. EiSDORFER. Yes. 

Mr. Cawley. I think the overview of the training school was to 
teach all of the responding commanders to any type situation of this 
nature that the critical issue was one of control, organize your re- 
sources in a controlled setting, to control response and to maintain 
rigid command decision over firepower. I think that is essentially 
what we tried to get to each of the commanders. 

Chairman Pepper. Who was the highest officer in charge of that 
operation, for the police ? What was his title, his rank ? 

Mr. Cawley. I spent quite a bit of time there. It was decided on — 
we can come back to the details and I would like to include them for 
you — somewhere around 10 o'clock Friday night the decision was 
made because I was present as the chief of patrol, the chief inspector, 
most of the ranking commanders had responded to the scene of the 
headquarters that was located some 75 feet away from the sporting 
goods store, that it was essential that we divide the responsibility into 
12-hour time frames, so we would have rested commanders calling 
those decisions. 

As a i-esult of that, I went home somewhere around 12 :oO. I guess 
it was, Saturday morning and returned at 7 o'clock that Saturday 
morning again, and then did a 12-hour tour, 12 to 7 a.m., to 7 p.m., 
at which time Chief Card, the chief inspector, came in, and Kidwell 
and I returned for 12. 

We divided the number of commanders that we thought were needed, 
we created teams and worked together as a 12-hour team. Those com- 
manders that were not felt to be necessary, we sent them back. We 
did not permit people to remain on the scene we didn't feel we had an 
absolute need for. 

Chairman Pepper. How long did this operation last? 

Mr. Cawley. From the time of the holdup attempt to the time the 
four gunmen emerged from the store was 47 hours. 

Chairman Pepper. How did you eventually work it out? 

Mr. Cawley. Well, to back up for a moment, then, after the aborted 
stickup of the sporting goods store — incidentally, the information 
that came hack later was they were not there to stick the store up for 



84 

the money, but rather to procure arms — the four gunmen turned out 
to be of the Muslem sect, Hanifi, which was having some difficulty 
apparently with the orthodox sect, and they felt the need to arm 
themselves. 

In the first exchange of gunfire that Chief Eisdorfer described to 
you, when the owner came out the side door, one of our patrolmen 
was wounded. Then the gunfire continued from the front of the store, 
after some of the emergency service personnel arrived, and that is 
when Patrolman Stephen Gilroy was shot and killed. 

We also had Patrolman Frank Carpentia, who attempted to move 
a radio vehicle in front of the body of Patrolman Gilroy. He was 
shot in the knee. Through the grace of God and good medical atten- 
tion and 20 transfusions of blood, I believe, he survived and is home 
recuperating. 

From that point on I think it is important to know once we organized 

and placed the control of the field operation in either Chief Eisdorfer 

he had direct control, but I then later, as the field commander, and the , 
chief inspector, consulting with the field connnanders and Inspector I 
Freeman, who was on the street making strategic adjustments of per- 
sonnel, there were some 40-odd shots from inside tlie sporting goods 
store at the rescue vehicle that we employed and at windows and r*adios 
on cars on the outside. 

But after the initial exchange until the time of surrender, there 
was not one shot fired by a New York City police officer. 

I think that was achieved by virtue of making — going back to the 
hostage training and thinking through how to deal with that type 
of problem, the decision was made that the immediate vicinity of 'the 
sporting goods store would be policed and covered and sniper posts at 
points established by Chief Eisdorfer or Inspector Freeman, manned 
by the emergency service division personnel. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, you did receive requests from patrolmen, did 
you not, during this incident, asking they be allowed to fire at targets 
within the sports store? Senior commanders were asked that, were 
they not ? 

Mr. Cawley. The men who were pinned down, waiting to be rescued, 
we had some six of them in front of the store, did not, to my knowl- 
edge—well, ask Chief Eisdorfer to respond to that. He is probably 
more conversant in it— did not request authorization to fire into the 
store. 

Mr. Lynch. That wasn't the point of the question. I guess my ques- 
tion wasn't too clear. It was my understanding that on several occa- 
sions officers had requested permission to shoot when thev saw one or 
more of the perpetrators in the store. They were denied "that permis- 
sion on the premise that such action would be permitted if, and only 
if, all perpetrators were i^resent at the same time. 

Mr. Eisdorfer. Yes. This happened earlv Friday evening when we 
received word from one of the assault teams placed across the street 
in one of the adjacent restaurants inquiring to ask whether they could 
fire. We advised them; we directed that thev not fire unless we could 
get all at the same time. Since that was an impossibility we did not 
fire. In other words, there was no fii-iiiir at individual targets, at targets 
of opportunity. We refused to go along with that; and it appears as 
if — that is the way we originally set up our plan. 

Mr. Lynch. How many policemen were on the scene surrounding 
that sports store, roughly ? 



S6 

Mr. EiSDOKFKR. Ivouglily, at the most, we only had 10 teams of 2 men, 
20 i)atrolmon holdino; down that whole area, surromiding that sports 
store. Of course, around the ])arameter, I would say an area of five 
blocks away, we foi-med a circle and had a perimeter around this to 
keep people out and the transportation out, and so foiih. We had 
approximately 1?>0 to 140 holdiii<r this down all the time. So, actually, 
Ave admittedly, by holding the perimeter down and holding the assault 
teams down, containing this action, we enabled the city and the rest 
of the police department to function normally. 

In other words, our service throughout the city was normal except 
for my division's containment within this area. That was our original 
plan. 

Mr. Lynch. How many senior commanders would have been on 
the scene at any given time ? 

Mr. Cawlp.y. Before I respond to tliat, may I, and I apologize for 
not introducing Deputy Inspector Arthur Freeman on my left, who 
was very much a part of the Williamsburg scene and made a large 
number of critical decisions. He was a commander that rotated every 12 
hours with Chief Eisdorfer and was very instrumental in establishing 
the assault positions and the sniper control position covering thui 
store. 

I would like him, if it is agreeable to you, to briefly describe how 
the posts were selected and the policies that we established in terms of 
manning those posts. I think it would be helpful and I would be happy 
to have him respond to that. 

Statement of Arthur A. rreeman 

Mr. Freeman. We have spoken to many police officers from various 
cities throughout the country for the past 3^ear and a half on our ex- 
change program, and we find this particular problem of confronta- 
tion with barricaded situations, holding hostages, is a fairly new ball 
game. 

We respond to barricades and snipers and utilize the men first on 
the scene. Xow, we find with the seizure of the hostages, whether ter- 
rorist groups, fanatical groups, or aborted robbery, we find now that 
we have a situation that so-called bogs down. They seize hostages and 
the initial response by the patrol in the precinct area now is involved 
in a little more of a unique or new type of situation. 

What we did last September when we formulated these guidelines, 
we wanted to spell out the particular duties of each unit that would 
respond to these confrontations. And speaking to these people from 
around the country, they had the same particular problem. Our 
problem is not to get many people to the scene; it is to get the people 
to the scene to control, contain, and evacuate the unit parameter with 
as few men as possible. 

In our guidelines we spelled out the particular duties of the patrol 
force, emergency service of New York City, detectives, communica- 
tions; each unit would have a play in this particular operation. The 
patrolmen that responded initially would size up the situation and 
they would contain tlie perpetrator. If he was holding a hostage, we 
would take no overt act that would endanger the hostage's life. 

We find from experience the perpetrator that does seize a hostage, 
he doesn't kill one of them if he is holding several at the outset. 



86 

Chances are he won't take their lives, chances are. We find out that 
sets on our side. . 

The first unit to get there, we spell their duties out m the guide- 
lines, to keep him within a parameter, control that particular area 
and evacuate the people that are in danger. When we say "control," 
we mean the superior present at that stage controls every shot that 
may be fired. The officers will report what they see, but the immediate 
superior at that stage will direct the operation. 

He must control every position. Then we go further and say that 
the detective that would respond have a function. Then the emergency 
service that responds, they have a function. And it is spelled out. The 
emergency service being a unit that has the firepower, protective gear, 
bulletproof vest, and so on, we say that when they get to the scene 
they will relieve the initial response of the patrolman at the particular 
scene, lock this perpetrator in, contain him, play for time, don't do 
anything that may cause damage or harm to a hostage. 

Now, these teams put around the parameter are only teams of two 
men— the superior. And the complete reason for this is to lock them 
in and have control of that in the parameter. To have control of the 
firepower. No independent action. We call them containing teams. 
They are properly suited and armed and have radios with one fre- 
quency, radio band, we can talk within a parameter, direct, person to 
person. We control them ; we contain them. We evacuate. 

We have a team that we refer to as an assault team. This is contain- 
ing team, two men, superior, properly armed, suited. We spell out 
everything that may happen in this particular stage. The perpetrator 
may come out of the store, building, or office with a hostage. No one 
takes any action unless an assault team is directing. 

All possibilities that may take place are decided upon; preplans 
for every contingency, and it is spelled out. We have a detective 
•assigned to a particular incident and their job is the same. It is spelled 
out as drivers, particular cars if cars are needed to move in a par- 
ticular operation in that location, negotiators. 

Mr. Brasco. Inspector, being a resident of Brooklyn, and in com- 
munication with the news media, TV. I think I understand and appre- 
ciate your dilemma. As I understand it. there was some pressure from 
the rank-and-file members of the department, and maybe on up, to 
return fire, particularly after the hostages were taken out of the build- 
ing. I think, notwithstanding those pressures and the ultimate outcome 
of the situation, that the department did a fine job. 

I contract this situation with the kind of shooting match that took 
place in New Orleans at approximately the same time. There we could 
have had a real slaughter situation. 

My question is: Aside from that particular action in terms of re- 
straint and, of course, final outcome, I am wondering if we could just 
reverse it so that I could get, and the committee could get, some 
insights for the record, as to the plans you intended to employ, if you 
are at liberty to talk about them. 

Suppose the hostages were not able to get out of the building, as 
they did, through a side door or an entrance on the roof that one of 
the owners laiew about, what would have been the plan at that time? 

Mr. Cawley. I would like to respond to that, if I may. 



87 

Tliere were a number of contingency plans developed attempting 
to deal with any eventuality, hoping at all times, of course, we could 
pursue the course we decided upon very early ; that is, we would prac- 
tice a policy of firm restraint and, hopefully, continue to negotiate and 
eventually talk them out of the building. In the event that failed the 
plans were based upon the safety of the hostages. 

I can appreciate your wanting to reverse it, but perhaps if we went 
the other way you might understand why we were pretty confident 
we might be able to talk them out. There were a ntimber of early indi- 
cations that we might be successfid if we just practiced a great deal of 
patience and restraint. 

We were ready to deal with the other. It would have been a very 
unfortunate course of action if we were forced to do it. The building 
A\ as almost a fortress. The side door was made with a steel plate. The 
interior of the building was structured in such a way — there was a 
balcony overlooked the front door — in that there was no way of police 
officers coming through the front without being fired upon from that 
balcony. 

We developed other contmgency plans should the occasion arise 
where they might have killed a hostage and thrown one out and said, 
'"Tliat is the first and there will be another one in a half hour." If that 
came to pass, then, obviously, there would have to be a very quick 
strategy and policy decision and determination of how quickly you 
go in and lio\\' best you go in. You could not very well sit back and 
have tiiat occur. 

As to what we had in mind in the long run : One of the factors that 
really encouraged the escape attempt was the preliminary expiration 
of one of those contingency plans. We began to test the structure of the 
building trying to see where we might pat in, if you will, and get a 
A'antage point that would look down on the gunmen who were looking 
down on us. As we started to probe, I think for the first time, some 43 
hours later, they lost their cool, if you will, and made their first major 
mistake. They ran together, the three of them, and left the hostages 
alone. The hostages liaving banded at that point is where Mr. Ric- 
cio, knowing there was a false door, rushed them up to the rooftop, 
which gave us several anxious moments at the top there, as one, Mr. 
Iviccio I think it was, emerged with a gun, not knoAving whether it was 
a hostage or gunman. 

yre liad a captain sitting on the top of that position who practiced 
the restraint and cool we were looking for. He quickly assessed the 
situation, determined it T\-as the nine liostages, dropped the ladder, and 
we took them off the roof. And once the hostages were out the gunmen 
fired several shots up through the ceiling in their frustration, but 
we had the hostages. 

In anv event, the new ballgame occurs when the nine hostages are 
no lo:iger being held, and there is no immediate need at this point to 
risk the lives of police officers attempting to enter the building, as 
long as we were confident in making some progression in the negotia- 
tions. And we were very confident we were doing that. 

I would like to go back to Friday night to clarify a point. It all 
sounds like it is vevy smooth, and I would like to think it was, btit, 
of course, at the beginning point of an incident of this nature in which 
police officers are shot and robberies are in progress, a lot of radio 

95-158 — 73— pt. 1 7 



88 

calls are responding, there is qnite a bit of confusion, as j'oii can well 
appreciate. As Chief Eisdorfer described it, it was a busy business 
street. There was an elevator overhead that further complicated it 
with the rumblings of the plane. 

There was an air of general confusion, as there always is initially. 
The sergeant came on the scene and began to pull it bade very quickly. 
Notifications were made to the proper offices and people responded to 
that scene. I would say it took us some 3 hours before we were able 
to put all of our patrol precinct personnel back into their assignments 
and then start to look at the control of that particular incident with 
the specialized units. 

Chairman Pepper. What was the conclusion of it? How did you get 
them out ? 

Mr. Cawley. One of the indications that negotiations might prove 
successful was when they released their first hostage. We then found 
out one of the gunmen had been wounded. They made two basic 
requests. One was for food and the other was for a doctor. 

Accompanying that hostage was a message from one of the gun- 
men who liad drafted a letter, and part of it — I don't have it with 
us, I am sure — but, in essence, he said everybody Avas prepared to 
die and go to paradise. There was a basic inconsistency with wanting 
to go there. The fellow who was possibly halfway there, they didn't 
want to hurry him in there. So we were kind of optimistic, perhajDS 
they would listen to reason. 

We used this rescue vehicle. We attempted to put them under psvf^lio- 
logicai pressure by continually calling for them to surrender and 
to turn the hostages loose so they wouldn't have a very comfortable 
moment. They would always have to live with concern for wliat we 
were going to do next. We kept up that pressure for several hours. 

During the early morning hours — and I am just giving you the 
overview- — we used that rescue vehicle as a means of having a minister 
go in, roll up near the front of the sporting goods store and attempt to 
reason with them and ask them to come out. 

Incidentally, I think it is accurate to say that every time the ve- 
hicle was used it was greeted by gunfire. 

Mr. Brasco. a bulletproof vehicle ? 

Mr. Cawley. Yes. 

Also, during the early morning hours of Saturday, we had several 
muslem priests come and volunteer their services, to go in and speak 
with them. Two, in fact, went into the vehicle. They agreed to have 
one meet with them. The meeting lasted some 5 minutes and was 
unsuccessful. 

Chairman Pepper. Describe the rescue vehicle. 

Mr. Cav.'t.ey. We have a specially prepared vehicle that is an 
armored vehicle that we put together, 1 guess, some 5 years ago. Mavbe 
I ought to pass this to Chief JEisdorfer and he might be able to give 
you some kind of a better idea of the description of what it looks like. 

Mr. Eisdorfer. It is a 21-ton vehicle, tracked, armored proof, and 
it is able to hold approximately 12 to 15 men inside. It opens up 
through the middle, in the rear.' in between the tracks, and if it goes 
over somebody — using part of the vehicle as a front — we could take 
these people into the vehicle and extricate them safely from the scene. 

That is what it was used for. We had six policemen pinned down, 
plus a few civilians, before we could get them out. Once we did get 



89 

them out. we moved the vehicle, right to the front of the store. It docs 
have a loudsi)eaker system and Ave Avere able to get our ideas across. 

Chairman Pkppp:r. It is bulletproof ? 

Mr. EiSDORFER. It is bulletproof. We didn't have any armor on. in 
other words, to shoot or anything like that ; no. It is a very effective 
weapon. Psychologically, it" did scare them, it did unnerA^e them, and 
I think that played an important role in our final decision. 

Mr. Lyxcii. Chief, I wonder if you could tell us to Avhat extent you 
and Inspector Freeman, who were both on the scene along with Chief 
Cawley, attribute the fortunate outcome to the hostage training Avhich 
you had, I believe, in September of 1972. Did that training play an 
important part in this incident ? 

Mr. EiSDOEFER. I would say it played a very important part in the 
incident. I think it played practically a complete role. We weren't pre- 
pared for this type of incident. Our men Averen't trained. Time was 
on our side and we felt sooner or later the criminals must make an 
error. They must make a mistake. They made that mistake. We were 
there and we were ready to take every opportunity that we would 
haA'e. 

Mr. Lyxcii. And the training you had, the training you described, 
you Averen't talking about classroom lectures you were talking about 
"war game"' type situations. 

Mr. EiSDORFF.R. Field problem ; right. 

Mr. Brasco. Counsel, if I may. 

Gettiiiir back, if I might, to the point Avhero the liostages were re- 
leased, I suspect that Avas probably the time Avhen the most restraint 
on the part of the department in understanding the situation had to 
come into play. 

Again, I feel the department acquitted itself A'ery Avell under the 
circumstances, because in the final analysis you had to play it by ear 
and, as Inspector Eisdorfer indicated, you have to look for the breaks 
when they come and if they come, and apparently they did. 

But to be specific, these men ultimately came out as a result of your 
negotiation team, the doctor, and assurances that they Avouldn't be mis- 
treated on their Avay out ; and they Averen't. But hoAv long, now absent 
the hostages being in that building, Avas the department prepared to 
stav outside? Was there, again, the possibility that action had to be 
taken to forcibly extricate the defendants from the sporting goods 
shon ? 

Mr. Caavley. Once the hostages escaped. Congressman ? 

Mr. Brasco. Yes. 

Mr. Caweey. Once the hostages escaped, I, certainly — and I am sure 
T am speaking for the police commissioner as well as the other respon- 
sible people — felt no obligation to go in there at the risk of police 
lives. HoAv long Avould I haA-e sat there? It is A^ery difficult to say. But 
1 am a very patient man and I Avould not have sent police officers into 
Avhat I kncAv to be an impossible situation, where, in my judgment and 
in discussing it Avith staff at the time, I might have lost 8 to 10 police 
officers. 

Mr. Brasco. I am A'orA' yjleased you made that statement and that 
judgment. T think that Avas tlie coirect determination to make. I was 
just wondering if there Avas any cutoff plan as a result of the train- 
ing that might be implemented ifnder those circumstances AA'here you 
have no hostages, but people on the inside avIio refuse to come out. 



90 

Mr. Cawley. There are no plans that you can formulate that would 
say in any given situation, be willing to stay 24 hours in one situa- 
tion and "in another, 48. It would very much depend upon the cir- 
cumstances, the progress being made with any other efforts underway. 

At the time the hostages escaped from the building we had the 
mother, brother, and uncle of the man we thought to be the leader of 
the four gunmen inside, at which time we put her — she volunteered — 
into the rescue vehicle. She went on the public address system and 
told her son she was there and wanted to talk to him. 

She then got on the telephone and there were very meaningfid dis- 
cussions between the mother, son, brother, and the uncle, and the longer 
those discussions were kept going tlic more optimistic we became. And, 
thank God, within 4 hours they did emerge. 

Chairman Pepper. Did you have to make any commitment to them 
that they would not be prosecuted ? 

Mr. Cawley. No; we did not make any commitment to them. Mr. 
Chairman. Earlier, on Saturday, when prospects were dim and there 
was very little progress being made and very little place to go, we had 
Dr. Tom ISIathew, who evenfually did come down and enter the sport- 
ing goods store, we had two attorneys, Mr. Katz and Mr. Left- 
cort, both of whom had represented Black Panthers in the past. 
They came down and volunteered to attempt to communicate with 
the four gunmen and see if they could convince them to come out, and 
they would have the best of legal representation. 

They did talk to one of the gunmen on the inside via walkie-talkie, 
but at'no point in their discussion was there anv agreement or under- 
standing we would not prosecute them according to the laws of our 
State. 

Chairman Pepper. So they came out. The only promise being you 
wouldn't shoot them as they came out. You would take them in custody. 

Mr. Cawley. AVe promised them the man who was injured would 
receive medical treatment. They would be treated professionally. We 
v.ould bring them to the precinct station and they would be 
interrogated. 

The district attorney from Kings County was present, as was sev- 
eral members of the staff. They assured them of that as well, and that 
was it. There were no other basic commitments made to them. 

Chairman Pepper. Have they been tried so far ? 

^Ir. Cawley. They have been indicted. They have not been tried 
as yet. 

One of the other interesting innovations which was put in during 
the course of this scene, and I think is well worth making part of the 
record, was the creation of a "think tank" on the part of the police 
commissioner that consisted of the various capabilities by our ranking 
cormnanders and deputy commissioners, who met on the 2i-hour basis 
on 12-hour periods as we were working. They were available to me in 
the field, as well as Chief Cod wlien lie came in behind me. if I 
had any problems I wanted to toss in there for kicking around and 
possible clevelopments. 

For example, when we were thinldng about the contingency plans, 
someone that would be able to make a contact with the department 
of buildings, which is tough to do on Saturday and Sundav, would 
be able to give us an engineei', deputy commissioner of administration. 
And that team concept, thinking through the problem in the station- 



91 

house, which is about a mile and a half from the scene itself, without 
having- to do the thinking underneath the sounds of gunfire, and able 
to think things through perhaps in, like, other than a field setting, 
I think, was a very important contribution, 

I think it is important you know we put that concept in. 

Chairman Pepper. Excellent. I think it Avas excellent cooperation. 

Mr. Cawley. Thank you. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief Cawley, you had communications capability with 
any one of the 10 2-man teams surrounding the sports store ; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Cawley. Not completely. Let me attempt to explain the or- 
ganization that we put in. 

I was designated, during my 12-hour segment, as field commander. 
Chief Eisdorfer was on-the-seat commander, if you will. It was he 
that was in continual touch with the assault positions and sniper's 
post. I had an assistant chief inspector from the uniformed service 
present as my immediate contact man with Chief Eisdorfer, so there 
was the continual conferring, so there was some idea of how to handle 
that. 

Mr. Lynch. But a senior commander did have communication capa- 
bility with all of the various teams around the store? 

Mr. Cawley. Yes. Continually and periodically whenever the gim- 
fire came out of the building and on occasion came out for no ap- 
parent reason, other than I guess to keep us alert. The command 
would buzz over the radio from Inspector Freeman or Chief Eisdorfer 
to hold your fire and just try to create a climate, as difficult as it might 
be, in that kind of a setting of trying to keep it calm and poised and 
just wait — have some respect for our judgment, where the commanders 
will make the good judgments for you, we will tell you when you 
should and shouldn't use that weapon. 

Mr. Lynch. Has the New York Police Department provided hostage 
training, similar to that which it has given to its o^vn men, to any 
other department, or have you been requested to provide that kind of 
training ? 

Mr. Freeman. We have continually throughout the year. The emer- 
gency service men go to a school for 5 days, Monday through Friday. 
It is an 8-hour day in classroom. Since September and October of last 
jeav we have made Monday barricade, sniper, hostage, consultations. 
That is the entire day. 

Because of this incident in Brooklyn, publicity, many departments 
have requested to attend or send some of their planning officers to our 
school. We have been doing that on a small scale. We have been send- 
ing two men from different departments each Monday. One day 
for the hostage situation. During our course in September and Octo- 
ber of last year we did have representatives from about 12 major cities 
attend our course with our captains. They sat in. 

It appears the cities are scrambling to get an overall operation that 
can coordinate a major task force of dissimilar units. We tell them, you 
don't have to have oO,000 people in the department to do this, you only 
need 4, 5, 6, or even 3 containing teams. We say you control the imme- 
diate parameter with as few men as possible, with radio communica- 
tion, under one field commander with subcommanders working under 
his direction, coordinating the different units that do respond. 



92 

Very basically, that is it. That is a hostage operation. Each one 
loiows what they are doing. Each unit knows their job — which unit 
will be the containing, affirmative, assault team, and so on. 

Mr. Lynch. I have only one final question, Chief Cawley. You 
mentioned the commissioner had established a so-called think tank 
comj^osed of senior people in the department which operated away 
from the scene and away from the gunfire. Did the think tank provide 
you with any valuable advice during this incident ? 

Mr. Cawley. They did. Saturday evening, at the end of, I think 
it was 6 o'clock, I attended a briefing sessions in tlie 90th precinct in 
which the police commissioner was present and all of the members who 
were going to participate as think tank members, if you will. It was 
their job to be receptive to our problems in the field. 

I would telephone the men and ask them to give it some thought, 
that when they had some suggestion I might consider as being useful, 
that I would very much appreciate getting that call back. That meet- 
ing lasted some hour and a half. It was an updating, a briefing session, 
in addition to tlie beginning of the think tank. 

Friday evening on the telephones, the police commissioner and top 
members were communicating regularly with the command post. 
When I returned at 7 o'clock on Sunday morning I attended a brief- 
ing session with the think tank members. I think it was from 9 to 11, 
at which time a lot of different suggestions were put in, such as, with- 
out getting too involved, putting in beeper systems into cars that 
might be necessary if there was a decision made that we would move 
the gimmen, if that were one of the alternatives we would be faced 
with. Those beepers were tied into helicopters if we had to take them 
out on the highways. 

Decisions made about closing up schools, should we have to make 
a move for Monday and stay still another night. Coordinating the 
notification with the transit authority, the municipal agencies that 
were involved. 

All in all, the people who fit in that environment and are not deal- 
ing with the pressure of the moment that occurs in the field setting, 
are capable of giving a great deal more thought to what might be 
tried. Clearly, certainly clearly understood from the outset, the ulti- 
mate decision would rest with the field commander, based on all of 
the inputs. 

It is a by ear operation. There comes a time when decisions must be 
made very quickly, and it has to be done based upon as much informa- 
tion as you have, which is what the "think tank" was useful in doing : 
Giving you more alternatives to take into account before that decision 
had to be made. 

!Mr. Lyxch. T have no further questions. 

Mr. NoLDE. Chief Cawley, do you have a policy regarding inter- 
viewing the media in situations like this, particularly television? 

Mr. Caavley. We have a deputy commissioner of public informa- 
tion. It is a special post. And there is an office of press information, 
known as public information. The deputy commissioner of public in- 
formation was on the scene starting Friday night. We respect his 
judgments. He makes the assessment as to how to best deal with the 
press. 

We discuss with him what the press should be told and what it 
should not bo told in the interest of operation efficiency. 



93 

We also appreciate the need for the press and the news media to 
report the operations of the police service in dealincr with the problem. 

Mr. NoLDE. In other words, you attempt to establish what the facts 
are and fjet it out to the media in a way that is objective as opposed 
to iMiiioi's flyinjx? 

Mr. Cawley. Right, Mr. Nolde. It is very much a controlled situa- 
tion. We establish liaison with the press, we establish a press area, 
and that area is selected considering both their need for being close 
enough to ha\e some feel for tliat situation so they can report on it. 
On tlie other side of that, so we are comfortable with knowing we are 
not putting them into a position of jeopardy. 

Certainly, in a possible shootout situation, they were removed to a 
place we felt comfortable with. 

^Ir. NoLDE. So in this particular situation the media didn't pose any 
problems to add to the incendiary nature of the situation? 

Mr. Cawley. No. We had them placed some 2 blocks away from the 
location, with somebody that kept them updated in terms of what was 
going on. The only thing we ever ask of the press in a situation of 
that nature is that they be responsible. There were certain pieces of 
information we would rather not have released at the particular mo- 
ment because of tactical advantages we might have. 

I think, in all honesty, we had one little problem concerning one of 
the storekeepers that was trapped in across the street. I think some 
enterprising and very energetic member of the media did manage to 
find out the phone number in there and was talking to him directly. 
B^t it did not pose any major problem to us. 

Once we heard the radio station interviewing this fellow live, we 
quickly found out, obviously, wliich station, and had a pretty good 
idea which door, and appealed to the station to discontinue it. 

riiairman Pepper. Gentleman, just this. Your testimony about this 
magnificent training program you have and about the splendid co- 
ordination of all of the personnel that were engaged in dealing with 
this problem, and about this special vehicle, brings back to my mind 
the Attica situation. Several of the members of our committee went 
up to Attica on Friday of the tragic week and we stayed there 2 
days. Later on officials from Attica testified, as did inmates and other 
people, before our committee. 

I am no military authority, but it occurred to me at that time that if 
there had been a gunship, say. like the INIarines have, with two or 
three or four trained men in that armored gunship, instead of the 
helicopter that came over and pumped the gas and had the ship been 
manned maybe by military personnel or competent and well-trained 
police personnel, law-enforcement personnel, and if they had sud- 
denly appeared over that scene in that courtyard and called out to 
thorn over a loud speaker. "We have got you covered. We can see 
where the hostages are and if anv hostage is shot, we will shoot every 
man around the hostage who was shot, or who is cut with a knife." 

1 believe it would have so surprised all of those inmates if they 
had seen those ofuns sticking out of tliat giniship and had heard it up 
there and heard those competent men in uniform. 

I think it is entirelv possible that those men would haA'e been intim- 
idated and they could have held them nnder <runs until the peor)le 
came in from the outside with weapons and covered them from 



94 

the ground. I didn't disparage or discredit in any way the dedication 
and the diligence and best manner in which the people in charge 
up there conducted the operation, but I spoke to a Marine general not 
long ago about such an operation as that. Would it have been feasible ? 
He said, "Yes, it would have been feasible."' I don't know whether it 
would have worked or not, but it would have been feasible under 
that particular circumstance. 

Do you care to make any comment about that sort of thing ? 

Mr. Cawley. We have used the vehicle not as an offensive machine, 
but rather as we used it in Williamsburg, as a rescue vehicle. It en- 
abled us to take out six police officers pinned down. It also enabled 
us to take out of the stores a number of customers as well as owners 
on both sides of the street. 

It did give us a substantial psychological edge, I believe. 

Chairman Pepper. It looked like a tank to the men on the inside ? 

Mr. Cawlet. It resembles it ; but it is not what it looks like, but how 
you use it. We did use it strictly on a rescue operation. It was not used 
offensively. It is very difficult to comment on anybody's action in a 
given situation of this sort because there are so many considerations 
that come into play. I think one must make the decision on the instant 
events as they unfold. 

Chairman Pepper. Gentlemen, again we want to thank you in the 
warmest way for what you have given us here today ; for helping us 
to make a record which we hope will be helpful to other police depart- 
ments in the country. Some others who have had similar problems are 
going to be testifying here and we will be interested to see what sort 
of training programs they have and how they coordinated there activi- 
ties, and the like. 

Thank you again. We are very proud you are on the police force of 
one of our gi'eat cities. 

Mr. Cawlet. Mr. Chairman, I want to thank you for the oppor- 
tunity of informing you about the new innovations we put into effect 
in New York and the opportunity of reading into the record what I 
consider to be an outstanding example of police professionalism as dis- 
played in Williamsburg. 

Thank you very much. 

Chairman Pepper. Thank you very much. 

The committee will adjourn until 10 o'clock tomorrow morning, 
when we will meet in this room. 

(Whereupon, at 6 p.m., the committee adjourned, to reconvene at 
10 a.m., on Tuesday, April 10, 1973.) 



STREET CRIME IN AMERICA 

(The Police Response) 



TUESDAY, APRIL 10, 1973 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee on Crime, 

Washington, D.C. 

The committee met. pursuant to notice at 10 :25 a.m., in room 311, 
Cannon House Office Building, the Honorable Claude Pepper (chair- 
man) presiding. 

Present: Representatives Pepper, Brasco, Mann, Rangel, Wiggins, 
"Winn, Sandman, and Keating. 

Also present: Chris Nolde, chief counsel; Richard Lj^nch, deputy 
chief counsel ; and Leroy Bedell, hearing officer. 

Chairman Pepper. The committee will come to order, please. 

During the morning we will hear from the New Orleans Police De- 
partment regarding the Howard Johnson-Essex incident. During the 
afternoon we will have testimony from Indianapolis regarding its 
fleet plan and its civilian-oriented police program. Also, we will near 
from Cincinnati regarding its community sector police program. 

The first presentation this morning will be by the police department 
of the city of New Orleans. 

Mr. Lynch, will you proceed. 

]Mr. Lynch. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

I am happy to introduce to you, Mr. Chairman, and to the members 
of this committee, Mr. Giarrusso, superintendent of police of the New 
Orleans Police Department. As you know, that is a major police 
agency with a complement of some 2,000 people. Superintendent 
Giarrusso is a veteran of 28 years of police service and holds an LL. B. 
degree from Loyola University. 

Superintendent Giarrusso, I wonder if you could at this time intro- 
duce the members of your department who are here to testify with 
vou this morning. 

PANEL or NEW ORLEANS (LA.) POLICE DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS: 
GIARRUSSO, CLARENCES., SUPERINTENDENT; 
KASTNER. JOHN H., DETECTIVE ; 
MARTIN, RINAL L., SERGEANT ; 
POISSENOT, LLOYD J., MAJOR: AND 
WOODFORK, WARREN G., SERGEANT; 
ACCOMPANIED BY WILLIAM D. WALKER, REPORTER, WWL-TV 

Mr. Giarrusso. Yes, sir. Mr. Pepper, members of the committee, 
I would like to introduce Maj. Lloyd J. Poissenot, the commanding 
officer of the patrol division of the New Orleans Police Department. 

(95) 



96 

John H. Kastner, a patrolman, who conducted the investigation from 
the very beginning of the Howard Johnson incident. Sgt. Rinal L. 
Martin, who commands what we call the urban squad in New Or- 
leans. We believe this was an innovative response to a great need that 
existed at that particular time. Sgt. Warren G. Woodfork, who com- 
mands what we call the felony action squad in New Orleans. 

Chairman Pepper. Superintendent Giarrusso, we are very pleased 
to have you and your associates here today. 

Mr. Giarrusso. Thank you, sir. 

]Mr. Lynch. Superintendent Giarrusso, as you know, we are very 
interested in hearing testimony from you regarding the New Orleans 
Howard Johnson, so-called Essex incident. From the viewpoint of 
this committee it seems that this would be an examination of, in essence, 
a new kind of crime. We have had crimes of terror before, going back 
to the Starkweather episode, the episode in Illinois where the young 
man, Richard Speck, murdered seven or eight nurses. But within the 
past several years we have seen crimes that involve some political over- 
tones, crimes of terror, involving people from radical groups. That 
appears to be the case in the incident in your city. 

I wonder if at this time you could briefly describe to this committee 
the events surrounding that incident, the police department's response 
to it, and how it ended. 

Mr. Giarrusso. Yes, sir; I will be happy to. I have a report from 
which I have deleted those things I consider extraneous for this meet- 
ing and if you don't mind, I would like to read it. 

Chairman Pepper. You may proceed. 

Mr. Giarrusso. This report deals with the Howard Johnson incident. 

An investigation by the New Orleans Police Department, which be- 
gan December 31, 1972, developed evidence which proved conclusively 
that a rifle used on December 31, 1972, and January 7, 1973, the instru- 
ment used to kill nine persons and wound nine others, was one regis- 
tered in the name and recovered beside the body of Mark J. Essex. 
While the evidence collected was persuasive that all rounds of ammuni- 
tion fired from the rifle on these two dates were fired bv Essex, it was 
not definitely determined if Essex did or did not have one or more ac- 
complices or coconspirators in the criminal acts committed on those two 
dates. 

A reconstruction of the events in the period December 31, 1972, and 
January 7, 1973, in which Essex was known to be involved, based on the 
evidence collected during the investigation and, further, on certain 
assumptions, indicates that on or about December 31, 1972, Essex, 
either alone or with accomplice(s), under cover of darkness, took up a 
position in vacant lots adjacent to Perdido Street and to the rear of 
New Orleans Police Department central lockup, which is actual head- 
quarters, and at approximately 10 :55 p.m., fired seven rounds of .44 
caliber magnum ammunition into the sallyport of central lockup, 
killing Police Cadet Alfred Harrell and wounding Lt. Horace Perez. 

Following the firings, Essex took a route from the lots, across the 
I-IO expressway, to a building housing the Burkart Manufacturing 
Co. plant. 

In gaining entrance to the Burkart Manufacturing Co., Essex set 
off an ADT alarm system. Either when entering the plant through a 
window, or within the plant, Essex inflicted a superficial wound on his 
person. 



97 

Patrolmen Edwin Plosli and Harold Blappcrt responded to the 
alarm. As Patrolman Hosli prepared to release a K-9 dog, at approxi- 
mately 11 :15 p.m., he was shot from behind and seriously wounded 
w'ith a .44 caliber magnum bullet. Hosli succumbed on March 5, 1973. 

Following the shooting of Patrolman Hosli, Essex fled the Burkart 
Building to a church located on South Lopez Street. 

On January 2, at approximately p.m., Essex purchased a razor and 
blades at Joe's Grocery, located in the 4200 block of Erato Street. 

Essex's whereal)outs or actions from the evening of January 3 to 
January 7 at approximately 10 a.m., were not known. 

On January 7, 1973, at approximately 10:15 a.m., Essex entered 
Joe's Gi ocery, ordered the grocer, "'You come here," and shot him in 
the chest with a .44-caliber magnum bullet. 

Essex, evidently having no prearranged escape plan, ran from the 
store to 1506 South White Street, where he observed a car owned and 
occupied by Marvin Albert, with the engine idling. He ordered Albert 
from the car, at rifle point, got into the car and proceeded in the 
direction of jNIelpomene and Broad Streets. 

At approximately 10:40 a.m., the stolen car driven by Essex was 
involved in a hit-and-run accident at the intersection of Washington 
Avenue and Dupre Street. The victim copied the license number of 
the car. 

Essex, in the stolen vehicle, was next observed by a witness enter- 
ing, at a higli rate of speed, the parking garage of the downtown 
Howard Johnson. Next he was observed in the vicinity of the fourth 
floor of the garage by other ]:)ei'sons as he abandoned the car, and 
entered the south or Gravier Street stairwell of the motel. 

Essex asked two employees on tlie eighth floor to let him in the room 
accommodations part of the motel. They refused his request and ob- 
served him running up the stairs. He was next observed in the stair- 
well on the ninth floor, where he asked an employee on duty to let him 
in. and again his request was refused. Essex then proceeded to the 18th 
floor and gained entrance to the room accommodations section. 

Upon gaining entrance to the 18th-floor level, it was assumed Essex 
attempted to start a fire and tliat Dr. Robert Stegall, a guest of the 
motel, observed Essex's arson attempt and intervened. A struggle be- 
tween Essex and Dr. Stegall followed and Essex shot Dr. Stegall 
through the heart with a .44 magnum bullet. Elizabeth Stegall, wnfe of 
Robert Stegall, while cradling her fatally wounded husband, was 
executed by Essex when he placed the barrel of the rifle near the back 
of her head and fired. The autopsy report conclusively shows that 
Elizabeth and Robert Stegall were' individually killed. Essex either 
lost or intentionally left a red, green, and black flag near the bodies of 
the Stegalls. 

Essex w^as next reported on the 11th floor. He gained entrance by 
blasting the lock off the door leading to that level and attempted to 
set fires on that level. 

Frank Schneider, assistant manager of the motel, who had gone to 
the 11th flooT- to investigate reports that a man with a gun was on 
that level, was shot in the back of the head by Essex with a .44-ealiber 
magnum bullet. 

Essex then proceeded to the 10th flooi- and was met by Walter 
Collins, manager of the motel, who also had gone to investigate reports 
of a man with a gun. Collins w;;s shot by Essex with a .44 caliber 



98 

magnum bullet and succumbed from this inflicted wound on Janu- 
ary 26, 1973. 

Essex then went onto the roof of the eijrhth floor meeting room and 
then to the eighth floor patio area. Here he shot Eobert Beamish with 
n .44 caliber magnum bullet and set fires to rooms on that floor level. 
Erom this level, he shot and wounded Fire Lieut. Tim Ursin, Patrol- 
3nan Charles Arnold, Patrolman Kenneth Solis, Sgt. Emanuel Palmi- 
sano, and fatally wounded Patrolman Phil Coleman. 

In an attempt to escape from the motel, Essex returned to the fourth 
floor parking garage level, where he had abandoned the stolen vehicle. 
Police officers were in the area of the vehicle. Essex fired one shot 
through the sflass section of the fourth street level door and went back 
up the stairwell. 

Essex was next observed on the 16th floor level of the motel. From 
this level, he shot and killed Patrolman Paul Persigo and wounded 
Joe. Anderson and Chris Cat on. Tie also set fires on this level. 

Essex was next observed on the 17th floor level where he continued 
to systematically set fires in guestrooms and the corridor. He entered 
the Perdido Street stairwell and attempted to reach the roof level. 
Deputy Superintendent Louis Sirgo. leading a search party for the 
sniper, or snipers, and attempting to rescue two policemen who were 
trapped in an elevator on the 18th floor leAcl. was shot in the back and 
killed in the stairwell between the 15th and 16th floors. 

Essex went onto the roof of the motel at approximately 1 p.m. 

Patrolman Lawrence Arthur, suspecting that a sniper was on the 
roof, opened the door on the Perdido Street side entrance and was 
shot by Essex. 

Essex subsequently positioned himself in a cubicle on the Gravier 
Street side of the motel adjacent to the doorway entrance. In this 
sheltered and protected position, he could not readily he seen from any 
of the observation positions police officers had gained on high build- 
ings in the area. Periodically shooting and shouting, Essex remained 
at this location. 

Due to the frenzied activities of Essex, in starting fires and shooting 
from various levels, and information ])rovided by witnesses, it was not 
definitely known if there were one or more persons committing those 
criminal acts. At one point, witnesses reported that guests and/or 
employees of the motel were being held as hostages. 

The decision was made to systematically secure each floor of the 
motel. Smoke and fumes from the several fires, and the need for 
extraordinary caution for both the protection of guests, police officers, 
and firemen, contributed to make this operation painstakinglv slow. 

The decision was made to utilize a military helicopter with police 
riflemen to fly over the room area and provide a more advantageous 
position for firing at Essex and/or others. Shots were fired from and 
into the cubicle. 

At approximately 8 :50 p.m., when the helicopter was on its third 
flight over the roof, Essex ran from the cubicle, firing at the helicopter 
and was shot. 

Reports from several observation points were to the effect that a 
second subject could, at times, be seen on the roof. While these reports 
were not definitely confirmed, they were from acceptably reliable 
sources and dictated that extreme caution be exercised in and around 
the motel. 



99 

At approximately 2 p.m., Monday, January 8, police officers entered 
tlie roof area fron*! both the Perdido and Gravier Street sides and 
searched the boiler room — the only access to this room was from the 
roof. No one was found in the boiler room or on tlie roof area. Sys- 
tematic searches were made of other areas of tlie motel and they, too, 
were negative. 

In a room on the 11th floor, four live .44 caliber magnum cartridges 
were found. A jacket, identihed as one belonging to Essex, was foimd 
on the eighth tloor. The jacket was reversible, dark blue on one side 
and beige on the other. It contained a razor similar to the one pur- 
chased by Essex at Joe's Grocery on January 2. 

Interviews with witnesses who had seen Essex at close range in the 
several situations described collaborated generally on his physical 
appearance. There were conflicts in the description of liis dress, par- 
ticularly the color of his clothing, some of which may be attributed 
to the reversible jacket. One victim of the shooting, Robert Beamish, 
described the gunman who shot him at close range on the eighth floor 
patio as having a goatee, which Essex did not have. 

In each of these above instances Essex was alone. At no time did any 
witness observe Essex in the company of another person. 

The investigation involved the thorough search of areas where it 
is known that Mark Essex was present, the exchange of information 
between local and Federal law enforcement officials, other criniinal 
laboratory testing and verification of a number of objects, and inter- 
views Avith more than 1.000 persons. 

Mr. Ly^'cii. Thank you. Superintendent. 

I wonder if you could tell us what emergency plan your depart- 
ment had in effect prior to the Essex incident. 

Mr. GiARRusso. AVe had plans to deal with natural disasters, emer- 
gency situations, large crowds that do go to the city, and to deal with 
armed militants; however, I might add at this stage of the game 
that we did not have any plan at that time to deal with a Howard 
Johnson affair per se. 

Mr. Lyxcii. What kind of a hostage or sniper training had your 
department received? Had any special squads received hostage or 
sniper training ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Yes. Prior to that we had a group which did deal 
with emergency situations, and people who were trained to cope vrith 
this type of affair. However, we had never been confronted with a 
situation dealing with multiple incidents, such as occurred at the 
Howard Johnson affair. 

For example, there were firings from different levels of the motel ; 
there were fires set on different levels of the motel, which led us to 
believe at that time that there could have been more than one person. 

We had to worry about the guests in the motel, as well as civilians 
around the motel, who were being slain by a sniper. 

Mr. Lynch. Deputy Superintendent Sirgo was the ranking officer 
on the scene at the time he was killed ; is that correct ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. I was the highest ranking officer. 

Mr. Lynch. You were present ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Yes. 

Mr. Lynch. What time did you arrive at the scene of the incident, 
Superintendent ? 



100 

Mr. GiARRusso. There is some confusion about the actual time that 
I arrived. On the other hand, I was one of the first high-ranking offi- 
cers that did arrive on the scene. I was on my way to the airport. There 
were other officers, many other officers that preceded me there. 

Mr. Lynch. I wonder if you could tell the committee how many 
other law enforcement agencies participated in attempting to bring 
the situation under control. Was it solely the New Orleans Police De- 
partment or were other law enforcement agencies present ? 

Mr. GiAERusso. No, sir; there was a response from, I think, at 
least five or six other jurisdictions that surround New Orleans. 

Mr. Lynch. Their appearance was in response to what? Had you 
requested their assistance ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. No, I hadn't. The media had announced to the 
public Avhat was going on at the hotel and many of them voluntarily 
arrived at the hotel. 

Mr. Lynch. Were these individuals officers, or were they contin- 
gents under command of senior officials that arrived from other 
agencies ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. In some instances it was individual officers and in 
others they were led by a commanding officer. For example, State po- 
lice arrived with the superintendent of State police. 

Mr. Lynch. Did those officials report to you or did they proceed to 
take independent action ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Unfortunately, in most instances, independent ac- 
tion was taken initially by these people, because there was a lack of 
communication with these people. 

Mr. Lynch. Why was there a lack of communication? Did you not 
have the appropriate gear ? What was the reason for the lack of com- 
munication ? 

Mr. GiARRTJSSO. Quite simply, we didn't have the appropriate gear 
at that time. We didn't have enough portable radios that were neces- 
sary in this type of operation, but we did get those radios that were 
available, and when we did set up communications with these people I 
admit they made positive contributions. 

Mr. Lynch. How did you handle that situation ? It seems to me that 
it presented you with an additional problem, having other police per- 
sonnel in and around the vicinity, not capable of communicating with 
them individually. What action did you take ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. Actually, they complicated and compounded a very 
difficult situation initially. We sent men out to tell them to go near 
police automobiles with New Orleans Police Department radios, so 
that they could listen to wb.at was being said and the commands that 
were given, so there would be unified responses to the firings that were 
emanating from the motel at that time. So, I don't know the time, 
but after communications were established with these people things 
did aline, and we did move successfully with them. 

Mr. Lynch. Superintendent, you indicated to one of our investiga- 
tors that at one time during this incident a number of civilians showed 
np ofTering their services, and that some of those civilians were armed. 
Would you tell the committee how that came about ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. There was an uiiaurhorized and unsolicited an- 
nou7icement by a radio station in the city that the police were in need of 
marksmen with high-powered scopes to assist them. Of course, needless 



101 

to say. tills was untrue, and several ])eoi)le did show u[) at the Howard 
Johnson Motel so armed. This presented somewhat of a problem to us, 
because we had to then tell them we didn't need them and ask them to 
leave what was then a ver}' dangerous area. 

Mr. Lyncii. AVere you able to detei-mine what newsman or what news 
agency had broadcast that request ? 

Mr. GiAKRUsso. We were. On the other hand, when it was investi- 
gated. Officer Kastner reported to me that that radio station denied 
doing it. 

^ir. Lynch. Based on. that unsolicited call for help, which must have 
complicated further the command and control situation, what do you 
as a law enforcement official feel would be appropriate restrictions? 
Should there be restrictions on civilians and especially on the news 
media in the area around a situation such as the one that was confront- 
ing you ? 

Mr. GiAKRrsso. I believe that it is necessary, if there is a repetition of 
the Howard Johnson aliair, to isolate the area to protect civilians that 
are in that area. On the other hand, I do not believe it is necessary to 
restrict the media. The media made positive contributions to the com- 
nnmity at that time. 

For example, as a result of media cooperation we were able to 
minimize the amount of civilian traffic in the area. In addition to that, 
the media did neutralize many rumors which were rampant at that 
time. 

Mr. Lyxcii. What were those rumors. Superintendent? 

Mr. GiARRusso. They ran the ganuit all the wa\' from multiple 
snipers in the building to other people, other snipers, attempting to 
break through the police lines and reinforce the ones that were in the 
motel. 

Mr. Lynch. Did you have policemen on the scene who were in civil- 
i a )i clothes? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Yes, we did. Unfortunately, many of our police re- 
sponded in civilian clothes. They may have created some confusion to 
outsiders. We know who they^ were, and will take measures to prevent 
th:n in the future. 

]\Ir. Lynch. What measures are those ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. I w'ould not have anyone but police in uniform in 
and around such an area again. I want them to be in uniform, and 
furthermore, I would not permit the large number of police to respond 
that did respond to that situation. We have a specially trained group 
of approximately 100 men who would respond to a repetition of that 
situation or similar situation. 

Mr. Lynch. Could you tell us approximately how many police of- 
ficers were on the scene prior to the time that you were able to establish 
complete communication with the other law enforcement agencies 
which were present ? Could you give us an estimate ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. It is only a very rough estimate. I would say ap- 
proximately 400 at one time, until we began to send men home. 

Mr. Lynch. How many men did you send home, sir? 

]\Ir. GiARRUSSO. I don't know. Major Poissenot was assigned that 
task, so we could have relief the following daj^, when we saAv the thing 
may go into the following day. 



102 

Mr. Lynch. You indicate that you have a special force of 100 men. 
Have those men been specially trained subsequent to this incident ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Subsequent to the Howard Jolmson incident we 
recognized that the carnival was about 6 weeks away, and we would 
have a very short, period of time to train men should people from other 
sections of the State and/or the country decide to return to New 
Orleans and pick up work that had been started there by an ex- 
tremist. We did develop some special training for these situations. 

We developed what we considered to be assault teams and confine- 
ment teams, to isolate any area along the parade route that one or 
more persons may decide to use as a grouping ground. 

Mr. Lynch. Superintendent, you indicated that there were police 
officers on the scene who were dressed in civilian clothes. Were any of 
those officers in civilian clothes actually inside the hotel ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. Yes, sir, in the motel. 

Mr. Lynch. I believe that you indicated to one of our investigators, 
a week or so ago, that at various times people appeared at windows 
of the motel and that reports were coming down that there were addi- 
tional snipers. Could those people have been law enforcement 
officers ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. It is possible ; however, I do not believe this was the 
case. I think what actually occurred was that some of the people who 
were in the motel, locked in their rooms, would leave their rooms and 
periodically go to the balcony which faced the street, seeking help or 
waving cloths or garments of some typo trying to attract attention. 

This created some confusion among the police at that particular 
time as well. I don't believe that our officers created any problem. I 
can remember Sero-eant Woodfork being at the command desk when 
he arrived, and I told him to remain there been use one bit of informa- 
tion dealt with the fact that one of the snipers had a goatee, and I 
certainly didn't want him out there being shot at. 

There were situations like this that did require immediate responses, 
intuitive responses, from the police. 

Mr. Lynch. When did the police commence firing at Essex ? Was lie 
fired upon when he was first seen on the roof, or were rounds fired 
prior to that? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. There were rounds fired prior to his entrance to tlie 
roof level, yes, sir. I don't remember exactly, Wlien he was on the 
patio level.' some of the policemen fired shots at him. That is where 
the swimming pool is located. 

Mr. Lynch. Did individual officers have the authority to fire at will, 
so to speak, or was the authoritv to fire reserved to commanders ? 

Mr. GiARRUSso. Initially, prior to setting up communications with 
the men who had assumed positions in and around the building, I 
believe the men fired at will. When we did establish communications, 
I can remember talking to some of the people who had talked to some 
policemen, who had talked to some of the guests who had come down 
into the lobby of the motel where the command post was. 

Mr. Lynch. I was interested in finding out who had given the 
policemen authority to fire and when they were firing. 

Mr. GiARRusso. Yes, sir. At that time they were firing in response 
to somebody that either had fired at them or after having seen Essex. 
When communications were established I set up certain priorities, 



103 

tlie first of which was the safety of the guests in the hotel, because 
we had word at that time that hostages had been taken. 

Mr. Lynch. Where did you get that word from i 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Some of the guests who had trickled down to the 
main floor. There was a great deal of confusion among the guests. 

Mr. Lynch. Were those people evacuated from the building or did 
the}' remain in the building i 

Mr. GiARRusso. No, sir. They were not evacuated that night for 
safety reasons. We kept them in the main floor of the motel. 

j\lr. Lynch. And upper floors, 1 assume police officers were located 
to insulate the civilians from the possibility of Essex coming down ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSo. When we began a systematic search of the motel we 
sealed it off, floor by floor and room by room. 

Mr. Lynch. Superintendent, is it a departmental regulation that 
officers keep track of the nmnber of rounds that they fire, and, if so, 
can you tell us approximately how many rounds were fired by New 
Orleans Police Department personnel ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. I would not even guess or attempt to guess the 
number of rounds that were fired. I am sure there were many rounds 
that were fired. 

Mr. Lynch. It is our understanding at one time you called in a 
helicopter equipped with high-powered arms of various kinds. When 
was that done and what was the purpose behind that ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSo. The helicopter was called in after the sniper had 
assumed the position on the roof of the hotel which enabled him to 
conceal himself from fire from anyone. I would describe it as a bunker. 
It was a concrete shelter on the roof of the motel fi'om which we 
could not dislodge him. At that time a decision was made to seek help 
from the military in terms of acquiring an armored helicopter 
from them. 

Mr. Lynch. Was that helicopter manned by military personnel or 
by policemen? 

Mr. (xiARRusso. No, sir. It was piloted by a military man. On tlie 
other hand, the police manned the helicopter with police weapons. 

Mr. Lynch. What kind of weapons were those? 

Mr. GiARRusso. Most of the weaj)ons in the helicopter were AR-15, 
automatic weapons. 

Mr. Lynch. And that fires a high-caliber projectile, does it not? 

Mr. GiARRusso. I don't know. 

Mr. Lynch. Is it armor piercing? 

Mr. GiARRusso. No. 

Mr. Lynch. Was it able to penetrate the concrete bunker, as vou 
call it? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. No, sir. They could not penetrate the bunlver. The 
purpose of asking them to come in with the helicopter was to pour 
fire into the openings, hoping that one of the bullets would ricochet 
and injure the fellow or neutralize him. 

Mr. Lynch. Did that in fact happen? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. W^e don't know whether or not it did. 

Mr. Lynch. To the best of your knowledge, were any New Orleans 
police officers or any other law enforcement personnel wounded by 
shots from that helicopter? 

95-158— 73— pt. 1 8 



104 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Yes, sir. In addition to tlie nine killed and the nine 
"wounded, I think that we wounded six of our own as a result of rico- 
chet bullets. 

Mr. Lynch. "Were those bullets fired from tlie helicopter, or don't 
you know? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. I am confident they were bullets fired from the 
helicopter. 

Mr. Lynch. These were men on floors beneath the roof 2 

Mr. GiARRUSso. They were men in the stairwells leading to the roof. 
They had sealed off the roof. And as a result of being there, of course, 
in order to seal off that floor, we were determined not to let him down 
again. Some of the shots went through the door, ricocheted, and hit 
several of the men. 

Mr. Lynch. I wonder if you could enumerate for us what kind of 
weapons your men employed during this incident, in addition to weap- 
ons carried on the helicopter ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. Revolvers, carbine rifles, and on one occasion we man- 
aged to get some high-powered rifles from sporting good stores in 
order to penetrate some of the concrete that he was hiding behind. 
They did make a hole about 1 foot wide in the concrete, in order to 
then fire into it, hoping ricocheted bullets would strike him or neutral- 
ize him. 

Mr. Lynch. Subsequent to the time you 'were able to shoot and, in 
fact, to kill Mr. Essex, had you had occasion to look into his background 
and his criminal record ? And, if so, tell us if he did have a record. 

Mr. GiARRFSso. He did not have a criminal record. We did, since the 
operation, look into his background and his background indicated 
tliat he was an average youth who had attended school and, of course, 
was in the service. Subsequent to that, he returned home and then went 
to Xew Orleans where he was employed in one of the Federal programs 
there. 

Mr. Lynch. Did he have a record of belonging to any militant 
groups, or was there anything in his background that would indicate 
he might be a likely person to take part in an incident like this ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. We have no hard evidence linking him with any mili- 
tant or extremist groups. Thei-e is some evidence in New Orleans of 
people he had talked with or worked with that, I guess, I would con- 
sider, as a policeman, some extremists. But as a member of a group, 
no; we haven't been able to get any rosters of organizations linking 
his name 'with that particular group. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you and the New Orleans Police Department main- 
tain any kind of intelligence system to gather information about mili- 
tant groups in the New Orleans area ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. Yes, sir, we do. 

Mr. Lynch. What kind of information do you develop? How do 
you use it ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. Well, information is developed through intelligence 
groups, and there are various ways to gather intelligence on people 
who are considered extremists or terrorists in our society. One method 
is to infiltrate the groups, the other is, of course, to purchase informa- 
tion from those who are in it. Another method is surveillance of the 
people as a result of prior knowledge of them. We engage in all of these 
methods. 



105 

Mr. Lynch. The reason I asked the question. Superintendent, is that 
I am wondering if it would be helpful for chiefs of major city police 
departments such as yours to receive rejjularly. on a national basis, in- 
telli<;ence data similai- to the kind of data the Secret Service maintains 
on people who may be dan^rerous to the life of the President. Would 
tliere, in your judofmont, be value in receiving information on a coop- 
eiative basis from other agencies for instance, that people with known 
violent tendencies are on their way to your city? Do you get that kind 
of information now from other police agencies ? 

Mr. (tiakrusso. To some extent, but the information that we receive, 
as far as I laiow, has largely been confined to organized crime. There 
isn't the amount of information that should be sent to and received 
from other cities dealing with terrorists and extremists. There is a 
need for a national depository, a data collecting bank if you will, to 
gather this information and disseminate it to the departments through- 
out the country. 

Mr. Lyxcii. In other woi-ds, your judgment would be that you 
would want to have that kind of information. But if I understand you 
correctly, even if you had it. it would not have given you anything on 
]Mr. Essex and it would not in any way have been able to prevent this 
particular incident ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. I don't believe it would have, because we dealt with 
an individual here as opposed to two or more people. This was the 
significant difference. On the otlier hand, if this particular individual 
had traveled around enough prior to engaging in this incident, intel- 
ligence may have been gatliored against him for the New^ Orleans 
Police Department, or departments throughout the country, who may 
have had to cope with h.im. 

Actually there should be a psychological profile developed on these 
people. 

Mr. Lynch. Superintendent, I am sure you have been asked by 
chiefs of police in various parts of the country about this incident, 
and I wonder if you could tell us what advice, if any, you have given 
to other departments based on your experience in the Howard Johnson 
incident? Have you given advice to other departments as to how they 
miffht better handle similar situations ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. I liave verbalized advice to other chiefs of police in 
Louisiana, not to departments throughout the country. We are in the 
process of putting something together for other police chiefs when 
I meet with them in ]\Liy — the major city police chiefs meet in ]MaY — 
some of the do's and don'ts of the situation. It has not been compiled 
yet for the simple reason the investigation has not been completed. 
There are many, many administrative do's and don't's that I intend to 
set dov»-n and verbalize to chiefs who are interested, from other sections 
of the country. 

]\Ir. Lynch. Could you preview some of those for us ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Yes. I think if I had to return to a similar situation 
the first thing I would do is I would have a few secretaries there who 
would take notes of evei'ything that was said and done. A historian, 
if you will, that is absolutely essential for the following subsequent 
investigation. 

The next thing, I would not permit people to randomly report to 
such an area. I would set up a staging area for the surrounding juris- 



106 

dictions. There is need for people from surrounding jurisdictions if 
you are going to isolate an area. 

I tliink it IS absolutely essential that communications be established 
among the policemen who are there. This is an absolute essential, and 
it was the one stumbling block with which I was faced when I arrived 
on the scene. 

I think there is a great deal of interest administratively by a chief 
as to where he will set up a command post. Setting up a command post 
is very important in my opinion ; where you are going to operate from, 
with whom you will operate in that command post. 

I would try to get more portable radios so that each man who is 
participating will know what is going on, so there are miified re- 
sponses to a command that is given. 

There must be trained personnel, specially trained personnel, spe- 
cially equipped personnel. We have since then trained people espe- 
cially for this type of operation and they are equipped for this type 
of operation. The training should not be limited to firepower only. 
I think there is a great need to deal with the training that touches 
the other end of the spectrum. For example, tliere should be men there 
who are qualified to talk with someone and ask him to come out. We 
did this, but we didn't do it as professionally as we should have or 
could do right now, as a result of some of the training. 

Mr. Lynch. Based on your reflections about the incident, and with 
the understanding that you lost your deputy superintendent, Mr. 
Sirgo, who was a close personal friend as well, is there any way in 
your judgment that some of the fatalities that occurred could have 
been prevented ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. The civilians that were involved were defenseless 
and unarmed. I don't believe anything could have been done for the 
civilians, because these people were going about their normal every- 
day chores of life by either walking or talking in a hotel and cer- 
tainly not expecting someone to ruthlessly shoot them down — murder 
them. 

Those involved as police, who knows? In retrospect I can say I 
should have done this and I should have done that, but I do not know 
whether or not any of the action we have taken since then would have 
prevented those men who were killed or wounded; there would not 
have been as many men probably wounded or injured. 

In addition to the wounded, we had about 11 men who were injured 
as a result of smoke inhalation, for example. I think we need that 
type of equipment and we have that type of equipment to cope. We 
sent men in there, and lo and behold they should have worn gas 
masks and oxygen masks to keep the men there. After stationmg 
them on floors, we found they had to move because of the smoke, either 
up or down. I think we are prepared for a repetition of a situation 
which would involve both shootings and fires simultaneously. 

I think that one other thing that this committee should know is 
that we have developed what we believe to be, we call it for lack of a 
better name, an emergency package which we ask the people in the 
high-rise buildings in the city of New Orleans to have for us during 
the carnival season at that time, not knowing whether or not there 
would be a repetition of the incident. 

It is very important to liave the plans to a high-rise building when 
you enter there. One of the first things that I asked for when I entered 



107 

the motel w<as "Where are the plans," from the manag^er of the hotel, 
and he didn't have them. Fortunately he had several people sit down 
and draw one floor before me and wlien he guve it to me he said, 
"Tliese are the plans, all of the floors are the same." This helped us 
immensely. 

You need the plans. This emergency package should contain the 
plans of the building. 

There should be keys in this emergency package that open all doors. 
If at all possible, the elevators should be made available for the firemen 
and police only. 

In addition to that, we would like to have a photograph of the roof 
of the building. This would enable us to take certain measures that 
we were unable to take last time. 

If this package were j)laced in most high rise buildings we believe 
it would substantially contribute to a reduction in the number of people 
who are killed and/or injured, and an effective police operation. 

Mr. Lynch. Have you or other city officials recommended that this 
be handled by enacting an ordinance or other appropriate law in your 
jurisdiction? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. No; nothing has been done along those lines. The 
only thing we have done up to now is make arrangements with the 
peo]3le at city hall to have all plans for high rise buildings available to 
us should we need them on a moment's notice, with present plans call- 
ing for a motorcycleman to pick up the plans for that particular build- 
ing and deliver them wherever they would be needed at that time. 

We intend to ask for compliance by the people who own the high 
rise buildings, rather tlian do it by ordinance. Ordinance is a new 
tJiought. I hadn't thought of it. 

Mr. Lynch. Have you, in fact, developed within your department 
new written emergency plans for the handling of this and similar 
kinds of incidents? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. Yes, sir ; we have. 

Mr. Lynch. I wonder if you could make those available to the com- 
mittee ? Could you send us a copy ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. No ; we have, in terms of planning, a specially trained 
group which would respond to this type of situation, if that is what 
you mean. Do I have plans that are written? No, I don't other than I 
will show you I have several pages, typewritten patres, of mnterial de- 
scribing the acts to be taken by certain people. But it isn't formalized 
to the extent that I would like to say here that I would offer this as a 
recommendation for all people. 

Mr, Lynch. I have no further questions, Mr, Chairman, 

Chairman Pepper. Superintendent, I want to commend you on the 
clarity and the directness of your testimony here today. It has been 
veiT interesting and verv helpful. 

Was Essex finally killed by gunfire from your ground officers or 
from the gunship ? 

Mr, GiARRUSSO, We are confident he was killed by the gunfire from 
the helicopter. There were other people stationed in adjoining build- 
ings overlooking the roof, and they did fire. Who fired first, T don't 
know, I do believe, in retrospect, that it was the men who were in the 
helicopter. 

Chairman Pepper. TTliat was of particulnr interest to me because 
several members of this committee wont u|) to Attica on Friday, the 



108 

week following that tragedy, and after talking there for 2 days to of- 
ficials and inmates, and different ones who had a part in that episode, 
were told a helicopter came OA'er the area, the walled-in area down 
below — a courtyard in which the hostages were confined and rebel- 
lious prisoners were concentrating — and dropped tear gas. Then the 
plan was for the snipers to be strategically located around so they could 
shoot those rebellious inmates who had knives at the throats of some 
of the hostages, in an effort to save the hostages lief ore they were killed. 

I was interested in your use of the armored helicopter in this inci- 
dent and the value you derived from it. 

Mr. GiARRusso. We needed the helicopter and. of course, the depart- 
ment doesn't have one so we asked for an armored helicopter and the 
Marine Corps responded with both a pilot and a helicopter — an 
armored helicopter. But an armored helicopter consists of armor 
around the engine of the helicopter and that is all. 

The men in the helicopter are exposed to any shots that are fired. 

Actually, Essex fired at the copter, and the shot passed near the head 
of the Marine Corps colonel pilot, who incidentally is a A^ery talented 
and brave man. He continually exposed himself to fire from that man. 

But the armored helicopters aren't armored. Only the engines are 
armored. 

Chairman Pepper. I thought there was armor around the body of 
the ship. I want to find out about that. I didn't think they would go 
into the situation that they had if only the engine were armored. 
They would be too vulnerable, it seems to me. to groundfire. 

Anyway, if there were ships of armor tliat would protect t]Tt> ir,(Mi 
in the ships who were firing, it would be of value, would it not? 

Mr. GiARRusso. It was the vehicle that enabled us to finally quell 
the disturbance at Howard Johnsons. 

Chainnan Pepper. Thank you. 

Mr. Brasco? 

Mr. Brasco. ]Mr. Giarrusso, yesterday we heard from members of 
the New York City Police Department who described a similar situa- 
tion, where 4 people took over a sporting goods shop in Brooklyn 
and held some 12 hostages. Fortunately, that worked out better and 
they didn't have the same tragedy, but I appreciate that in New York 
they had hostage training because of a prior experience with hostages 
being held during the course of a commission of a bank holdup. 

I appreciate that in all of these situations you have to look for the 
breaks and play it by ear and with established guidelines wait to take 
advantage of the opportunities as they develop. 

But my specific question is this, with respect to this incident: It 
seemed to me that one of the differences that you were working with 
in New Orleans that they didn't have in New York is that whatever 
motivated Essex apparently brought him to the brink of what I, as 
a layman, might characterize as an insane kind of action. Apparently, 
he liad no intention of escape. He had no concern for his own safety 
or whether he would live or die. 

The situation in New Yoi-k was different hi that the police, because 
they were asked for a doctor to take care of one wounded accomplice, 
knew the gunmen were concerned about their lives, thus, they had 
something to build on. 

With that in mind, it would seem to me at some point it might have 
been evident to somebody in your group that you might be dealing 
with an insane man. Did that possibility come up at all ? 



109 

Mr. GiARRi'sso. Til at possibility exists. Tliore are levels and degrees 
of sanity, and I don't know how insane he was, if he were at all insane. 
Some of his acts seemed to be perfectly rational as far as I am con- 
cerned, particnlarly when you look at the casualty toll. 

However, we tra<?ed him to a room that he occupied prior to going 
on this affair, and imprinted along the walls were all sorts of revolu- 
tionary slogans. There was a groat deal of revolutionary and extremist 
material in the room. So we did have a psychiatrist, a psj^chologist, 
and a sociologist go into the room and they are compiling a report 
based on what they have seen in the room and whatever information 
we can give to them about it. 

This group is on their own; there is no money involved. We ron- 
tacted Tulane University. These people are employees of Tulane Uni- 
versity, with one exception, and he is a man in government. It should 
prove interesting. I laiow that initially when they went to the room, 
which was shortly after the incident, they returned to the office and 
asked for information on him, which I refused to give because I did 
not want to color any of the scientific or objective intelligence gathered 
by them. 

They agreed that they would form a skeleton with what thev saw 
there and then try to put meat on the bones of that skeleton with the 
information that we obtained subsequent to that. 

]Mr. Brasco. That is not my question. The reason I really asked the 
question, Mr. Giarrusso, is apparent. I don't know whether or not 
you will even prove or disprove this man's sanity or lack thereof, but 
it just seems to me his actions, as viewed by a layman, could be charac- 
terized as insane. 

I asked from the point of view, with that in mind, would you again 
take the position of pressing an individual under those circumstances. 
In other words, returning his fire, having people in and around the 
building? Because it was apparent, from reading the testimony and 
listening to you that as he was pressed he ran from floor to floor shoot- 
ing anvbody and anything that was moving. 

"With that basic background, were any decisions made as to how 
these cases might be handled in the future? "Would you again press 
the individual or just secure the area ai^id play a waiting game? 

Mr. Giarrusso. Mr. Brasco, we did. We did attempt to talk with liim 
once; he was isolated on the roof. A man went up with a bullhorn 
and asked him to come down and told him, he would be taken ])risoner, 
etcetera. This was completely ignored by him. or unheard by hin.. But 
we have reason to believe that he did hear, because we did send a man 
up there with an electric horn to talk with him. 

But not to evade the rest of your question. If there is a madman or 
a rational person running through a liotel killing people. I think the 
only responsible response that a police official can make is to neutralize 
him in any way that is possible. And if it means shooting him, then 
he gets shot. Why should we expose innocent civilians to continued 
fire by someone, be he a madman or a genius? The public is entitled to 
greater protection. 

Mr. Brasco. I don't question that. 

Chairman Pepper. !May T interni])t ? I think j^ierhaps I was in error. 
]Maybe you contemplated that all of these gentlemen Avould make their 
own contribution and we would have the whole picture before us 



110 

before we began to inquire. Would the superintendent like to present 
his associates to give aspects of this matter or are they here for 
questions ? 

Mr. Lynch. I believe that Chief Giarrusso would like to have the 
rest of the gentlemen who are at the table with him, describe certain 
anticrime programs implemented by his department. 

Chairman Pepper. You go right ahead and do that. 

Mr. Brasco. I will finish this as quickly as possible. 

The reason I ask is not to fix blame or be critical. I understand ex- 
actly what your position was. But in your testimony you say Essex 
did confront some people in the hotel, and unless I misunderstood the 
testimony, asked them to let him to certain floors. And those people 
were not shot. I don't know his motivation or reasoning, but it seems 
to me the shooting began when apparently he first began to feel the 
pressure of people closing in on him. 

I appreciate it is a difficult thing to gage and this was your first 
such incident. However, I am asking you to be the ]Monday morning 
quarterback and estimate whether or not pressure on the num was 
helpful under the conditions that developed ? 

That was the only reason I asked the question. 

Chairman Pepper. I learn now from our deputy chief counsel that 
the other gentlemen accompanj'ing the superintendent will tell about 
different programs they have. They will not talk primarily about this 
episode. 

Mr. Giarrusso. While it is true, although the men were there, all of 
the men seated at the table were there, they are here because of different 
programs we consider innovative programs in response to street crimes 
that we have employed. 

Chairman Pepper. But they are not going to talk primarily about 
this episode ? 

Mr. Giarrusso. No, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. Very well. Let's question about this episode and 
then go back to these gentlemen. 

Mr. Wiggins? 

Mr. Wiggins. Mr. Superintendent, would you please describe the 
red, green, and black flag which was found on the 18th floor? 

Mr. Giarrusso. It is a flag that is multicolored — red, green, and 
black — and the areas occupied by the red, green, and black are equal 
in space that they occupy. There have been various names attached 
to it, but I don't care to attach any name to the flag for the simple 
reason I don't know this man is in any way connected with that group. 

Now, there are revolutionary groups and extremist groups to whom 
this flag symbolizes something. If I described the flag, the only thing 
I can do is tell you it is a multicolored flag. 

Mr. Wiggins. All right. What is the si^iificance of the flag? 

Mr. Giarrusso. I don't know what the significance was in terms of 
his carrying the flag. 

Mr. Wiggins. No; the significance of the flag. 

Mr. Giarrusso. I have talked and I have been confronted with that 
flag in New Orleans in terms of some, what I consider, militant stu- 
dents, insisting that the flag be hoisted and flown at a particular school. 
It is called by some a "black revolutionary flag." 

Mr. Wiggins. Was the flag commercially manufactured or hand- 
made ? 



Ill 

Mr. Gtarrusso. I don't know. I really don't know. I would say it 
was commercially mannfactiired. 

Mr. Wiggins. Where did Mr. Essex get it? 

Mr. GiARKT'sso. I don't know that, 

Mr. Wiggins. Have you investigated that? 

Mr. GiARRusso. No, sir. 

Mr. Wiggins. I suggest you might inquire into the source of the flag. 

You indicated tliat there were certain revolutionary materials in his 
apartment. "\^niere did he get those revolutionary materials? 

Mr. GiARRusso. This, I don't know. It is similar to the underground 
material with which most big cities are faced. It is there and one 
doesn't know where it comes from. 

Mr. Wiggins. Have you investigated the source of the material you 
found in his apartment? 

Mr. GiARRusso. Yes, sir. That has been done. I believe Officer Kast- 
ner can tell you what he did along those lines, as well as the man who 
was primarily concerned with that, the commander of the intelligence 
division, who is not here. But source material was checked by the 
intelligence division. 

Mr. Wiggins. Mr. Kastner, can you answer the question of where 
Mr. Essex obtained the material ? 

Mr. Kastner. There were various publications of revolutionary 
groups, or so-called revolutionary groups, which were traced to having 
been purchased in New Orleans, readily available on street corners by 
persons who advocate these publications, and sell them right on the 
street corners. We found five inside his apartment which are easily 
purchased on the streets in New^ Orleans. 

]\Ir. Wiggins. That answers my question. Back to you, Mr. Super- 
intendent. ^Tiat kind of rifle was Mr. Essex carrying? 

Mr. GiARRusso. A .44 caliber rifle. He had magnum ammunition, 
which I understand is a little more potent than the ammunition nor- 
mally used. 

Mr. Wiggins. When you describe the .44 magnum, you are referring 
to his rifle and not a .44 magnum pistol ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. That is right. 

Mr. Wiggins. He carried one weapon, a rifle ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. He carried but one weapon on January 7. On New 
Year's Eve night, he did leave a .38 caliber pistol in the vacant lot that 
adjoined police headquarters. 

Mr. Wiggins. Did the rifle have semiautomatic or automatic fire 
capability? 

Mr. GiARRusso. I think someone more qualified can tell you. 

Mr. ICastner. It is a Ruhr rifle, .44 caliber, semiautomatic, holds 
one round in the chamber and four rounds in the magazine. 

Mr. Wiggins. In other words, you can fire simply upon squeezing 
the trigger repeatedly ? 

Mr. Kastner. Right : yes, sir. 

Mr. Wiggins. "VAIiere did he get the rifle? 

Mr. ICastner. Purchased from a store in Emporia ; A Montgomery 
Ward Department Store in Emporia, Kans. 

Mr. Wiggins. It was lawfully purchased. 

Mr. Kastner. Yes, sir. 



112 

Mr. Wiggins. Did your officers wear either bulletproof vests, or 
flak jackets of any sort during this ej^isode ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. Some of them did. Those who had the vests that we 
had avaihxble for them did wear them. We didn't have enough vests to 
go around. 

Mr. Wiggins. Are they part of your police inventory? 
Mr. GiARRusso. Part of them were our inventory and most came 
from the military. 

Mr. Wiggins. Referring to the AR-15 fired from the helicopter: Is 
that weapon a part of your inventory ? 
Mr. GiARRusso. Part of our inventory. 

Mr. Wiggins. You did not mention in vour testimony that you used 
gas or attempted to use gas. Did you, and if not, why not ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. We did attempt to use gas. However, he was on 
the roof of a building which was 19 or 20 stories high. Our first at- 
tempt was with gas and the wind blew the gas away. It was vei-y 
ineffective. 

Mr. Wiggins. Do you have multiple capabilities in terms of your 
weaponry to deal with persons in a confined location ? For example, 
do you have something like a W.P. grenade or similar type of weapon ? 
Mr. GiARRiTsso. Yes ; we do have grenades and we do have multiple 
caj^ability. On the other hand, budgetary limitations prevent us from 
getting the weapons that we would need. It would seem to me, really, 
to be a waste of taxpayers' dollars because the military and the other 
organizations in and around there work rather closely with the police 
and we can get what they have if we need it. 

Mr. VriGGiNS. How may AR-15"s do you have in your inventory? 
Mr. GiARRusso. I don't know, sir. 

Mr. Wiggins. The Marine helicopter that was furnished, was that 
furnished pursuant to a prior plan ? 
Mr. GiARRusso. No, sir; it wasn't. 

]Mr. Wiggins. How long did it take you to get a response to your 
request? 

Mr. GiARRusso. I imagine a few hours. 

Mr. Wiggins. Was the Marine helicopter working on a common 
radio net with the police ? 

Mr. GiARRTJSso. No, sir. We put two of our radios in the helicopter. 
Two, in the event one failed. 

Mr. Wiggins. Did your hand-carried radios operate from the in- 
terior of the building? Were you able to receive and send from the 
inside of the concrete building? 

Mr. GiARRusso. Fortunately, we are in a transitional phase in that 
we are getting new equipment, radio equipment, communications equip- 
ment, and the equipment we had there had just been up a short period 
of time and the receiver was on an adjoinincr building. It was quite 
near and it enabled us to communicate readilv in the building with 
tlie iTmited number of portable radios that we had. 

Mr. Wiggins. Now. do you have a plan with the military units in 
your vicinity to obtain such equipment as you may need from them ? 

Mr. GiARRrsso. No, sir; but I have talked with the people who are 
in charge of those bases, and they have indicated to me, other than 
written guarantees, that we would'get what we needed if it was within 
their power to grant to us whateverwe needed. 



113 

Mr. WiOGixs. Do you liave any type of armored personnel carriers 
to get police into the building, for example, if the streets were under 
lire? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. Yes. sir. AVe have an armored persoimel carrier which 
we use extensively out there for the purpose of getting people under 
cover, and various other chores, other than getting people into the 
building. 

Mr. WiCxGiNS. Is that part of your inventory ? 

]Mr, GiARRUsso. Yes, sir ; it is. 

]VIr. WiGGixs. I am going to ask you a difficult question, but it is 
one that Congress may have to cope with. What is an extremist about 
whom intelligence should be gathered and disseminated, as you indi- 
cated would be helpful in your testimony? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. From the top of my head, I would say an extremist is 
a person who advocates overthrowing our form of government by 
force, and one who just doesn't care how many innocent people he 
Avould kill, symbolically, along the way. 

Mr. WiGGixs. Can you name any groups that fall into that category ? 

]\fr. GiARRFsso. Not without intelligence records available. And I 
would hate to compromise what I consider security information at a 
public hearing. 

Mr. Wiggins. I wouldn't want you to. Many of the so-called extrem- 
ists groups are motivated by political considerations. There has been 
much discussion here in Washington about the desirability of collecting 
intelligence data on politically motivated persons, however outrageous 
their beliefs may be. You would draw the line on those groups which 
would tend to overthrow our Government by force or other unlawful 
means. Is that your suggestion ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. At present, yes; because within the constitutional 
framework within which we live it is difficult to even move against 
these people. Unfortunately, we, the police, have to respond after they 
have engaged in some bloodletting, rather than prior thereto so that 
we could have prevented it. 

I, as a policeman, believe there are waj'^s we can thwart some of 
those people, and I don't mind telling you I am a firm believer of 
infiltrating these groups; and we have successfully infiltrated them 
at home. To do other than that means to live in a city of wall-to-wall 
police and we can't afford that, and I don't believe our society is ready 
for this type of operation. 

Some people who are supersensitive about this say it shouldn't be 
done, that we are invading the rights of privacy of these people, which 
])laces police and society in the position of only responding to those 
violent acts in which they engage. We can't do those things that are 
necessary to prevent thorn from injuring people and actually de- 
stroying our society. 

Mr. Wiggins. Do your police officers have available, as part of your 
inventory, steel helmets ? 

Afr. GiARRTTsso. Yes, sir; we have some available. You are talking 
about the tin hats ? 

Mr. WiGGixs. Military type. 

Mr. GiARRusso. Yes, we do have some of those, of World War II 
vintage; and we do have the regular helmets that are worn by them. 

My. Wiggins. Crash helmets ? 



114 

Mr. GiAKRUsso. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wiggins. Can you give us any suggestions as to any equipment 
you felt you should have had in your inventory but did not have^ 

Mr. GiARRUSso. Yes, sir. Immediately after the Howard Johnson 
affair, we purchased "second chance" vests. These vests will stop most 
bullets. It is actually a cloth material that the men can wear under 
their jackets. If equipped with certain plates placed in the jacket they 
will stop very high-powered rifles. Certainly, they would have stopped 
the rifle the men faced out there that day. 

Mr. Wiggins. I don't think the manufacturer would like to have 
this jacket tested with a .44 magnum rifle, but that is beside the point. 

Mr. GiARRUSSo. In addition to the morale building it does for the 
men. 

Mr. Wiggins. Thank you. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Rangel. 

Mr. Rangel. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

From your testimony, Mr. Superintendent, I gather the intelligence 
of Essex can only allow you to believe that you were dealing with a 
very emotionally disturbed individual ? 

Mr. Giarrusso. I don't Imow the degree of emotional disturbance ; 
I don't believe I am qualified to say that, but I would say in a very 
general way I would consider it abnormal behavior as opposed to 
that which we normally engage in during the course of a day. 

Mr. Rangel. I really meant, from a layman's point of view, some- 
one doing these types of acts certainly would be considered to be 
disturbed. 

Mr. Giarrusso. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rangel. Well, to put it another way : Your testimony indicates 
that there is no evidence of him being a part of some larger conspiracy. 

Mr. GiARRTJSSO. We have not been able to develop any hard facts 
which would indicate that. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Rangel. As a matter of fact, you might say that with Lee 
Oswald certainly there was more intelligence on him than you were 
able to find on Essex, in terms of attempting to set up some data banks 
for these types of people. 

Mr. Giarrusso. We didn't have the machinery the Federal Govern- 
ment put into motion to investigate Lee Oswald. 

Mr. Rangel. But you do have machinery now to investigate who 
Essex was and, in reading your testimony, there was no evidence that 
this would be the type of person where intelligence would have been 
able to assist you in avoiding this tragedy ? 

Mr. Giarrusso. Only because it was an individual, Mr. Rangel. If 
it had been a group, it may have been different. 

Mr. Rangel. Any testimony in connection with any revolutionary 
groups or any intelligence data banks certainly would not be relative 
to this case involving Essex ? 

Mr. Giarrusso. I would not make that unqualified statement ; no, sir. 

Mr. Rangel. But you have not been able to find any evidence to con- 
nect him with any group ? 

Mr. Giarrusso. We have not developed what I would consider hard 
evidentiary facts which would be admissible in a court of law as 
evidence. 

Mr, Rangel. This flag Congressman Wiggins made inquiry about, 
have you seen this flag before in the city of New Orleans ? 



115 

Mr. GiARRUSSo. I have seen similar flags ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Rangel. Have you seen decals on automobiles being driven by 
black people? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. I haven't; but there may be some. 

Mr. Kangel. But tliere is no reason to associate this red, green, and 
black flag with any organized revolutionary group ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. NoTsir. Well now, you mean in relation to the flag 
Essex liad? 

Mr. Rangel. No, in connection with the flag that was found some- 
where near the people allegedly killed by Essex. You never found 
Essex with a flag, did you ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSo. No. But one of the people in the hotel, when he 
entei-ed the hotel, saw this flag, or what appeared to be this flag, at- 
tached to the end of the barrel of the rifle. 

Mr. Rangel. My question is — and any of your colleagues can an- 
swer — have you ever seen this type of flag or replica of the flag being 
used or in the possession of responsible citizens ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. I would say "Yes.'' It depends upon the group that 
you are talking about. Certainly, to many responsible citizens in our 
community, this flag symbolizes something for them. 

Mr. Brasco. Would you gentleman yield at that point ? 

Mr. Raxgel. I am happy to. 

Mr. Brasco. We have been talking about this flag. Is this the red, 
black, and green flag that we ai-e talking about ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Brasco. I don't know that I understand exactly what it is, but I 
always thought it was one's identihcation with a mother country. I 
thought it had something to do with that. 

Mr. GiARRusso. It does. 

Mr. Brasco. Pretty much like flying an Italian flag in New York. 
That is why Congressman Rangel is asking about it. Many people 
have these flags on their cars. I have seen them in red, white, and green, 
which is the Italian flag, and then the American flag, and what I call 
the African flag and the American flag. So it has no significance as far 
as I can see in New York. 

Thank you. 

Mr. Rangel. Mr. Superintendent, this committee certainly is in no 
position to be critical of anything that has been done by the New 
Orleans Police Department. We are just hoping that out of this we 
might be able to assist others in avoiding similar-type tragedies. 

In connection with the unauthorized marksmen, were you able to 
ascertain who they were? 

Mr. Gl\rrusso. No. At the time we were much too bus}^ to seek their 
identity. I know I talked with one personally, and I was too busy to 
bother about his name or identification. He said, ''Well, I am here." I 
wondered how he got into the hotel, to tell you the truth. 

Mr. Rangel. There was a point where you were concerned about the 
safety of Sergeant Woodfork. I am assuming you were not concerned 
about his brother officers shooting him because of his beard? 

Mr. Gl\rrusso. This possibility exists for the simple reason that at 
that time we had manned locations surrounding the building and I 
didn't want him to go out and expose himself. You know, in this cool, 
calm atmosphere, I can't recreate the tension the men were under at 
that particular time, particularly when so many had fallen. 



116 

That possibility is quite possible that because he had a j2:oatee, and! 
there had been word broadcast one of them had a goatee. I didn't want 
him injured. 

Mr. Rangel. How could you reach the conclusion regarding the 
number of people actually wounded and killed by Essex, in view of 
the fact there were so many unauthorized firearms at the scene? 

Mr. GiAKRUsso. There were nine people killed and nine people 
wounded by his rifle, as a result of (1) Us establishing this through 
ballistics and of the shell cases that had been extracted, the extractor 
marks on the cases. 

Now, there were six other policemen who were injured that I at- 
tributed to ricochet shots from elsewhere and we did not in any way 
connect this with the gim and/or the sniper that was at the hotel. Those 
that are there are the ones we can positively connect with the gun. 

Mr. Rangel. By ballistics ? 

Mr. GiARRusso." Ballistics or by the extractor marks on the shell 
casings. 

Mr. Rangel. But it can be attributed to the gun found on the roof 
top of Howard Johnson's ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. Yes. sir. 

Mr. Rangel. And is this information confidential, the report of 
being able to attach the wounded that are charged to Essex and those 
that were slain. Is that information considered confidential by your 
department ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. No. sir; not before this group. I am sure I didn't 
make myself clear. Those people who were actually wounded by, let's 
say by, police bullets were not counted in the toll of people who were 
wounded by Essex. It is separate, apart, and distinct from that. 

Mr. Rangel. I understand that. But we have had a tragic exper- 
ience in New York State where a lot of deaths in Attica Avere attributed 
to some prisoners and, in fact, after ballistic investigation, all of the 
deaths of gunshot were then attributed to law enforcement. And as 
you describe so many people that you don't know, voluntarily coming 
there to just shoot and help out, phis so many law enforcement people 
with a variety of weapons, I assume, that unless you have ballistic 
data, I don't see how you are able to separate those that were shot by 
citizens, foreign law enforcement offcers, or perhaps, tragically, your 
own law enforcement personnel. 

It just seems to us who saw it over television to be a rather con- 
fused situation, and we certainly don't know what should have been 
done and perhaps everything that should have been done was done. 
But I just don't see how we can be so accurate in determining who 
killed whom, or who shot whom, when everybody was shooting. 

Mr. GiARRusso. I will be happy to sit down with you when you hn ve 
a great deal of time and go into detail with you about each killing, 
each wounding, and show you how those that we enumerated here, 
nine and nine, are connected with the rifle that was found by the body 
of INIark Essex. 

Mr. RAxnrx. If it is not confidential, I would appreciate if you conld 
send the ballistic infoi-mation to the committee, so that we would know 
what the factual situation is. 

jNIr. Gl\rrusso. All right. I am not certain I understand exactly 
what you want. 



117 

Mr. Raxgel. Your report indicates tliot yon nre not even certain that 
tliere was one or more people on tliat ]-oof involved with Essex; that 
you don't have information to prove conclusively that he was alone. 

Mr. GiARKi^sso. Yes. sir. 

jNIr. Rangel. So I don't know how it is done from a law enforce- 
ment point of view, but I assume, if somebody is shot or killed you do 
try to determine the firearm which fired the fatal bullet, 

Mr. Glvrrusso. Yes, sir. 

]\Ir. Raxgel. And I assume from your testimonj^ that you have been 
successful in doing just that. 

INIr. Glvrrusso. Well, let's take the couple that were killed on the 
IStli floor, and I believe they were killed first. Dr. and Mrs. Stegall. I 
believe we have ballistics from Dr. Stegall which show he was killed 
by the rifle that was carried by Essex. Concerning the wife, the bullet 
went through her brain and out her eye. 

We were unable to find that bullet because of debris, et cetera, there. 
I think it is fair to deduce that he killed both Dr. and IMrs. Stegall 
because there were otlier witnesses on the floor who said that they 
heard the woman shout. "Please don't kill my husband."' There was 
another witness who saw the husband actually engaged in a struggle 
with him. 

There was no one else up there that we knew of. '\^nien the police 
did arrive on the 18th floor, this woman was lying on her husband. 

Now, there is no other way we can connect her death v.ith the rifle, 
other than the facts surrounding it. Whether or not he could have been 
charged in court and the evidence would have been adjnissible under 
the rigid evidentiai-y rules of criminal evidence. I don't know, but I 
think it is a fair deduction that he killed both of them, while we had 
ballistics from one only. 

Mr. Rangel. Based on what you have testified, I am certain that no 
one in or out of law enforcement would disagree with you therp. It 
just bothers me when some parts of the testimony describe an assaihiJit 
as having a beard, and it seems so easy to attiibute, since only one body 
of a perpetrator was found, all of the deaths to that person and that 
gun, with the exception of ballistic evidence which, of course, may not 
have been made available. 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Do I understand you correctly, Mr. Rangel, that you 
don't understand how we can prove or believe that there is only one 
person ? Is tliat what you are saying, sir ? 

Mr. Raxgel. Mr. Superintendent, I am not trying to try this case 
ex post facto. It just seems to me that you are attributing all of the 
wounded and all of the slaying, with the exception of six police officers, 
to a particular weapon that was found next to the body of Essex. 

Mr. Gl\rrusso. Essentially ; yes. sir. 

^Ir. Rax^^gel. So we can just discount anybody else shooting but 
Essex ? 

Mr. Glvrrusso. I think we can discount the shooting of the nine 
killed and tlie nine injured. I think we can discount it if we say anyone 
(vse did it. We can connect Essex with those nine deaths and with the 
nine injured, ballistically. 

^Lv. Raxgel. So we haven't completely disregarded the testimony of 
(liat individual that described someone with a gun having a beard? 



118 

Mr. GiARRUsso. No, sir. Mr. Beamish, the man who was shot, did 
identify him as having had a beard. On the other hand, there were 
witnesses on that floor who gave an accurate description, other than 
the one tliat was given by the victim of the shooting, and none de- 
scribed the perpetrator as having a beard at that particular time. 

Now, if you read through this, the back part of the report, I will tell 
you I sincerely believe that Mr. Beamish, the victim, was honest and 
he really believed that man had a goatee. If you want to attribute it to 
hallucination or what have you, 1 really don't know. We did not re- 
cover the pellet that injured ]SIr. Beamish. 

^ye did not find any other shells, A-i magnum shells, on the patio 
where Beamish was shot. 

Mr. Kangel. This weapon Essex purchased, to your knowledge were 
any other people carrying a similar type weapon in the area during 
this tragic event? 

Mr. GiARRusso. It is quite possible. It is quite possible because there 
were nmltiple-type weapons there. I am sure there was a .44 caliber 
rifle. 

Mr. Rangel. But your investigation proved conclusively that the 
number of people that were killed, nine killed and nine shot, it is attrib- 
uted to the Essex weapon as opj)osed to other similar-type weapons ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rangel. This news agency that contributed to the chaos, have 
you been able to identify what radio station that was ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. We narrowed it to a radio station and Officer Kast- 
ner told me they denied doing it. 

]Slr. Eangel. In the course of the investigation, were you able to 
determine whether or not they were telling the truth ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. We don't believe they were telling the truth because 
we had witnesses who said they heard it on the radio and went there 
in response to a radio plea for marksmen with scopes. 

Mr. Rangel. You don't believe this type of broadcast would be crim- 
inal in nature ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. I don't know whether it would be criminal in nattire, 
or whether we had an overly zealous radio announcer. I do know in the 
future we would work more closely with the media so there wouldn't 
be a repetition of this. 

Mr. Rangel. But many of the reports issued by this station in con- 
nection with multiple snipers, certainly that information was re- 
leased by the police department ; was it not ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. About multiple snipers? Yes, I assumed — I told 
the men we would assume there was more than one person. 

Mr. Rangel. Would that not be included among inaccurate report- 
ing, as relates to more than one sniper ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. That assumption was made long after these people 
arrived with the rifles, though. It is one I publicly announced over 
our radio systems, that we would assume there was more than one. 
This was subsequent to the annoimcement over the radio. I don't know 
why it was done. I am not excited about it. It is over with and it 
didn't cause anyone to get injured. It did cause some concern for the 
safety of the people who did arrive, and those that we had to escort 
out of there. But that was the limit of it. 



119 

Mr. Rangel. Well, an adventure like this, isn't it just luck that 
these people, experienced or inexperienced, did not kill or wound some- 
body, since you had no way of identifying who they were? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. You are correct, sir. We can speculate anything we 
want, but I don't know. 

Mr. Raxgel. But if another event were to occur and other radio sta- 
tions would say "police officers are in trouble and we need marks- 
men," it appears if it was in New York City or any other city that 
this indeed would be a very dangerous thing to do, especially when the 
law-enforcement officers could not identify who they were in view of 
the fact many local police ofiicers were responding to a legitimate call 
from your department. 

Mr. GiARRUsso. I concur with you, sir. 

Mr. Rangel. In conclusion, Mr. Superintendent, your testimony 
as relates to a data bank, or infiltration of revolutionary groups, or 
compiling data on individuals to make it available to law enforce- 
ment's agencies, all of these worthwhile things, if you support that 
idea, certainly do not relate to some one like Essex. Is that true? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. It would apply to Essex were Essex working in 
concert with one or more people. I think we should tackle the problem 
of an individual doing the things that that man did. I think to this ex- 
tent, we can parallel it with what has been done with the airlines. They 
have developed psychological profiles of the people who do engage 
in hijacking. Since this is true, I think that w^e can do the same thing, 
which would enable us to predetermine some of the people who are 
going to engage in isolated cases, individualized cases, involving mass 
murders. 

Mr. Rangel. I couldn't agree with you more, but there has been 
absolutely no evidence, based on your subsequent examination of the 
life and trials and the tribulations of Essex, that would allow you as 
a law-enforcement officer to believe any type of file on him would have 
been of any assistance to you ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. As I said earlier — that isn't true, because now it isn't 
accurate. 

Mr. Rangel. Let me word it another way, Mr. Superintendent. If 
you knew earlier everything that you know about Essex now, could 
your police force have done anything to have prevented this tragedy ? 

Mr. Giarrusso. I don't know about the one that occurred New 
Year's Eve, but we may have been able to take some preventive meas- 
ures which did affect the one that occurred on January 7 if we had 
the information we had reference to. We may have. 

Mr. Brasco. Would my colleague yield ? 

Mr. Rangel. I yield. 

Mr. Brasco. Not to second guess you, but if you had seen, say, his 
room 

Mr. Giarrusso. That is what I had in the back of my mind. 

Mr. Brasco. I think that is what you are talking about. If you 
had seen his room prior to this incident you might have had oppor- 
tunity and reason to monitor his activities in your city. 

Mr. Giarrusso. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Wiggins. Would you yield to me ? 

Mr. Brasco. Certainly. 



iiH-MiHn 7S nt 1- 



1120 

Mr. Wiggins. What would you have done ? 

Mr. GiARRUSso. I think, initially, I would have set up some surveil- 
lances around his building to watch the man more closely. 

Mr. Wiggins. Are you telling me that if you come into possession of 
information that a given individual likes revolutionary slogans, likes 
to read revolutionary literature, you would maintain that person under 
surveillance ? 

Mr. GiARRUSso. No, I don't believe that we could do that; no, sir. 
We need better evidence than that. 

Mr. Brasco. Would the gentleman yield ? 

Mr. Wiggins. Yes. 

Mr. Brasco. I think, Mr. Wiggins was talking about a national 
situation. I don't know that we need any national authority for local 
police authorities like yourself to investigate reasonably and would 
indeed be unhappy as a citizen if I thought the police chief in my 
community had available information that might have been disclosed 
by viewing this man's room and that he didn't do something about it. 
At least to make an effort to find out who the guy is and what he is all 
about. 

Mr. WiGOiNS. Is that what you would intend to do ? 

Mr. Giarrusso. No. If we deal with it hypothetically, Mr. Wiggins, 
I think I will give a general answer to the hypothetical you pose. If we 
talk about this case in retrospect 

Mr. Wiggins. I don't want to talk about this case. Hypothetically, 
we are talking about before the fact; we are talking simply about 
information in your possession which might call you to be suspicious 
of an individual. I am asking you what your department would do 
about it. 

Mr. Giarrusso. I am not going to say what the department would 
do. It w^ould have to do what I would say. I am trying to tell you I 
am going to answer what I would do about it. I think that data should 
be gathered which then should be evaluated. Evaluated, and then cer- 
tain movements made. 

If I may deal with an actual situation by way of example, there is a 
person at home who — for 6 or 8 months — said that he was going to kill 
several policemen, since the Howard Johnson incident. This person 
has filed notice. We have had phone calls. He has told other people that 
he intends to do it. I can tell you what I have ordered done since learn- 
ing that and, incidentally, he is a psychiatric patient. 

I can't have someone follow him around every day. We have notified 
the policeman he intends to kill, "You have got to be careful." 

In addition to that, each time we received a threat, I have it docu- 
mented, and then his mother is notified and his attorney is notified 
that this threat was received this date, and the sources of the threat. 
And he is the source of the threat. 

I can't follow him and I don't know what else we can do, other than 
put the policeman on notice. 

Mr. Wiggins. If we had a system of disseminating intelligence in- 
formation to you about suspected types of individuals, I doubt it would 
be efficacious in preventing incidents. It would perhaps be helpful in 
investigation after the incident, if you did not apprehend the suspect 
at that time. You would have a list of potential suspects for further 
investigation. It is of value to the police, I understand that. But I 



121 

think it is holding up a false promise if you think it is going to stop 
some psychotic from sliooting police officers. 

Mr. GiARRusso. I concur with that. In other words, let me tell you 
liow a cop would intuitively respond to that situation. If we take a? 
and he has propensities along the lines we described, and I had that 
information, and it is the intervening acts which enable a cop to 
respond in that, if someone had been seen with a rifle fitting this 
description it certainly would put us on notice that certain action 
should be put into effect to do whatever is possible, either neutralize 
him or thwart him in his attempt to kill or maim anyone. 

It is what happens in between. I don't believe anyone can predict 
with any degree of accuracy he would do A, B, C, and D. I couldn't; 
I am not talking for other people. I don't believe I can, and I have 
been a policeman long enough to know there are certain things you do. 
You respond. Some of these are intuitive responses ; some are responses 
after making an evaluation of the situation as you see it. 

I don't believe anyone would more closely guard the rights of the 
individuals in our society and do those things that are constitutionally 
protected. I would fight for those rights. I do recognize there are ter- 
rorist groups in our society and I don't believe we should stand by and 
wring our hands and say, "What are we going to do?" 

I think certain positive steps should be taken. If they are wrong, we 
find out if they are wrong and change them, but we should not just 
sit there. 

Mr. Wiggins. Under our system it is going to be very difficult to 
do anything about those terrorist groups until they, in fact, commit 
an act of terror. Simply because they have a propensity or likelihood 
to do so, we are, under our system, almost powerless to deal with them. 

Mr. Brasco. Mr. Chairman, a quorum call. 

Chairman Pepper. We will take a brief recess while we answer the 
quorum call and then we will return. 

Do you consider now it would have been desirable to call the Na- 
tional Guard or the military guard to come to the aid of this? 

Mr. GiARRt sso. No, sir. I don't believe that this was a situation 
which required the National Guard or the military, other than to give 
us hardware that was needed and/or to complement some of the 
acts we were taking as a result of our inability to cope with that 
situation. 

Chairman Pepper. Thank you. Superintendent. We will be back 
in just a few minutes. 

[A brief recess was taken.] 

Chairman Pepper. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Lynch. Detective Kastner indicated to me he had some photo- 
graphs that would be of interest to the committee. 

I wonder if you would bring the photographs up to the bench. 

Those photographs, Mr. Chairman, are principally photographs 
of Mr. Essex's room, which the police department discovered after 
the incident. They are germane in that they respond principally to 
questions asked by Mr. Wiggins earlier this morning. 

[See material received for the record at the end of Mr. Giarrusso's 
testimony.] 



122 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, you indicated that the local television station 
performed a certain service, as it were, in quelling some of the rumors 
which cropped up during the course of this incident. I wonder if you 
could elaborate on that, please. 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. I think the media made a positive contribution to 
the incident, in that, for one thing, they did keep the traffic out of the 
area, both pedestrian as well as automobile. In addition to that, they 
did serve to neutralize rumors that were running rampant at the time, 
and, third, they did keep the public informed ; and the public has the 
right to know what is going on when something like this occurs. 

They were currently abreast of the affairs. I know they made quite 
a contribution, although at the time I did not know the magnitude 
of the coverage by the media. 

Mr. Lynch. There is a representative from WWL-TV of New 
Orleans here today, Mr. Dave Walker. Did you work with him during 
the course of this incident. Superintendent? 

Mr. GiARRusso. No, sir. On the contrary, I would say Mr. Dave 
Walker and I worked at opposite ends of the pole for the simple reason 
that subsequent to the affair, Mr. Walkei- made several reports, which 
I believe he received from the policemen, and I thought it was hinder- 
ing the investigation at that time. 

But in deference to him, I think he is a very good reporter and he 
did the job that he had to do, as objectively as he is capable of doing it. 

I don't have any misgivings about Mr. Walker's coverage. But we 
didn't work together; no, sir. 

Mr. Lynch. And Mr. Walker did, in fact, conduct — or his station 
conducted — an independent investigation of this incident; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. Yes, sir. It is my understanding that he did. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Chairman, I think it would be useful at this time 
if we called Mr. Walker of WWL-TV to very briefly describe what 
his station did during this incident. 

Mr. Walker, I wonder if you could describe your activities sur- 
rounding the incident and also would you advise the committee as to 
the communication which your station received from Mark Essex. 

Statement of William D. Walker 

Mr. Walker. The coverage began by myself sometime between 
11 :30 and 12 noon on Sunday, the 7th. It extended to a period of about 
10 o'clock as far as live coverage. This is a position where we had 
television cameras located directly across and to the front of the 
Howard Johnson's in the Warwick Hotel. And another camera sta- 
tioned above the Howard Johnson's on the back of the New Orleans 
Building. 

Both cameras were live for some 14 hours, one of the cameras in 
the Warwick Hotel, which provided live coverage of the incident 
itself, from about 2 o'clock in the afternoon on Sunday, the 7th. 

Subsequent to the coverage itself and provided with certain in- 
formation I did conduct what I hope was an independent investigation 
of the incident, particularly as it concerned the number of people 
involved, because it was suspected, I think by all of us, during the 
period of the confrontation in Howard Johnson's that there was more 
than one individual involved. 



123 

I believe there is suiRcient information available at this point to 
indicate otherwise; that there was only one man who actually fired 
shots from Howard Johnson's. 

Mr. Lynch. I believe you told me, Mr. Walker, that you had re- 
ceived, or your television station had received, a letter or a' written 
communication of some form from Mark Essex. Would you describe 
that? 

Mr. Walker. Yes. This envelope was postdated January 2, 1973. 
The letter itself began with a salutation of "Africa Greets You." 

"On January 1, 1973, the downtown New Orleans Police Depart- 
ment will be attacked. Eeason — many. But the death of two innocent 
brothers will be avenged.'' 

It ended, "^LA.TA." 

As I said, the envelope to the letter was postdated January 2, indi- 
cating to us, and I believe also to the police department, if I am cor- 
rect, that the letter could have been mailed as late or as early as some- 
time Friday night, December 30, prior to the incident at police 
headquarters. 

We had a holiday ; there was no mail pickup. We have some situa- 
tions in the city where the mail is not picked up in the boxes until on 
a Monday or Sunday night following a weekend. The letter was turned 
over to the New Orleans Police Department, obviously after the in- 
cident occurred, and in fact after the Howard Johnson's incident 
itself. 

The letter was addressed simply to "WWL Television" rather than 
to "News Department" or any individual. Those letters, as a matter 
of course, generally are disregarded. 

There has been a lot of concern on the part of people as to whether 
or not had that letter been delivered either before the New Year's 
Eve incident or, in fact, before the Howard Johnson's incident, 
whether or not it might have aided the police department. 

I think it is the general consensus of most people involved that it 
probably would not have. 

Mr. Lynch. When did you make it available to the police depart- 
ment? 

Mr. Walker. It was made available, I believe, on the 12th. It was 
made available on the 12th, following the incident at Howard John- 
son's on the 7th. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you know how the police department — I guess we 
could ask Superintendent Giarrusso to answer this — was able to iden- 
tify that as being from Mark Essex ? 

Mr. Walker. It was my understanding it has been. They can verify 
that. The reason the letter was turned over, I saw it sometime on the 
11th, the morning of the 12th, and the reason it was turned over, I 
suspect, was because of the way the letter was signed, "MATA." I 
had visited the apartment where Mark Essex lived. 

Chairman Pepper. How was that ? 

Mr. Walker. It is signed "MATA." 

Mr. Lynch. "M-A-T-A." 

Mr. Walker. I am not sure, I think this is a Spanish word meaning 
to kill. There is also, according to the source that we had, it might 
possibly be a derivation of Swahili, indicating an instrument to kill. 



124 

I had seen that same word on the wall of the apartment of Mark 
Essex, and that is the reason it was turned over to the New Orleans 
Police Department. 

Mr. Lynch. I have no questions of the witness, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Walker, I suspect you would agree it is de- 
sirable in an emergency like this for close cooperation and coordina- 
tion to be maintained between the police authorities and the media ? 

Mr. Walker. Yes, sir. I think there has to be a liaison. We should, 
I say, probably feel pretty good about our situation in New Orleans, 
simply because of the access. I say we have 90 percent access to police 
operations and information. That remaining 10 percent, we are always 
trying to get, but it is generally of an intelligence nature and some- 
times hard to acquire. But that level of cooperation, I think, if nothing 
else, during this period of time I think people were at home watching 
the incident on television as opposed to being on the streets in the 
downtown area interfering with police operations. 

Chairman Pepper. This letter, of course, didn't give the addrt^s of 
the sender ? 

Mr. Walker. No, sir; it did not. I learned the address on the 8th. 
following an anonymous telephone call to our office from a female, 
who asked if we wanted to know the present and last address of Mark 
Essex. Of course, we did. We checked it out. That information was 
turned over to the police department. 

Chairman Pepper. Did the letter reveal any fingerprints ? 

Mr. Walker. That is something I suspect the police department 
would have to answer. I believe I am privy to that, but I think the 
answer would be better to come from them. 

Chairman Pepper. Can you state whether it did or not. Chief ? 

Mr. GiARRTJSSo. It was checked but there were no prints. No prints 
identifiable as such. 

Chairman Pepper. So that if it had been turned over to you from 
Mr. Walker's television station, it would have been difficult for you to 
identify and locate the sender within a reasonable time ; would it not ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. Unquestionably ; yes. 

Chairman Pepper. But at least it would have advised you there was 
such a person in the neighborhood who was a potentially dangerous 
person. 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Chairman, at this time Chief Giarrusso would like 
to introduce several members of his panel to describe to the com- 
mittee the history of the urban squad in New Orleans and also to de- 
scribe the new felony action squad. 

Superintendent. 

Mr. Giarrusso. Mr. Chairman, Sgt. Warren Woodfork, to my im- 
mediate right, is the commanding officer of the felony action squad. 
The felony action squad is a concept that was developed and con- 
ceived by him approximately 9 months ago. Its purpose, its primary 
purpose, is to deal with the crime in the street. 

Subsequent to its announcement there was a great deal of contro- 
versy in New Orleans because there were groups of people who said 
that its intention was to kill blacks only, and certainly it wasn't in- 
tended to kill anyone ; it was intended to surpress crime in the streets. 

I think Sergeant Woodfork is very capable of taking it from there. 



125 

Chairman Pepper. Very good. We are pleased to have you, Sergeant 
Woodf ork. You may make your statement. 

Statement of Warren Woodfork 

Mr. Woodfork. As the superintendent has said, the felony action 
squad is a group of volunteer police officers selected by the superin- 
tendent. They are plainclothes officers. I explain that by saying a little 
different from the traditional plainclothes officers. 

These officers attire in contemporary clothing and they utilize non- 
traditional-type police vehicles. It is principally designed to attack 
what we define as street crimes, such as armed robberies, purse snatch- 
ings, rapes, illegal carrying of weapons, auto thefts, or any other of- 
fense that relies on public streets or sidewalks for successful per- 
petration. 

I guess, basically, you could say that psychological warfare is the 
principal weapon in the felony action squad. We believe that perpe- 
trators of crime, or the criminal elements, develop reluctance to com- 
mit crimes when they can't easily identify the law enforcement agen- 
cies, which makes an apprehension inevitable. It is requisite to com- 
mit a crime. 

Basically, I say initially, we could measure our success through the 
number of apprehensions that we make. Most of the arrests that the 
felony action squad makes involve arresting people during the com- 
mission of a crime or immediatel}' thereafter. All of this is to eventu- 
ally create an atmosphere whereby anyone who perpetrates a crime 
feels it is just too risky not being able to readily identify the law 
enforcement agency where we would have an atmosphere of little or 
no crime. 

Chairman Pepper. Have you found that unit to be effective, to be 
helpful, in suppressing the street crime ? 

Mr. Woodfork. Yes, sir, very much so. We have been in operation 
approximately 6 months. I think after a year we will be able to show 
some more concrete evidence. But I would say by the number of appre- 
hensions, it has met with a great deal of success. Contraiy to some 
of the beliefs that they would meet with a lot of resistance in making 
arrests, that people would be killed, and what-have-you, in a brief 
6-month period only one fatality has resulted and that involved a nian 
immediately involved in an armed robbery, whereby he was robbing 
another person with a gun and he ended up being fatally wounded. 

Other than that, I don't think we have had any more problems than 
the guys in uniform have in effecting an arrest. 

Chairman Pepper. Very good. Thank you. 

Mr. Lynch. Superintendent, I wonder if you could now have one 
of the members of your panel describe the urban squad and what it 
is that squad does. 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Chairman, the urban squad in the city of New Orleans was 
developed by Sgt. Rinal Martin. His purpose was to deal with sensi- 
tive areas where there had been a great deal of distrust and fear, that 
existed both between the residents of a certain area of the city of 
New Orleans and the police themselves. 

I think there was a mutual fear that existed at that time. It was 
after there had been a confrontation with a group known as "the 



126 

Panthers" in the city of New Orleans that this squad was formed. It 
was formed to fill the vacuum that began to divide the community at 
that time. Its concept is that the police actually render services to the 
public. 

I believe that what has been done is the genesis of a new type of 
police work that we will be looking at over the next 10 or 15 years, in 
that police, volunteer police, have gone into an area where they were 
disliked and distrusted and they have actually made friends and have 
eiSciently ser\'ed the public, so much so now that there is a demand 
for similar types of squads to service other sections of the city. 

The area in which they went was, I would consider, the only true 
ghetto in the city of New Orleans. They operated very effectively 
there. 

Sergeant Martin can take it from there, sir. 

Statement of Rinal Martin 

Mr. Martin. Mr. Chairman, the urban squad was started approxi- 
mately 2 years ago. It was organized on February 1, 1971. We took 
responsibility for the Desiree project area on February 27, after two 
confrontations, as the superintendent said. 

Before going into this area these officers were specially trained. 
We had what we called stress training. Also, they were volunteer 
officers. Their records were analyzed for attitudes, performance, and 
awareness of social problems. 

We met with community leaders and had civil meetings, and prior 
to going into that area we had a whole day of rap sessions with resi- 
dents of the area to explain what we were going to do when we moved 
into the area with more police. 

We were moving into this area as a service rather than an oppressive 
force, which happens a lot of times when you increase police service 
in an area. If the residents don't know what you are doing they misin- 
terpret your goals or your motives. 

As a result of this and getting to know the people, and regaining 
confidence and getting cooperation with the people and the leaders, 
we have been able to effectively reduce crime in this area, and the 
people have services. 

When we first started in this area the people were so fearful that 
they wouldn't turn off their lights at night. The lights in the home 
stayed on all night. And as a contrast, the lights in the streets and 
courtyards were constantly being shot out or broken by bricks and 
bottles. 

Two years later, in the same area, we have just the opposite. We 
have effective lighting in the streets, in the courts that are able to 
stay lit, and the lights in the homes are now put out. People can go 
to sleep without their lights. 

That is about the genesis of the squad. 

Chairman Pepper. Very good. Proceed with the next witness. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Giarrusso, do the other two officers here this morn- 
ing have some testimony to give relative to programs in which they 
are participating ? 



127 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. Only Major Poissenot. Mr. Kastner is my strong 
right arm for reference on the Howard Johnson affair. Major Poissenot 
is the commanding officer of the patrol division of the police depart- 
ment in the city of New Orleans. As such, he has innovated on many 
occasions, and redeployed personnel so that we have successfully re- 
duced crime over the past 2 years. 

To mention a few of the things he has done : He has been actively 
participating with citizens, with organizations such as Women Against 
Crime. There are times when he must go to extremes, and he has in the 
past removed all motorcycle men from the streets and put them in areas 
to combat burglaries and armed robberies. In 30 or 40 seconds he can 
explain these things to you. 

Statement of Lloyd Poissenot 

Mr. Poissenot, Mr. Chairman, the patrol division, comprises the 
eight police precincts, the urban squad, the felony action squad, com- 
munication centers, emergency division, and armored division, ap- 
proximately 700 people. 

We have been working somewhat at a deficit. We don't have full 
manpower. 

Chairman Pepper. Excuse me just a minute. How many police do 
you have per thousand population in the city of New Orleans? 

Mr. GiARRusso. We have 1,500 commissioned personnel and approxi- 
mately 500 civilian personnel. 

Mr. Lynch. I think the chairman would like to know how many 
you have per capita. 

Mr. GiARRusso. I believe it is 2.1 per thousand, but I would have 
to sit down and compute it for you. The last time I looked at it, it was 
about 2.1 per thousand. 

Chairman Pepper. What is it, Mr. Lynch, here in the District? 

Mr. Lynch. I believe the indication yesterday, Mr. Chairman, was 
approximately 6.6. 

Chairman Pepper. Approximately 6.6 per thousand in the District 
of Columbia. Of course, no doubt that has had something to do with 
the reduction in crime. You would be pleased to have that large a 
percentage, wouldn't you ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. If you had the Federal Government behind you, 
maybe you could get a little bit more money. 

Mr. Poissenot. Because we have a shortage of personnel at the 
time, we had been able to get some overtime and the overtime has been 
provided in the forms of task force cars. These are cars that are either 
marked cars or unmarked cars, that are manned in both combinations, 
uniformed police officers in the marked cars, occasionally uniformed 
men in the unmarked cars. 

Also, we have the unmarked car with the plainclothes officer doing 
followup work. 

These have been very efficient, and we have gotten a lot of success 
from them. 



128 

We are constantly trying to change and alter our beat coverage. 
Foot-beat coverage, for example, is a very high luxury, so we work 
combinations of foot beats and riding beats, so the men can do both 
a little more effectively. 

By being able to put these people by statistical reference where the 
crime is occurring, or where we think it is occurring, we have been 
able in many cases to do a pretty good job. 

We do need and do hope we could get some additional funding. We 
would, of course, be very happy to have the increase in manpower 
that would take our forces up to what its expected coverage should 
be. But in the meantime, I think by innovative process we are begin- 
ning to see some light; we are doing an effective job in trying to re- 
duce the on-the-street type of crime. 

Chairman Pepper. We are very pleased to hear of these imaginative 
procedures and innovations you have inaugurated, Superintendent, in 
your great city of New Orleans. What this committee is concerned 
about is what can be done further to reduce crime in this country, to 
restore a greater degree of safety to our people than they now have. 

I would like to ask you a question or two. Do you in the police de- 
partment have any sense of frustration or disappointment on account 
of the inability of the prosecuting attorney's offices and the courts to 
handle cases as rapidly as you feel they should be handled ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. I believe this is the facet of the j^roblem with which 
police departments are confronted throughout the Nation, but I can 
talk with a little more authority about the city of New Orleans. 

Yes, we are confronted with this problem; in that the criminal jus- 
tice system as such is fragmented and has little coordination among the 
forces of criminal justice; namely, the police, the district attorney, the 
judges, the probation and parole officers, and the jails. There is a differ- 
ent approach, each is a separate entity, and as such we are working 
at cross purposes on occasions. 

Unrelated to that, when we talk about problems, in my opinion, is 
something that is very important to our city. It is the number of 
youths that are committing crimes of violence. I don't have any ready 
answers for it, but I think that pointing out the problem as it exists 
among the juveniles, in the city of New Orleans anyhow, is one that we 
are concerned about, one where legal limitations prevent us from tak- 
ing effective action to protect the public. 

We have ideas that cretainly are inconsistent with some of the con- 
stitutional rights that people have. We would like to see some changes 
made in the criminal justice system, in that people would be tried 
much faster rather than getting out on bond, knowing that a case is 
made against them and several other crimes are committed, because 
they know they are going to go up ultimately on one of the cases, but 
they will not be tried on all of them. This is fairly common knowl- 
edge among the criminal element in the community. 

Chairman Pepper. What about the correctional institutions, the 
penal institutions? Do you have a high rate of recidivism in those 
institutions ? 

Mr. GiARRUSSO. Our figures show something like 85 percent of those 
in the parish or county jail, as it is more commonly known, runs about 
85 percent. The rate of recidivism runs about 85 percent. I don't be- 
lieve in an iron glove approach to that. I do sincerely believe a large 
percentage of these people are rehabilitative. 



129 

On the other hand, I believe there is a marginal group in our so- 
ciety that medical science and other disciplines don't have an answer 
for yet, and they should be separated from society for the sake of 
society. 

Chairman Pepper. Do you have a large State penal institution such 
as we have in Raiford, Fla., which is your main State penal 
institution ? 

jNIr. GiARRUsso. Yes ; we do have a State penitentiary. 

Chairman Pepper. Where is that located ? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. At Angola, La. It is a large penal farm. 

Chairman Pepper. It is in a rural area ? 

Mr. GiARRusso. Yes, sir ; it is. 

Chairman Pepper. And the population of it is 2,000 or 3,000? 

Mr. GiARRUsso. Something in the neighborhood thereof ; yes, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. That seems to have been the pattern in the build- 
ing of these institutions around the country. Personally, I know about 
Attica, which is a little town, small village, in New York; Eaiford, 
Fla., is a small town. You are telling me yours is located in a rural 
area. 

The idea seems to have been, years ago, to put them out in those 
rural areas. And now the trend seems to be the other way, put them 
in the city, make them very much smaller, 200 or 300 population, and 
make available halfway houses and employment for those who are 
eligible for that, and the like. 

Do you have any institutions like that in Louisiana; any modern- 
type penal institutions ? 

Mr. GiARRUSso. We have no such modern-type institution. However, 
the one jail that we do have in our city is one that is currently hous- 
ing about 1,100 people. The capacity of that jail is about 700. With 
Federal funds they are now building another jail, a new jail, a modern 
institution, which will house, I believe, a total of 480 people, which 
seems inconsistent with the amount of crime that is being committed. 

I don't know what they are going to do with the remainder of the 
citizens when they move them. We are under Federal court order to 
cease and desist using that jail in 1975, which is 2 years hence. 

Chairman Pepper. Is that all, Mr. Lynch ? 

Mr. Lynch. Yes. 

Chairman Pepper. Do you have any questions, Mr. Nolde ? 

Mr. XoLDE. No, thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Superintendent, we want to thank you and your 
associates for coming here today and giving us this very valuable and 
helpful information. We are very grateful to you. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. GiARRusso. Mr. Chairman, thank you. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief, is it agreeable if we incorporate into the 
record at this hearing the photographs of the walls of the room where 
Mark Essex was living, the participant in the Howard Johnson 
incident ? 

Mr. Giarrusso. Whatever is the desire of this committee. 

Chairman Pepper. I think it will be very interesting to have them 
in the record, because what you see in these pictures is very revealing 
as to what was in the mind of this man. 

Thank you again. 

Mr. Giarrusso. Thank you veiy much. 

[The photographs referred to follow :] 



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95-158 O— 73— pt. 1 10 



136 

Chairman Pepper. We will take a recess until 2 o'clock. 
[Whereupon, at 1 :35 p.m., the committee recessed, to reconvene at 
2 p.m., this same day.] 

Afternoon Session 

Mr. Rangel (presiding). The Select Committee on Crime will come 
to order. 

We have as witnesses, Chief Winston Churchill of the Indianapolis 
Police Department and Capt. W. R. Greene, commander, homicide 
and robbery branch of the Indianapolis Police Department. 

On behalf of the chairman and the committee I thank you for tak- 
ing time off from your busy schedules to help us to determine what 
the Congress can do in order to make our streets more safe. 

If you have statements, you may enter them in whole or in part in 
the record, and if you have testimony that deals with it, you can give 
it either by reading your prepared statement or by testifying to any- 
thing you would like to testify to. 

STATEMENT OF WINSTON L. CHURCHILL, CHIEF, INDIANAPOLIS 
(IND.) POLICE DEPARTMENT, ACCOMPANIED BY WILLIAM ROB- 
ERT GREENE, CAPTAIN, HOMICIDE AND ROBBERY DIVISION 

Mr. Rangel. Chief Churchill, do you have a prepared statement? 

Mr. Churchill. Not a prepared written statement, sir, but I am 
prepared to speak to the committee. 

Mr. Rangel. Thank you. 

Mr. Churchill. We consider it a very definite honor to be asked 
to come to testify before this committee. We feel that Indianapolis 
has made great progress in our effort to reduce crime in our com- 
munity. We feel that there are some specific reasons why this progress 
has been made. 

We feel that in the final analysis, the police department does not 
control crime in the community. In truth, the citizens themselves 
control crime. I feel there would no longer be prostitutes walking the 
streets in any city if it were not for those who hire them. By the same 
token, there cannot be a gambling establishment that could continue 
to operate if it were not for those who go in there to gamble. 

A burglar and thief would not be able to exist if it weren't for 
those who eagerly keep at his heels to buy what he has stolen. There- 
fore, it is mandatory on the part of the police department that we 
establish a very close liaison and working relationship with the 
community so that by this effort the community might know they 
control crime. 

By the same token, we must work hand in hand to make the com- 
munity understand that by their efforts and their cooperation with the 
police department, will this success be achieved. The communities 
themselves are the key. 

The police department has tried many innovative procedures and 
plans, some of which have failed ; but one important one has succeeded 
in bringing the policeman and the community closer together. Prior 
to 1967, the Indianapolis Police Department, like most police depart- 
ments in the country, purchased an automobile as a patrol car, which 
at that time was required to operate 24 hours a day. 



137 

In the wintertime the engine was seldom shut off. We devised 
a plan whereby every patrol officer could have his own assigned car. 
This required increasing the size of our fleet by four times, thus 
putting more police cars on the streets of our city than we had ever 
known before. I am satisfied that the people of our community like 
the plan and they feel a degree of comfort in seeing these vehicles 
on the streets. 

By the same token, I am satisfied that the criminal element in 
Indianapolis feels very uncomfortable with this vast number of 
vehicles on the street. 

The police department has prepared considerable literature to 
be distributed to various cities. A copy of that literature has been 
given to each of you on this committee. But that primarily deals 
with what the police department has done in making a patrol car 
available to every individual officer. He not only uses that vehicle 
during his tour of duty but he takes it home with him and keeps it 
for the remainder of the day. He is allowed to drive the vehicle to 
the store, to church, wherever he might see fit to take it during his 
off-duty hours. 

It may even sound amusing, but if an officer is not married, we 
allow him to date in that vehicle. So there is a high visibility of police 
in the city of Indianapolis. 

More importantly, we should tell you how we did this, because I 
would stress that at the very start of this explanation that not 1 cent 
of Federal money was used to put this plan in operation. Each year 
in the police department's budget we allotted funds for a certain num- 
ber of vehicles. Our whole premise was based on the idea we wanted 
to save time in the police department, that time was important, and 
often we would realize on the day shift alone vehicles had to be taken 
out of service to be gassed, to be washed, to be serviced, and all of this 
time a police officer was standing idly by while that piece of equip- 
ment was being worked on. 

Two, we were forced to be aware that a vehicle working in the 
northern part of the city would well have to check out of service 30 
minutes early so the officer might have time to drive to headquarters, 
exchange the equipment and driver, and the new police officer drive 
30 minutes back to his district before reporting for service. So we real- 
ized that we were losing a minimum of 1 hour per shift, per car, per 
day, because of the vehicle shortage. 

We took the money that we had allotted in our budget for automo- 
biles and asked the city council to grant us an advance of $650,000 so 
that we could purchase in one lump sum a new patrol fleet. Now, this 
was not easily done. But we prepared figures which are available in 
our handouts to show tliat we were in a position, having gone through 
many tests, to show that it was a sound program. 

Mr. Raxgel. How many vehicles are we talking about? 

Mr. Churchill. We are talking about a total patrol fleet of 455 
vehicles, totally equipped. 

But we realized when we saved 8 man-hours that we received in 
return a police officer, already trained and uniformed and ready to 
go on the street. The time we saved with these vehicles amounted to 
the salaries of 70 new police officers for our department. The spinoffs 



138 

of this program have been so broad, many that we did not even 
envision. 

The national standards now for robbery will tell us that the average 
robbery in the United States amounts to $94; the average burglary 
amounts to $136; the average larceny in the country, $71; and the 
average vehicle theft, $1,100. Since putting these cars into service in 
our city we have had a reduction in 1 year of 329 robberies. That 329 
multiplied by the $94 national average saved the city, our citizens, 
$30,926. 

We have reduced burglary by 1,105 cases; again multiplying by the 
national average, we saved our community $150,280. 

Our larcenies were reduced by 1,851 cases and, by the national aver- 
age amounted to savings to our community of $131,421. Our vehicle 
thefts were reduced by 2,438, thus meaning a savings to our community 
of $2,706,180. 

Now, all told, for the $650,000 advance given to us by the council 
we show a reduction in crime, when figured on a dollar- and-cents 
basis, in excess of $3 million. 

But there is more for the car plan. We began immediately to realize 
the reduction in the number of traffic fatalities because our police 
vehicles were visible all over the city. We reduced our fatality rate 
in Indianapolis by 31 persons in 1 year. We reduced our personal 
injury accidents by 1,136, and our property damage accidents by 2,244. 

The National Safety Council tells us that each traffic fatality aver- 
ages out to an amount of $38,700. Each personal injury accident aver- 
ages $2,300. Each property damage accident, $360. When we multiply 
those figures by the amount of reduction in our city, it comes to a stag- 
gering total in automobile accidents alone of a savings of $4,620,000. 

When we then show the reduction of crime related to dollars and 
cents, when we show the reduction of automobile accidents and fatali- 
ties in dollars and cents and then just give the car program 20 per- 
cent of the credit, that shows a return of recurring value for the 
$650,000 investment of $2,122,000 for our car fleet. 

This program has been studied carefully. It has excellent control, 
and we are operating our vehicle fleet in the Indianapolis Police 
Department now for 6.5 cents a mile. I don't know of any taxicab 
fleet or any other organization operating a fleet that cheaply. 

We have found that the cars are receiving much better care. In 
fact, many of the officers are now washing their own vehicles. The 
cars are much cleaner. Consequently, when we trade in a third of 
our fleet at the end of each year, the resale value of those automobiles 
is way up over what we used to receive for a completely wornout 
vehicle. 

So the automobile program in Indianapolis is a good one. I am 
proud that we have been a leader in this field and that many other 
cities are now considering the possibility of using the Indianapolis 
fleet plan. 

We feel it has a great future and we have no intention at all of 
abandoning this program which has proven to be such a great value 
to our community. 

Now, there are other things that Indianapolis has done to assist 
in the relationship between police and community. Some of them 
are unique and unusual. We openly invite the people of our com- 



139 

munity to come and ride in our police cars during the officer's tour 
of duty, and in the year or 14 months this program has been in effect 
we have transported no less than 6,000 community people in our 
automobiles. 

We ask only that they sign a liability release so they would not sue 
the city should they be injured while they are in that car. But we 
openly invite them to come and ride in the police car, see what it 
is like, and share this experience with the jwlice officer. Once this is 
done, the police department realizes that we have many new friends 
and a close liaison has been established between the department and 
the people of our community. 

We also openly invite people to purchase police radios and listen 
to them, that the codes and signals that we use are not meant to be 
clandestine or secretive, but rather to save broadcast time. Recently, 
we changed our codes and signals to more closely conform with na- 
tional standards. We openly told the people that this change was 
coming and that if they would like, if they would send us a self- 
addressed, stamped envelope, we would be happy to send them a 
copy of our codes and signals. 

To date, we have sent out nearly 20,000 of those. People now often 
write to us, telling us that our dispatchers are even radio broadcast 
personalities. 

So the community is aware of what the police department is doing 
and they want to help. 

The important thing is that hand in hand we combat crime by the 
individual citizen knowing that he must accept the responsibility to 
obey the law willingly, not because we are forced to but because the 
people of our community clearly see it is to their advantage to obey 
the law. 

I have brought with me and placed here on the corner of the table — 
and I believe they are going to plug it in for us now — a police radio 
receiver. I have asked the Regency Electronic Co. in Indianapolis to 
make this available to me, because there is a question in my mind as 
to whether or not the gentlemen who are serving on this committee, 
this very important Committee on Crime, have ever in fact taken the 
time to listen to a radio broadcast of the police department in Wash- 
ington, D.C., to see what is happening in this community. 

Captain, would you turn on the radio? You will note this is a 
scanner-type radio and that it moves very quickly from one fre- 
quency to another, seeking out the call that might be made. 

Mr. Greene. Very briefly, this radio is on call to a scanner put out 
by Radio Electronics in Indianapolis. This particular radio has been 
set up with four frequencies of the Washington, D.C., Police Depart- 
ment. As the chief explained to you, it continually scans, as the dis- 
patcher or control officer in the car will come in and talk. 

Mr. WiXN. You are picking up D.C. calls now ? 

Mr. Greene. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Churchill. I was a little bit surprised. I set this radio up in my 
hotel room last night and listened for some time. I don't believe they 
are quite as busy here as we are in Indianapolis. 

Mr. Greene. As you can see, this also picks up car-to-car transmis- 
sions. 

Mr. Churchill. Many times the Indianapolis Police Department 
has been fortunate to receive telephone calls from citizens who are 



140 

aware that they have just been pursuing a stolen car and the perpetra- 
tor of that crime had leaped from that car and ran, and the citizen 
quickly explains they have heard that broadcast and have just wit- 
nessed that the individual ran into the back yard next door and is 
hiding in the shrubbery, thus assisting in the apprehension of the 
individual. 

Mr. Rangel. This doesn't assist the perpetrator in any way? 

Mr. Churchill. I am sure to some degree it does, but they have 
always monitored our radio. And I see absolutely no reason, while 
we realize the bad guy is listening, I certainly don't want to deprive 
the good guys from listening and from helping us. We feel it has 
strong advantage when the citizen knows what the police department 
is doing. 

Further, I am satisfied that no police department or other agency 
of government has any fear from the community when they know 
the truth about what you are doing and what you are endeavoring to 
do. The community will quickly fall in line and respond favorably 
to the police agency when they hear, constantly, of the effort that 
you are putting forth to protect them. 

We have three chaplains in our department and we urge those chap- 
lains to invite all of the new ministers of our city at least once a year 
to come to police headquarters and go out in our police cars and ride 
with the individual officers. 

I will share privately with you that I know very well that on the 
day when a young officer has someone riding with him that he stretches 
just a little more on that occasion to do a good job. 

One of the most difficult areas of relationship between the com- 
munity and the police department lies in the area of narcotics and 
dangerous drugs. Much misinformation, I think, has been given in 
this field. So we strove to reach some medium whereby we could con- 
vince the public that the information we wanted to give them about 
this problem was true and accurate and correct. 

The best way we found to do this was when the police department 
was going to have an inservice training program, to train our own 
officers in the latest techniques and laws and rules relative to narcotics 
and dangerous drugs, that we extend open invitations to all of these 
student presidents, the student councils of all of the high schools, the 
presidents of the PTA, neighborhood organizations, to come to police 
headquarters, sit with us in our retraining sessions with our police, 
and hear it at the same time we are informing the officers. 

We have found this has met with tremendous response. And in our 
last inservice training program for police, we likewise at the same 
time, gave narcotics and dangerous drugs information to over 1,400 
citizens of our community. This we will continue to do. 

At the same time, the police department prints numerous pamphlets 
and publications for the citizens to learn how to better protect them- 
selves, protect their property, and for women to protect themselves. 
Copies of all of that literature is in the packet we have given to you. 

[See material received for the record at the end of Mr. Churchill's 
testimony.] 

We are satisfied that in 2 calendar years, the reduction of 26 per- 
cent in crime in Indianapolis has been largely the result of the lines 
of cooperation and communication which have been established be- 



141 

tween the community and our department. And when that type of a 
cooperative line is established, I believe it almost mandates that our 
crime will continue to recede and that the public and the citizens of 
Indianapolis, knowing their police department is eagerly endeavoring 
to help them, will continue to cooperate. 

With that, I would say, Congressman Pepper, as chief of police 
of the city of Indianapolis and as a representative of the officers of 
that department, and speaking, too, for the Regency Electronic Co., 
I would be most pleased if you would accept this police radio with our 
compliments, in the hopes that being chairman of this committee you 
will find time to listen to it and be more knowledgeable about the crime 
and activities of the AVashington Police. 

Chairman Pepper. Thank you very much. That is very generous 
of you, Mr. Churchill. I accept it with a great deal of pleasure. 
Mr. Churchill. Thank you, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. I am sorry I was delayed over in the Capitol and 
didn't get to hear the earlier part of your statement, which I will care- 
fully note. We were looking forward to your coming here because of 
the novelty of your program in establishing such close accord and 
working relationship with the people of Indianapolis. I can tell from 
your statement that you have done a very fine job. 

We are very pleased that you could come and tell us about it. 
Mr. Churchill. I thank you, sir. We honor the invitation. 
Chairman Pepper. Any more questions, Mr. Lynch ? 
Mr. Lynch. I have several questions, Mr. Chairman. 
Chief Churchill, you indicated that it was your judgment, based on 
the December 1972 evaluation of the fleet plan, that that program and 
the spinoffs from that program had saved your department and the 
taxpayers of the city some $3 million. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Churchill. That is true. And that $3 million figure, sir, is based 
on the idea of giving the car program only 20 percent of the credit. 

Mr. Lynch. Could you tell the committee what your annual police 
department budget is in the city of Indianapolis ? 

Mr. Churchill. The annual police department budget at this time 
is $17 million. 

Mr. Lynch. So that saving would approximate 20 percent of your 
total budget ? 

Mr. Churchill. That is true. And I find that while the public is 
greatly concerned about the assaults appearing on the citizens, and 
so on, when you talk to the councilmen and so forth to get money to 
relate to these programs, that when you turn and relate the savings in 
dollars and cents, it seems to be much more meaningful. 

I am sure the citizens also appreciate the fact that they can see in a 
very real way that the car program is a valuable one, not only to the 
department, but to them as individual citizens. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, how much do you pay a starting patrolman in 
Indianapolis? 

Mr. Churchill. We pay a starting patrolman $7,200. That is not 
a great deal of money, but I am proud to tell you the Indianapolis 
Police Department not only has a full complement of officers, but a 
waiting list of over 400 applicants. 

Mr. Lynch. Does the fact that you provide what amounts to a per- 
sonal vehicle for those patrolmen help you as a recruiting device? 



142 

Mr. Churchill. I feel that may be one of the advantages. One spin- 
off that is very important, and perhaps I should mention to you here, 
is that we provide these vehicles on a take-home basis only to the 
patrol officers. When I became the chief of police I was surprised to 
find that the average tenure of the uniformed officer on the street was 
about 2.4 years. 

Now, that is a great deal of responsibility to place upon an individual 
with no more experience than that. So I wanted the car program to be 
an incentive to that officer to remain a uniformed patrol officer and 
not to be so eager to transfer away from that division. 

We have found now that has expanded. The average tenure of each 
officer is almost 5 years. 

We have even had some detectives who have indicated they would 
like to transfer back to uniform so they might have the advantage of 
a vehicle. 

Mr. Lynch. Are you able to make a judgment as to how many hours 
those vehicles are operated on a nonduty basis during a week by an 
average patrolman? 

Mr. Churchill. No, sir ; we have not been able to evaluate that. We 
have realized a vast number of felony and misdemeanor arrests, which 
have been made by off-duty officers. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you have any figures about that, Chief ? 

Mr. Churchill. In the first year we had the car program in effect, 
84 felony arrests, including arrest for bank robbery, were made. 

Mr. Lynch. Out of the total of how many made by your department, 
roughly ? 

Mr. Churchill. Out of a total of 33,604 total arrests ; that is, both 
felony and misdemeanor. But we recorded, that we know of, 84 felony 
arrests we would not have made otherwise. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, I wonder if you could show the committee some 
of the materials which you publish and distribute in the community ? 

Mr. Churchill. There are many. You have copies of each of them 
in your folders. But we try to help our shops and stores by putting 
out pamphlets and having seminars on how best to stop shoplifting. 

For the traffic safety, a real, down-to-earth pamphlet, "How Fast 
Can You Die?" And this one has been most meaningful, "Teenagers 
Want To Know What Is the Law for a Teenager." 

We have in effect in Indianapolis in the narcotics area, a joint en- 
forcement team made up of local officers, county officers, and State 
officers. The purpose of the joint team is to direct their efforts toward 
the narcotics and dangerous drug pushers around the schools. This 
booklet has been most helpful to use, and in the last calendar year, the 
joint enforcement team effected 384 arrests of pushers in the areas of 
our schools. 

We publish and distribute literature on how to properly describe 
a suspect on the premise that a citizen looks, but he really does not 
see, and perhaps we can give him some literature he can follow and 
if he does follow it, then what he does look at, he sees and remembers 
what he has looked at. 

Publications on women and how to protect themselves, and many 
speeches, are given every year to women's organizations. 

"How To Protect the Businessman." For the homeowner, "Are You 
Inviting a Burglar Into Your Home?" And on and on goes the list. 



143 

Mr. Lynch. How do you distribute those ? This pamphlet on teen- 
agers which I just glanced through, saying, "What Is the Law" — how 
many copies did you distribute and how do you distribute them ? 

Mr. Churchill. We have distributed already with that program 
over 100,000 copies and I am sure there will be more. The police depart- 
ment also has a rather large display of vehicles, motorcycles, guns, 
narcotics, this sort of thing, and we ":o from one shopping center 
to another, setting up our equipment, and urgently asking people, 
"Come visit with us. Look at the equipment you are purchasing for 
your police department," and at the same time we hand out hundreds 
and hundreds of copies of the literature, so that we might best try 
to reach the people of our community. 

I think you will also find in that pamphlet, of which we are very 
happy and very proud, that one of the Indianapolis businesses recently 
saw fit to have a full page advertisement in the Indianapolis news- 
papers : 

Indianapolis is a safer place to live because ur our police department. We 
like your action. Your perfect record of 100 percent clearance on homicide cases 
in 1972 is a first in modern-city history. Over the same period, the Indianapolis 
crime rate was down 26 percent. It marked the fourth consecutive year of crime 
reduction in Indianapolis. Your admirable record is a taxpayer's delight. It 
was achieved without increase in manpower. Your eflSciency has been supple- 
mented by well-planned and administpred community action programs, the kind 
that create public awareness for the need to cooperate with police against crime. 

We are very proud of the relationship that exists between our 
department and the community. 

I have with me here today, Capt. Robert Greene, who is the com- 
manding officer of the homicide and robbery branch of our depart- 
ment. He is here because he and his men have achieved a record that 
I know of nowhere in the country that has been equaled, and that is 
a total 100-percent clearance solving of every homicide which occurred 
in Indianapolis in our last calendar year. 

Captain Greene. 

Statement of William Robert Greene 

Mr. Greene. Thank you very much, Chief. 

Chairman Pepper and distinguished members of this committee, 
it is a pleasure also for me to be here and quite an honor, truthfully. 
I would like to talk to you just briefly about our homicide and robbery 
branch of the Indianapolis Police Department. 

I can't really say we probably do much more than what other homi- 
cide branches have done, but we put together a program that we found 
very beneficial to us and we finished with 100 percent clearance last 
year, a record of which I, personally, am very proud. And for my men, 
I am extremely proud. 

Our branch is a relatively small branch of the police department. 
It consists of 40 members. It is divided primarily into homicide and 
robbery branches, because they run together so often. The functions 
of this branch and squads are a little bit unique in that we investigate 
all crimes of violence against human beings. 

Our function and our main responsibility, of course, is with the 
investigations of murder. Along with that we do investigate all rob- 
beries, shootings, cuttings, stabbings, rape, incest, sodomy, exposing 



144 

and molesting; any kind of violence from one human being against 
another. 

When I took over this branch, and Chief Churchill appointed me 
to it a year ago last March, we had just experienced a time where we 
had seven unsolved murders in the city of Indianapolis. At the time 
that the chief appointed me to this job I was in charge of police 
community relations, an area which I feel helped quite a bit in step- 
ping into this job of homicide and robbery. 

It was really like coming back home to me after I had spent 6I/2 
years previously there as an investigator. 

We made several changes, really not big changes, but we tried to 
become more professional in our approach to investigating crime. 
And I suppose probably the small insignificant thing that really added 
up for us in the long run was we had operated under the theory that 
we could get by with one homicide car on the streets of the city of 
Indianapolis, which I didn't feel we could, and we added an additional 
one, where we now have two cars on the street, 24 hours a day, 365 
days a year. 

Our primary idea and concept behind this, in my personal feeling, 
is that our success came because we were able to get to the scene and 
be right at the initial scene of the crime and start from there and 
follow it completely through. Immediate response was a big help to 
us in solving these crimes, which is what we do now. Every time one 
of our patrol cars is sent on a homicide or a suicide or a police shooting, 
we immediately dispatch one of our homicide cars at the same time. 

Now, the initial homicide officer who arrives at that scene is auto- 
matically charged with that investigation. He picks it up from the 
time that he receives the radio run, and stays with the case until the 
man is sentenced in court and the case is closed. It is all assigned to 
one man. 

Now, we, of course, divide our section into different parts, and most 
all of our robbery personnel are people who have worked homicide at 
one time. Another change we made is when we have a homicide where — 
say, there was a white perpetrator — we automatically assign one of 
our white robbery teams as a backup investigative unit. This comes 
about quite often because many of our homicides are the result of 
robberies. 

We do the same if we have a black perpetrator. We assign a black 
robbery team as a backup unit. We have found this has been very 
helpful to us, not only because of adding more men to the assignments, 
but the fact these men are able to better communicate, a lot of times, 
with people of their own race than they are with opposite races. 

Robbery investigations are handled the same way. We have black 
officers investigating black robberies ; white officers investigating white 
robberies. The logic behind this concept is that investigators can de- 
velop more contacts and informants among their own race, and we 
have found it has been very beneficial to us. 

We are also very interested in, and we work quite extensively on, all 
firearms investigations. These are handled also by our office. One man 
is primarily responsible for conducting comprehensive investigations 
into each case. And along with that, we try to get him to develop a 
history of each firearm that we come in contact with. 



145 

Now, the primary thrust of our investigative technique in homicide 
last year was to immediately saturate the area where we had a homicide. 
Again, when we have one — say, late at night or during the day — all 
homicide and robbery personnel automatically suspend their investi- 
gations for that period, go right to the scene of the homicide, and 
assist the first officer who arrives on the scene, and who acts as the 
coordinator. 

The first detective who arrives on the scene as I said, is directly re- 
sponsible for the investigation, and it is not uncommon at all for him 
to be a patrolman detective assigned to this car. When he arrives on 
the scene, regardless of what ranking officer of the Indianapolis Police 
Department is on that scene, the homicide investigator is in complete 
charge of the complete investigation. 

We have felt that it works much better this 'way since if this man 
is the one who has the ultimate responsibility of handling this case 
and is attempting to see that justice is brought about swiftly, then he 
should handle the investigation from start to finish. 

Now, in all of our investigations, we made an effort to develop a very 
strong prosecution case. Quite often, and very truthfully, we work 
harder today to base these cases on physical evidence rather than eye- 
witness accounts. We have found that through legal maneuvering and 
court delays and prolonging of trials and change of venue out of 
county, that eyewitnesses sometimes do not do as well as we feel that 
they could or can do and quite often over a period of time their memory 
has a tendency to slip occasionally. 

As the chief told you, we are deeply involved in public information 
and education in our police department, and as you notice, some of the 
pamphlets the chief just showed to you my men use quite often when 
they go out and give talks to different civic organizations, block clubs, 
and church groups. 

We have had a A-ery high morale factor in this particular branch and 
I think we operate each month — ^ve knew we were on our way — it is 
kind of like, I would liken it to a pitcher pitching a "no hit/no run" 
game. We saw it coming, yet nobody wanted to talk about it. So I 
think as each case came in, the esprit de corps picked up a little bit more 
and the men put forth a tremendous effort to get it solved. 

We have found the use of informants is especially helpful in our solv- 
ing of homicides, and we use them quite extensively in Indianapolis. 
But our informants are not just the type you would think about when 
you use the word "informant." As we talk about our public awareness 
of what goes on in the police department, quite often — and I can think 
of three cases in particular last year, where we had come up against a 
stone wall and were unable to solve the case, where we called our police 
artist in and, through witnesses, made composite sketches of the men we 
felt were responsible for these homicides. 

I am very happy to say these were published by the news media and 
the papers and TV, and all three of those cases were solved by people 
and citizens in the city of Indianapolis, making anonymous calls, giv- 
ing us the people to check out : and all three of them panned out and 
we were able to solve the crime. 

Chairman Pepper. Excuse me, Mr. Greene. You touched on the ques- 
tion of rewards when you spoke about the informants that you get. 
It generally is considered here, I think, in Washington, that the break 



146 

in the case where Senator Stennis was shot in front of his home came 
from the rewards that were offered. 

I believe the State of Mississippi offered $50,000 reward. I don't 
know whether there was more or not. It occurred to me, whether or 
not the Federal Government might with propriety perhaps join States 
in making reward money available to the police department. Would 
that be feasible and helpful? 

Mr. Greene. I am sure it would be. We have operated in Indian- 
apolis over the past years without a reward fund. But we were able 
to operate. Our city council has seen fit just recently to consider setting 
up a $50,000-a-year fund to be used for rewards. We feel that, yes, 
this would be a big assist to us in solving some homicides. 

Chairman Pepper. Thank you. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Greene. I tried to outline briefly to you just what we do and 
how we operate, and as I say, I am extremely proud of this unit be- 
cause of the fact that the average age of our investigators is only 32 
years old, and with a year and a half experience as homicide investi- 
gators I feel that they have done an outstanding job. Along with 
that, I think this record was due to, not only dedication on the part 
of the investigators, but also the increased cooperation that we had 
between our police branches, individual branches within the police 
department. 

We utilize our laboratory technicians quite a bit. We have a mobile 
crime lab that we call to most all homicide scenes. Along with that, we 
have a man designated as nothing but an evidence technician. We have 
two chemists assigned to our laboratory who we utilize quite a bit. 

In one particular case that we had last year we used the mobile 
crime lab, the chemist, the evidence technician, and fingerprint tech- 
nicians at the crime scene. It was actually beautiful to just sit back 
and watch these men, who are highly skilled and trained, do their 
functions. Thirteen different fingerprints were picked up in a house 
at the scene of one brutal murder we had in Indianapolis. 

When you have this cooperation — and I would probably be remiss 
if I didn't add that just a little bit of plain luck went along with it, 
too. A lot of dedicated time, a lot of enthusiasm by the officers, and 
a tremendous amount of support by the public and by the other police 
agencies within our department and additional departments, all of 
these were what helped us to account for a 100-percent clearance. 

Chairman Pepper. I think I might add that competent people often 
appear to have luck on their side, perhaps more than the incompetent 
people. 

Mr. Churchill. Thank you. 

Chairman Pepper. Anything else ? 

Mr. Lynch. I would like to ask Captain Greene whether the mobile 
evidence lab is sent to the scene of other index crimes, or is that re- 
served for homicide cases ? 

Mr. Greene. No ; it isn't. It is used quite extensively at serious bur- 
glaries. In fact, the day we left, it was called to the scene of a hit- 
and-run traffic fatality. 

Mr. Lynch. In 1971, the Indianapolis standard metropolitan sta- 
tistical area reported some 31,000 index offenses. What proportion of 
those were in the confines of your city I don't happen to know offhand. 



147 

To how many of those crime scenes would you dispatch the mobile 
crime lab and its technicians ? Have you any idea ? 

Mr. Greene. No, I don't. I might add that our new mobile crime 
lab just went into operation in the latter part, second half, of the year 
1972. Prior to that a lot of this work was done by our homicide investi- 
gators and our evidence technician, which was one man. 

Another unique thin^ I think we should mention is our officers who 
are given the responsibility of investigating homicides and police 
shootings are only 12 in number. And these 12 men, as I stated, put 
forth a tremendous effort last year, and I like to think they are all just 
about as topnotch as any police officers as we have. 

Mr. Lyxch. Would it materially assist the clearance rate if you 
could send crime lab technicians to the scene of all index offenses ? 

Mr. Greene. I definitely think it would. In fact, it is our plan to use 
the unit as often as we can get it out there. 

Mr. Lynch. How many of those would you have to have in order 
to do that ? You couldn't do it with one, could you ? 

Mr. Greene. We are right now. Of course, I would like to see more 
than one. 

Mr. Lynch. You are doing what right now ? 

Mr. Greene. We are operating with one mobile crime lab now. 

Mr. Lynch. I understand that. How many would you need ? 

Mr. Churchill. I would respond, a minimum of four. 

Mr. Lynch. What is the cost of that mobile crime lab and the tech- 
nicians who man it 'i 

Mr. Greene. I think it was $17,000. 

Mr. Churchill. About $17,000. The technician's salary to run it a 
year would probably be $10,000 to $11,000. 

You are talking totally about $30,000 a unit per year. 

Mr. Lynch. CTiief, you have approximately 1,100 sworn police offi- 
cers in your department; is that correct? 

Mr. Churchill. Yes, sir. •* 

Mr. Lynch. Of those 1,100, how many of them might be on the 
street in patrol functions at any given time; or during the high-crime 
period of the day, for instance ? 

Mr. Churchill. On street patrol in uniform, cars, talking about 
uniform officers, 140 at a time. That does not mclude traffic personnel. 
That is strictly district patrol officers. 

Mr. Lynch. About 140 who would he manning patrol vehicles ? 

Mr. Churchill. That is true, sir. 

Mr. Lynch. Two-man cars ? 

Mr. Churchill. We use all one-man car operations in Indianapolis, 
in all areas. We have no two-man cars. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you have foot patrol ? 

Mr. Churchill. We have only two officers on foot patrol, at the 
downtown bus station. 

Mr. Lynch. Why do you use only one-man cars ? 

Mr. Churchill. It is a matter of economics, really. We know that, 
unfortunately, law enforcement agencies today are involved in a great 
many activities for the community which are not crime related. Many 
of those activities do not require two policemen. A search for a lost 
child, often assisting an invalid, a dog bite report, many things of 
this nature do not require two officers. And thus it is a matter of 
economics, and the saving of time and money. 



148 

Mr. Lynch. How much money in LEAA funds, if you can answer, 
Chief, did your department receive last year? 

Mr. Churchill. Approximately $3 million. 

Mr. Lynch. Wliat did you use that for ? 

Mr. ChurchHvL. We have several programs underway, one rather 
extensive program in the juvenile branch area. We have a consider- 
able number of funds in our computer program. 

Mr. Lynch. What is your computer program, sir? 

Mr. Churchill. It is a very interesting thing. We are one of the 
first cities. I am sure, in the country to use what we call a direct- 
case-entry system. That is how we know our statistical picture is ac- 
curate and true, because when the imiformed officer makes an investi- 
gation and makes a report, that report goes directly to the computer. 

The information is then broken down by the computer and put out 
in various parts of the department for use. But when we need a statis- 
tic, then we need only program the computer in such a way it gives it 
back to us. Our FBI report each month comes directly from the com- 
puter and the computer is giving us that report from direct case his- 
tories by the officers who originally made those investigations. 

I think the computer, more and more, is going to be a valuable tool 
to law enforcement agencies. But it is one field where there is a tremen- 
dous shortage of technicians and skilled people to program and oper- 
ate those computers. We know the officer in our department, for exam- 
ple, who is very skilled, has been offered time and again jobs from 
industry that we cannot compete with in the salary field. So we have 
to rely on the dedication of that individual officer to stay with us. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, it appears that the two highlights of your t«sti- 
mony are the conspicuous presence of the policemen in 140 cars, and, 
in a city the size of Indianapolis, that strikes me as a fairly good 
proportion? You also touched on the effort your department spends 
in citizen-oriented programs. 

You 'have approximately 1.7 policemen per 1,000 population. We 
learned here yesterday that in the District of Columbia we have some 
6.6 or more policemen per 1,000. Do you regard the size of your police 
force, its present complement of sworn personnel, as adequate to do 
the job you are asked to do in the city of Indianapolis? 

Mr. Churchill. Yes; I would respond to you that it is. I don't 
know any police chief or commander who would not like to have more 
people. But I believe that it is mandatory in police administrators 
to endeavor to operate that police department on the same basis any 
good business manager would nm his business, and that we do not 
have a great number of personnel and dollars to pay for those per- 
sonnel, so it is a very fluid approach to continually evaluate your own 
operation and the use of that personnel to get the best out of it you 
can. 

The whole premise behind the car program was to save time. We 
are wasting time and we are wasting policemen. And we need to 
look at ourselves verv critically before we can very quickly run into 
the council a,nd say, "I need more men." 

Mr. Lynch. Your judgment is that you can live with the number 
of men you have ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Churchill. Yes, sir ; that is true. 



149 

Mr. Lynch. That is very interesting, because of the 13 cities which 
will be testifying before this committee, you have the lowest rate of 
police per capita. 

Mr. Churchill. And I might tell you, sir, we in the police depart- 
ment in Indianapolis have not asked our council for an increase in our 
number of personnel in the last 6 years. 

Mr. Lynch. Thank you, Chief. 

I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief, there are two or three questions. What 
impresses me is that you were determined you were going to reduce 
crime in Indianapolis; and you have done it in the 5 years you have 
been chief of police, have you not ? 

Mr. Churchill. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. What we are concerned with is what can still be 
done in the future to reduce crime in this country. You made a fine 
record. Many of the cities have made commendable records, but we 
still have a lot of violent and serious crime. 

Now, what can you do to reduce still further the amount of violent 
and serious crime in Indianapolis ? 

Mr. Churchill. Sir, I am going to work very hard with the rela- 
tionship that I have with the community to see if we can get the com- 
munity interested in the system of justice as a whole, as opposed to just 
the police department. 

Now, I will make my following statements, realizing very well that 
two of the honored gentlemen of this committee are former prosecu- 
tors and, indeed, one is a former judge. But I liken the judicial system 
to a three-legged milk stool : One leg of that stool is the police ; the 
second is the prosecutor; the third is the courts. And I would submit 
to this committee that I believe our system has one leg that has dry 
rot, and rather seriously. 

Chairman Pepper. I take it you are not referring to the police 
department ? 

Mr. Churchill. I am not, sir. I am speaking primarily about our 
courts. 

Chairman Pepper. Yes, I know. I was going to ask you about the 
prosecuting attorneys and the courts. 

Mr. Churchill. I frankly feel that in the area of the prosecution, 
there is far too much plea bargaining. I have been a policeman for 
awhile and let me hasten to tell you I am not opposed to trading a 
pound of bacon for ham. I am very opposed to trading a ham for a 
pound of bacon. And that when an individual commits a serious crime 
and we find it has been prebargained away for no other purpose than to 
serve the expediency of the court, then we are making an error. 

I have a 9-year-old daughtet and I love her with all of my heart. But 
on occasion I find that my daughter will lie to me. And I have talked 
with her and promised her that that is a "spankable" offense, and that 
if she does it again, the lying will be punished and she will be given a 
hard spanking. Surely, you can understand, as I do, that in raising that 
child, if I catch her in another lie and I give her a suspended sentence, 
and a third time she lies, I put her on probation, and the fourth time 
she lies I say that, well, we didn't get her middle initial right in the 
charges that were placed against her, then I would have absolutely no 
reason to believe my child would not indeed grow up to be a liar. 



150 

I think it is the same principle that must appear in our judicial 
system today, that if we promise an individual 2 to 5 years for second- 
degree burglary, sir, he should receive 2 to 5 years for second-degree 
burglary, not 6 months for simple trespassing. 

These are the things that we desperately need to look at. 

Chairman Pepper. How long is the elapse in Indianapolis between 
the time that a charge is made against a defendant and that defendant 
is brought to trial ? 

Mr. Churchill. Some, sir, go on as long as 2 years. And that indi- 
vidual is often out on bond while that time is passing. 

Now, I would like to submit a suggestion to you for possible solution 
to this problem. My police department and all others in the country are 
required to report monthly the crime statistical picture in Indianapolis. 
We report that to the justice department, who puts it out in a published 
book. And that book merely tells us what crime is occurring. But I 
would ask that this committee give some consideration to looking at the 
system as a whole. 

And if the police department, as merely one leg of that stool, is 
required to report accurately the crime which occurs in Indianapolis, 
I see nothing wrong with the prosecutor who tries those cases likewise 
being required to report to the Justice Department the number of cases 
tried, the original charges, the charge on which the individual was 
actually tried, and how many times he was found guilty and how many 
times released. 

I would further like to see the courts of our country be required to 
report to the Justice Department how many cases they tried and how 
old was each case. What I am saying to you is I believe, honestly, if 
the citizens are aware — again, I have no fear of the citizens if they are 
aware and know the truth — then, we can accurately look at what is the 
police department doing about our judicial system, accurately look at 
what are the prosecutors doing about our judicial system, and what are 
the courts doing, and put it in a published book. 

Chairman Pepper. Would you add to that stool another leg and 
call it "Correctional Institutions," or "Penal Institutions" ? 

Mr. Churchill. That would make the book complete, sir. 

Then I believe an accurate picture of the crime problems in our 
country could be evaluated and many of the huge sums of money made 
available by the Government to help correct some of these problems 
could accurately be placed in the proper area of our system to help 
make it work. 

It seems hardly proper to me that every month when my crime 
stats come out to have the news media to come running to me and say, 
"Chief, tell us about crime in this community today." 

We are only one part of the system. And I think that as thoroughly 
as the public is allowed to view the efforts and the activities of law 
enforcement agencies, that by all means they should have the op- 
portunity to examine and review the activities of the other parts of 
that same system. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Justice Clark used a figure you might find 
of interest. He said that the courts might be likened to a system of 
water mains through which water was moved from a reservoir into 
a city distribution system. No matter how much water you have in the 
tank, the reservoir, or the sewer, it can only get to the consumers in 
relation to the capacity of the pipes to convey tnat water. 



151 

So no matter how much of a backlog you police pile up of charged 
individuals, the courts, of course, are the pipelines through which their 
convictions occur and which progresses the disposition of the case. 
So the courts ha\c to be able to handle the cases that you bring in 
or you have a stagnation of the sewers, haven't you? 

Mr. Churchill. That is very true, sir. And I would say to you 
that every police officer in the country, when he takes his job, raises 
his right hand and takes an oath of office, and he swears to uphold 
the laws of the United States, the State, the community that he serves. 
I know that each judge who takes the bench takes that same oath. I am 
sorry, I don't believe that too many of them are truly upholding those 
laws. 

Chairman Pepper. This first week of hearings is devoted to the police 
departments of the country, to give them an opportunity for the pres- 
entation of the most innovative, imaginative, and effective programs 
being carried. 

Now, we will follow that with probation and prosecution and the 
courts, trial and appellate, and juvenile delinquency, and correctional 
institutions. So we are going into all of those facets, all of those legs, 
as you might say, of the stool, during these hearings to see what 
each part is doing to improve its performance. 

Mr. Mann, any questions ? 

Mr. Mann. No questions. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Winn ? 

Mr. Winn. Chief, how do you think your "car ride" program 
would work in a city like New York or Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Churchill. I see no reason why it w^ouldn't work in any com- 
munity. It has become so popular — please understand, no advance 
appointment need be made — a citizen can walk in off the street, go 
to the desk captain, say he wants to ride, sign the release, and we 
immediately call in a car and let that individual ride. 

Mr. Winn. Do they furnish these rides in the outskirts or suburban 
areas of town, or downtown ? 

Mr. Churchill. No. sir. All through the city, any part of it. 

Mr. Winn. You mentioned morale. How do you judge morale in a 
police department? 

Mr. Churchill. Morale is a very fluid thing, and I believe each 
administrator must acquire a skill for a feel for morale. I have often 
said that if the men of my department quit complaining totally, I 
would be very worried about what is happening. But a feedback, a 
line of communication that exists, both from the top to the man on 
the street, and from the man on the street up, is \ntally important, 
and you do have a feel for when morale is good. It reflects itself in not 
only the quality but the quantity of work the individual officers 
will do. 

Mr. Winn. You don't have any outside commission or committees 
or anything to come in in any way to try to judge it or interview? 

Mr. Churchill. No, sir. 

Mr. Winn. You don't have any interviews by the press or coordi- 
nation with the chief? 

Mr. Churchill. We constantly have interviews with the press be- 
cause our department has a very open policy with the media. All 
disciplinary^ hearings are open to the public and to the media. We 
have taken the idea that perhaps in years past the law enforcement 



95-158 O — 73 — pt. 1 11 



152 

agencies would shove a 55-gallon drum under a 9 x 12 rug and try to 
convince the public there was nothing there. 

In our department, we don't shove a pea under the rug and say there 
is nothing there. We are very open with the public and media, and 
they have access to our reports and activities and are perfectly free 
to interview any of our officers at any time. 

Mr. Winn. It was my understanding, Mr. Lynch, there were going 
to be some newspapermen up here with Chief Churchill. 

Mr. Lynch. They were unable to appear. 

Mr. Winn. They are not here ? 

Mr. Lynch. No, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. We invited them. We are sorry, we understand 
they had a large part in encouraging you in the program you have 
carried forward. We invited them to appear and they said they would 
if they could. We are sorry they can't be here. 

Mr. Winn. I am sorry they couldn't be here, too, because it is my 
opinion that in too many cities we have the newspaper people of that 
city, that should support the police department, spend most of their 
time trying to ridicule them and find internal problems and discuss 
morale as far as the press is concerned. 

Mr. Churchill. As early as 1962, the Indianapolis Star engaged 
in a program called Crime Alert. 

Mr. Winn. Sponsored by the newspaper ? 

Mr. Churchill. Yes, sir; sponsored by the paper. And that has 
been a very valued thing in our community, asking people to be alert 
and report crime in our community. That program is still very much 
in effect today and still on the front page of that paper every day. It 
gives the Crime Alert number and urges the citizens to call. 

Our second Indianapolis paper, the Indianapolis News, has been 
very forceful in helping to form in Indianapolis a Women's Crime 
Crusade, which now numbers some 50,000 women. And that is a tre- 
mendous force. 

Mr. Winn. What do they do ? 

Mr. Churchill. Those women have crime committees where two 
ladies at a time will go in and watch an entire court procedure for a 
month at a time, filling out reports of the activities of the court and 
what is happening, and they brought about much change. 

For example, prior to the Women's Crime Crusade, a municipal 
court was not a court of record. It is now. Prior to the Women's Crime 
Crusade a municipal court judge never wore a robe. He does now. 
Prior to that time, a municipal court seldom started on time, but that 
•was one of the simple little things the Women's Crime Crusade was 
watching for. And you may rest assured, even in the municipal court 
in Indianapolis, if the court is to start at 9 o'clock, it starts at 9 o'clock. 

Mr. Winn. Maybe we ought to have them come to Congress and 
start our committees on time. 

Captain Greene, you wanted to say something ? 

Mr. Greene. You mentioned morale and how do we judge it. I wish 
there really were a way you could judge morale. I just wanted to relate 
to you a little incident that happened in our particular unit. We had 
an elderly couple in one of our murder cases here, 78 and 79 years old, 
who returned home and surprised house burglars in their house. The 
woman was shot and killed and her husband was seriously wounded. 
Along with this same idea, a lot of or police officers have radios such 



153 

iis these at home. I judge morale of my unit a little bit like this : That 
particular night, I had six men working. When I arrived at the scene 
of that murder, 23 of my 40 personnel showed up at that scene on 
their own time to work. 

Mr. Winn. Came out on their own ? 

Mr. Greene. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Winn. Two more questions that really don't have too much to 
do with what you discussed, but we are trying to put all of this to- 
gether from the police department standpoint: How do your police 
deal with the problems that you probably have with the fantastic 
numbers of people that go to Indianapolis for the Speedway race? 

INIr. Churchill. Sir, a few years back, when we were to have a State 
basketball tournament, or something of that nature, we were always 
putting in the paper the amount of vast manpower that we were going 
to use and the very strict enforcement rules that we were goin^ to 
enforce, and that, if the people didn't follow those rules, certainly 
they would be arrested, and so on. 

We found, I believe, some truth to exist in the idea that maybe we 
were arousing their competitive spirit. So, rather, before an event 
of that type, we would put in the paper it was going to be a great 
event for our city, that it was going to be a gala occasion, and that 
the police would be on hand to assist the public in any way that we 
possibly could. 

The mere change in attitude and tact of what we advertised, so to 
speak, in the papers prior to that event made a tremendous difference. 
Soon in Indianapolis, we will be having the 500-mile race. Just prior 
to that race, we will have a parade in downtown Indianapolis which 
will bring into our city's streets over 250,000 people. 

One of the last things I do is to walk the parade route for at least 
10 blocks prior to that parade, and I look into the faces of the people 
who have assembled themselves for that parade. The last 3 years that 
parade has gone without incident. And each time I have walked that 
route I have looked into smiling faces, people who came there with 
the idea that they were going to enjoy themselves. 

Mr. Winn. You kind of missed my point. What do you do about the 
people that flock in from out of town ? You draw over 100,000 people 
to that race, don't you ? 

Mr. Churchill. Oh, yes, sir ; about 350,000. 

Mr. Winn. You have a bunch of people who have never been in 
Indianapolis before, they have no pride in Indianapolis or the honest 
faces, and most of them are there for racing, but there is a certain 
percentage that follows the crowd because they want to assault people. 
They want to rob them ; they want to trick them. The prostitutes, I 
suppose, come into town by outside numbers, whatever it is. 

How do you deal with a situation like that when you are bringing 
large numbers in, in a 2- or 3-day period ? 

Mr. Churchill. To the honest citizen, we endeavor to be a good 
host. There is a line beyond which we will not retreat. If it means 
putting an individual in jail for misconduct, in jail he will go. The 
prostitutes, pickpockets, and so on, we become very active as much as 
10 days prior to the race, to get the prostitutes corraled, get them in 
jail. We are constantly on the lookout for new faces in our community, 
knowing they will be lurable for the Kentucky Derby and soon there- 
after come to Indianapolis for the race. 



154 

Mr. Winn. You have a communications system between Louisville 
and Indianapolis? 

Mr. Churchill. Indeed, we do; and we work very closely between 
the prosecutors and the courts that those individuals who come to our 
community at that time, by being travelers and not local residents, 
generally find they have relatively high bond placed on them, and in 
all probability their case will have a continuance to sometime following 
the race. 

Mr. Winn. And to follow up on testimony yesterday, do you have 
a special rape division ? 

Mr. Churchill. No, sir ; we do not. 

Mr. Winn. Are you contemplating one? 

Mr. Churchill. No. We have some officers that work specifically 
on rape cases. 

Mr. Winn. Do you have women in that division? 

Mr. Churchill. Yes, sir ; we have women in that group. But I per- 
sonally do not feel that law enforcement today is treating the rape 
problem correctly and I envision the day must come when we must, 
in a cooperative way with the police agencies, prosecutors, courts, and 
mental health people, begin to attack the problem of rape much 
earlier. 

Many law enforcement agencies feel that rape is a nonpreventable 
crime. I do not agree with that. I believe when in any community 
in your city you have a repeater or a prowler, I think this is one red 
flag that goes up and says look out. 

Second, if in that neighborhood you develop a Peeping Tom, these 
runs are normally treated by law enforcement agencies as nuisance 
runs. They often will tell the lady, "look, if you keep your blind 
pulled down, they guy won't look." Then you find developed in that 
neighborhood a larceny problem, where an individual steals women's 
laundry off the clothesline. 

Often, the law enforcement agencies treat that as a simple larceny — 
how much did the clothing cost — when in truth that should be the 
third red flag waving, "hey, look out." Then the guy moves on to 
exposing himself to young children, something of this nature. And 
we never really become aggressive when it comes to a prowler, a 
Peeping Tom, of having a concerted effort on the part of the police 
department to attack the problem at that level, with a special prosecu- 
tor who is well versed in prosecuting sex cases, with mental health 
people who will know very well this problem is developing; but get 
it now, not after the serious offense of rape has been committed and 
then try to work with the problem. 

Mr. Winn. We are doing a lousy job of convicting rapists after 
we catch them. 

Mr. Churchill. Indeed we do, sir; and most of them are found 
to be mentally incompetent and they are sent to a mental hospital 
and the mental hospital often has an open-door policy where they 
can walk out on the street any time. 

Mr. Winn. You think our laws are extremely off base as far as 
rape is concerned? 

Mr. Churchill. I think they need very careful examination. But 
I would believe, too, that we need to build into the judicial sj^stem 
some mental health people who will accept the idea that an individual 
must have assistance in the courts, and I believe the judge should have 



155 

the latitude to send the person to some mental health prganization 
who can help him. 

Mr. Winn. Do you have a psychiatrist on your staiff? 

Mr. Churchill. Xo. sir; I do not. 

Mr. Winn. You don't ? 

Mr. Churchill. Xo. I might tell you. a year ago I applied to LEAA 
lor a grant, just along the very lines I am talking about now, to com- 
bat the problem of rape, and they were not interested because the inci- 
dence figure of rape was not high enough to warrant a grant. But, in 
my opinion, the problem of rape is one that is increasing all over the 
country. 

It is my opinion that rape is a preventable crime, but that we are 
attacking it far too late in the picture. We should be getting after it 
much sooner. 

Mr. Winn. In Washington, D.C., for instance, rape is about on 
page 26 of the local newspapers, because the first 2 or 3 are all filled 
with the AVatergate. 

Thank you. 

Mr. R ANGEL. Chief, I have been extremely interested in your testi- 
mony today. Can you briefly tell the committee what you were in- 
volved in prior to becoming chief of police? 

Mr. Churchill. I joined the police department in May of 1957, 
after having successfully operated my own business for a number of 
years. I didn't come to the police department until I was 32 years old. 
I was a patrolman, out on the street, for 5 years. Then I transferred 
to the detective division, where I worked burglary and larceny cases. 

Contrary to what the captain says about robbery and homicide, I 
think burglary is the toughest case you can investigate anjrwhere. 

My background is in education, in secondary education. I had some 
feeling of wanting to be a teacher. After I had the privilege to at- 
tend the Xational FBI Academy, I went back to my department as a 
lieutenant in the training division. Indianapolis law makes it possi- 
ble for any individual in the department who holds the permanent 
rank of lieutenant to be considered for the position of chief. 

And in 1967, Mr. Richard Lugar was elected our mayor and in 
February of 1968 he selected me as his chief and I have been there 
since. 

Mr. Rangel. Thank you very much. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Keating? 

Mr. Keating. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Do you have county wide jurisdiction? 

Mr. Churchill. Xo, sir ; I do not. 

Mr. Keating. Even though the city extends out into a metropolitan 
area ? 

Mr. Churchill. Yes, sir. We are involved in what is known across 
the country as Unigov, where the council is a joint city /county coun- 
cil, and the mayor of Indianapolis is indeed the mayor of all Marion 
County. But that law provides that the new Municipal Police Depart- 
ment of Indianapolis w-ill ultimately become the enforcement body 
for all of the county and that the sheriff's department will have specific 
assignments of operating the jail, process serving, things of that 
nature. 

But the law provides that this cannot come about until the individual 
councilmen are satisfied that the municipal police department is both 



1S6 

adequately prepared and able to assume new portions of jurisdiction. 
Then, and only then, will the people who live in that jurisdiction be 
placed on the tax rolls for it. 

So I think the law provides a very equitable way for our depart- 
ment to expand and to meet its obligations. At the same time, it is 
equitable and orderly as far as the citizenry is concerned, because they 
are not paying for a service until they receive it. 

Mr. KJEATiNG. How many more men will you need for that total 
county patrol? You have 1,100 now. How many additional men would 
you need ? 

Mr. Churchill. It is difficult to say because we have not been able 
to accurately assess the crime problem throughout the rest of the 
county, plus the fact the suburbs and county area are the areas of 
greatest increase in population. But I feel that, as you see, one area 
is put on the tax rolls, then new revenue is made available to us so we 
can in a step-by-step orderly progression assume our obligations and 
have proper command. 

Mr. Keating. I think it takes time to train a police officer and if you 
need 300 men, and it takes a couple of years or 3 years, or whatever, 
to about that much increment in the force — how many police officers 
do you have per thousand population now ? 

Mr. Churchill. The rate per 1,000 population is 1.7. 

Mr. Keating. That is pretty low, isn't it ? 

Mr. Churchill. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Keating. I think someone mentioned that here in Washington 
we have 6.5 per thousand. 

Mr. Churchill. If I had that many police in Indianapolis, I would 
consider myself overly fortunate. 

Mr. Keating. The involvement that you talked about in public 
affairs by police and participation by listening in on the radio, partici- 
pation in riding in the cars and all of that, helps to make more people 
willing to testify, more people willing to contact you about suspicious 
persons. Do you find that it is a helpful involvement, or do you find 
sometimes you get a lot of nuisance calls ? 

Mr. Churchill. No. Surprisingly, we have very few nuisance calls. 
Most of the information we receive is indeed very helpful. A recent 
experience where we had a shooting on the east side of the city, the 
uniformed officer put out a partial description of the vehicle and the 
direction it was traveling. And just within a few minutes a man owning 
a filling station called us and said he had heard the broadcast and ran 
out on his lot to watch and get us the full license number, the make and 
model of the car, and which direction it turned, which made possible an 
apprehension of the individual within a few minutes. 

I might tell you that I plan very soon now on opening our classrooms 
in the school in the police department to any civic organization or 
group which wants to hold meetings. Our classrooms are not used in 
the evenings and I want to make those meeting spaces available to 
different civic organizations within our city, if they will but come, let 
us take them on a tour of the building prior to their meeting, because 
we are anxious they come to see us and we are anxious for them to see 
what our department is doing. 

Mr. Keating. Captain, I think you said you solved every homicide 
that has occurred within your jurisdiction within the last year. Is that 
correct ? 



157 

Mr. Greene. Yes, sir. Knock on wood — we are now riding into 15 
months. 

Mr. Keating. Have you found that one of the principal elements m 
helping in the solution of these crimes has been involvement and 
assistance of your citizens, of your lay people ? 

Mr. G'REENE. Very definitely. 

Mr. Keating. So that the work that the chief has done in this regard 
in involving the citizenry has been of assistance to you in developing 
a successful investigation ? 

Mr. Greene. It certainly has. And as you briefly mentioned, I think 
it has brought people forward now to where they know that the police 
cannot be a one-way street. It has to be two ways. And I found that 
people now are coming forward more and are willing to testify more 
than what they have in the past. 

I think this is directly responsible for the citizens involvement in 
Indianapolis. 

Mr. Iveating. Chief, I would like to make a suggestion and I don't 
know how valid it really is. But I like your idea of the compilation 
of the statistics in order to let the public know what is happening, 
whether persons have been convicted of the crime for which they have 
been charged, whether it was valid to charge them from the begmning 
or whether it should have been a lesser charge, or whatever the situa- 
tion is, but I have a little concern about one aspect of it and I think 
you may run into it. 

You seem to indicate you wanted the courts to report to the Justice 
Department. I am not sure that will he valid. I think they should have 
some input into the compilation of statistics, but I would not like to 
see courts required to report to the prosecutor, in effect. I think I 
would like to see them operate through their own system of reporting 
and having some agency coordinating all of these. 

I like the goal, but I am not sure I would want to place the judiciary 
in the position of having to report to Justice. I think it is an inde- 
pendent function of our Government. I think I would like to keep it 
separate. I understand what you are trying to do and I agree with 
that objective, but I would like the means to it. I don't have any 
constructive suggestion to you but the thought occurred to me at the 
time. 

Mr. Churchill. I can well envision, to get the courts to report this 
kind of thing would be extremely difficult. 

Mr. Keating. But I think the reporting should be done now. 

Mr. Churchill. I do, too. 

Mr. ICeating. And I do think all of this should be in some computer 
center so that you can press a button and get the results pretty quickly 
and not get bound up in paperwork. But that is for some genius in 
that area to figure out. 

One part of the equation that you talk about that I have always felt 
contributed to the difficulties the law enforcement officer has, and I 
think the public has as a result, is the prosecutor's role in that equa- 
tion, whether or not they have adequate training, whether they have 
enough time to prepare their case at all levels, whether they have had 
time, even in the misdemeanors, to have enough advance information 
to do the job necessary to present a case for conviction. I have been 
concerned about that aspect of the equation very much through the 
years. Do you have any comments on that? 



158 

Mr. Churchill. Yes. There is adequate reason for concern, because 
I am satisfied, that that is one of the underlying causes for so much 
of the plea bargaining. That and the cases dragging on for so long, 
the loss of witnesses, et cetera, puts a young prosecutor who perhaps 
has to prepare for as many as 12 trials a day, and I can see an extreme 
hardship in his being able to properly prosecute a case and thus the 
case is plea-bargained away. 

It sounds a little bit harsh, but I see, too, the problem arising in 
the plea bargaining for the expediency of the court, cases that should 
be open and shut, of a burglar apprehended right inside of a place, 
and so on, but just to make it quick to get through the courts we reduce 
it from second degree to third degree and give him 6 months out on the 
farm, which, you see, is really not 6 months, it is 4 months and 17 days. 

I think the public should know the thing went from 2-to-5 years to 
6 months. I think the public should know that 6 months is not 6 months, 
it is 4 months and 17 days. 

We should be honest with the public. They should know that life is 
not life. That 20 years is not 20 years. We need to level with them and 
let them know. Because, once they know, then they are more able to 
understand and appreciate the problems the judicial system is experi- 
encing today. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, you said you were required to report uniform 
crime data. Is that the case or not the case, that most police agencies 
report that to the FBI on a voluntary basis ? 

Mr. Churchill. I am sure it is a voluntary basis. I am sure my city 
would be looked at with some displeasure if we did not do it. 

Mr. Lynch. In several weeks we will be hearing testimony from a 
county judicial prosecutorial system located not far from Washing- 
ton. They have devised a computer system which enables them to tell 
exactly how cases are being processed, and what judges are doing what 
with cases. That information has routinely been turned over to news- 
papers. I would think the committee would be delighted to send you a 
letter informing you about it. 

It may be. something you folks in Indianapolis would like to look 
into. They think this has had marvelous results and it has helped 
change the system and the attitudes of some people working in the 
system. 

Mr. Churchill. I appreciate that information. 

Mr. Keating. Chief, I have always felt that delay in trial and pun- 
ishment is one of the greatest contributions to proliferation of crime, 
or, rather, to put it a different way, it is not the deterrent that it could 
bo. I think the primary responsibility in seeing the cases are tried 
rests with the court. 

I am sure that the defense counsel, as you know, has a lot of cases 
m other courtrooms and doesn't get to that one, and the prosecutor, 
by the same token, has a number of cases or you can't get a jury on a 
given day. But the primary responsibility rests with the court because 
the court is the one that has the oversight. 

Now, it seems to me that if we could get every criminal — and there 
will be an exception because of injury or something — tried and ac- 
quitted or convicted within 60 days of the offense, and the punishment 
flows quickly thereafter, that this would be more meaningful not only 
to the offender, but to the victims, to the public, and to the law en- 
forcement arm generally; that this then would be a greater deter- 



159 

rent to our crime problem in the country today. Do you agree with 
that concept? 

Mr. Churchill. Mr. Keating, if you were my Congressman, you 
would get my vote, 100 percent. I think this committee should be aware, 
however, that much of the delay in the trial of prisoners is not be- 
cause of the police, not because of the court; it is because of the defend- 
ant himself, who continues to take advantage of all of the delay. 

Mr. Keating. I think experience shows that there are limited de- 
fense counsels and they don't want to let any cases go to any other 
attorney and they are required to be in a number of different court- 
rooms and sometimes in different systems, the federal system or some 
other system. So they ask for many continuances. 

Mr. WixN. Would the gentleman yield ? 

Mr. Keating. Yes. 

Mr. Winn. Doesn't history also show the longer you drag the case 
out, the better, easier verdict you get in behalf of the defendant? 

Mr. Keating. I think the difficulty is, what happens is that the wit- 
nesses, having lost their wages three or four or five or six times, are 
disinclined to come back. And if they ever witness a crime again, 
they won't come back ; they won't tell anybody about it. You also find it 
runs up the cost of operating the police department, whether you give 
policemen court time, or compensatory time, or whether you give them 
wages, you are running the cost of the law enforcement arm up. I 
don't want to cast dispersion, but he may be a little hesitant the next 
time. 

But the victim of the crime has suffered already and if he has got to 
keep coming back and losing more time, he is not going to want to come 
back. 

In this manner, of course, your recall of facts and events becomes 
more dim with time. So it becomes more difficult to prosecute a case 
thereafter. 

Mr. Churchill. I appreciate your giving some time and thought 
and concern to the victim. Far too long it has been with the perpetra- 
tor. What you say is so vitally true because in my judgment it causes 
the victim to lose faith in the system. He just totally loses faith. The 
system must protect him. That is our first obligation : To protect the 
lives and property of the people. And we can't do it if the people as 
a whole lose faith in the system. 

Mr. Keating. Speedy trials have a way of lessening the importance 
of bail, as it gets involved in so many other things, but it is only part 
of it because the appeal process, the appellate process, is so long and 
drawn out that it, too, must be attacked. And the time between arrest 
and trial has to be shortened to give finality to the case. There are 
several approaches to that. 

Mr. Churchill. Yes; but, Mr. Keating, you see while this sounds — 
as we discussed here, it sounds — to be a complicated thing, it is not 
really because most of what you are discussing here can be accom- 
plished by a simple rule of court, if the judges would do it. 

Mr. Keating. That is why I said the primary responsibility rests 
with the court, because it is a matter of controlling unit behavior of 
those elements coming before him to fill out this equation. 

I would love to get into the subject of rape and the difficulties I see 
in that, but I think the committee chairman wants to get on. 

Thank you very much, Chief. 



160 

Mr. Churchill. Thank you. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief Churchill, Captain Greene, the committee 
wishes in the warmest way to thank you both for the valuable con- 
tribution you made to our efforts here. I am especially grateful to you 
for this police radio. I shall listen with interest, if not pleasure, to 
the crime I hear in the District. 

Mr. Churchill. Thank you. 

Mr. Winn. I would like to point out one thing. Several members 
of the committee have ridden police cars from time to time, just to 
find out what really is going on. 

Mr. Rangel. You mean as defendants ? 

Mr. Keating. I would suggest if the chairman would hear of any 
of us being picked up on that radio, he might come and bail us out. 

Chairman Pepper. Without objection, a part of the folder pre- 
sented by Chief Churchill from Indianapolis will be inserted in the 
record. 

[Mr. Churchill's prepared testimony, plus numerous pieces of litera- 
ture available from the Indianapolis Police Department, follows:] 

Testimony of Indianapolis Police Department, Submitted by Winston L. 

Churchill, Chief 

background information on indianapolis philosophy, and the people who 

guide her 

If Indianapolis has had any national reputation at all, it was one of associa- 
tion with the internationally known 500 Mile Race, Indianapolis has been 
traditionally a conservative city. Little in the way of agressive new thinking 
was taking place. The city was becoming segregated. Segregated in that not 
only were Blacks and Whites moving toward segregation, but Indianaiwlis 
itself was in the process of segregating itself from the other major cities of 
America. 

As is true of such situations, many detrimental things began to happen. The 
more affluent moved out of the decaying inner-city to the suburbs, just outside 
the city Corporate Limits. The most precious resource on any community was 
becoming depleted as the youth began to leave for cities offering more prom- 
ising futures. Cities which had reputations for forward thinking, opportunity, 
and glamour. 

As the suburban area began to increase in population and retail merchandis- 
ing outlets, services to the suburban areas had to be increased. County and 
Township Government became overburdened, and their services began to over- 
lap. Duplication of services left many without any at all. The tax base of the 
inner-city was slowly becoming depleted. A cancer of inner-city decay began 
to grow as homes and places of business were abandoned. Services to the inner- 
city merchants and residents began to suffer. Streets were becoming riddled 
with chuckholes, and garbage and trash was not being regularly removed. 
Police and Fire Services started to suffer. Aging equipment wasn't being re- 
placed, and it was an open secret that promotions within the Police and Fire 
Departments could be bought ! 

The citizens of Indianapolis lost confidence in their government, and in their 
Police Department. 

This was the situation in the mid 1960's. 

In November of 1967 the people of Indianapolis changed the Party in power 
in city government. 

A young bus^inessman with a reputation for aggressive and innovative think- 
ing was elected Mayor of the City of Indianapolis. 

In January of 1968. Richard Green Lugar, (pronounced like the gun), the 
new Mayor moved into the gleaming 25th floor oflBces of the Mayor high atop the 
City-County Building — the only large new structure to be erected in Indianapo- 
lis in many a year. From this vantage point he could observe a city in decay. 

Lugar was true to his word, change was indeed in the wind. Out went tradi- 
tional thinking which had held Indianapolis back for so many years, and the 
public-be-damned attitude of the civil servants. Lugar came into office with a 



161 

plan of action which he proceeded to place into effect. He set his government 
up along the lines of a corporation structure, with himself as President and Chair- 
man of the Board. And why not? If it would work well in the business community, 
it ought to work well in government. 

Lugar set up his services to the community under appointed Department Heads 
who, could and would, be fired if they did not produce. 

When it came to the Police Department, Lugar let it be known that no advance 
deals had been made with respect to who would be the next Chief of Police. In 
itself a departure from politics as usual. He invited those who were interested in 
the job to apply — but first they must meet his criteria. No outsiders were inter- 
viewed. Lugar wanted a man who had been on the Department, and had proven 
himself capable of leadership, both within the Department and in the community. 
Many were interviewed. All were asked to put into writing the Department as 
they saw it. what they would change, and their recommendations for the future 
of the Department. 

Lugar was. and is, a man of advocacy. He surrounded himself with like minded 
men — each an advocate. His new Chief of Police was to be no exception. 

Lugar's choice was Winston Churchill. Churchill was a man who had risen 
rapidly through the ranks to the rank of Lieutenant . . . and had come by it 
honestly through hard work. He was a nimble thinker, a man of experience, it 
would be hard to pull the Departmental wool over his eyes. Lugar liked the 
recommendations of his new Chief, and told him to move ahead — but to remain 
in close contact witli the Mayor. 

Churchill was acutely aware of the alienation of the community from the 
Police. If he was to succeed and survive as Chief he would have to recapture the 
confidence of the people in their Police Department. 

How do you reverse years of distrust and outright hostility? 

You begin by letting it be known that each policeman was now on his own 
merits. If he got into trouble it would no longer be swept imder the rug. He 
would face a disciplinary hearing before his Chief, and that hearing was going 
to be open to the public and the news media. Supervisory oflScers. were also to 
be held similarly responsible for the performance of the oflicers under their 
command. And woe be to the man who was surly or disrespectful to a citizen. 

Churchill hand picked his Deputy Chiefs. Each was carefully chosen for 
ability and command leadership. Churchill's philosophy closely paralleled the 
Lugar concept that if you don't produce, you were fired. 

In the early months the new chief and his deputy chiefs set out to reverse the 
trend. Something that couldn't happen overnight. 

Churchill proved a most able public speaker — quick on his feet. He began 
accepting speaking engagements whenever possible. He took his story to the 
community. Even today, almost five years later, he seldom has a day without 
some sort of public speaking engagement. Realizing the value of this approach, 
Churchill encouraged his Deputy Chiefs and Branch Commanders to do like- 
wise . . . and gradually the story of change in the Indianapolis Police Depart- 
ment began to be told. 

New police began to evolve, with the Mayor and his Chief in close communi- 
cation. Ever so slowly the community began to react in a positive way toward 
their police. A women's organization was formed to assist in carrying the message. 
The Women's Cru.sade Against Crime was born. The women got into the spirit 
. . . they rode in patrol cars . . . got to see first hand the life and problems of 
the policeman. They raised funds to enable the Department to publish helpful 
booklets on a wide range of subjects. Everything from how to protect yourself 
and your home to how to describe a subject in police terminology. Citizens were 
openly encouraged to listen to the local police radio broadcasts. If they didn't 
understand the police codes, Churchill mailed out code cards to help them under- 
stand. (To date some 20,000 code cards have been mailed out and or given out 
since the first of the year). 

The local news media perceived the changes in the Department and made 
editorial comment in favor of the changes. No longer was it the thing to do to 
deride the police. Now they were boosting the projects, and the programs of the 
Department. Encouraged by this the Chief and the Mayor began plans for 
groundbreaking the pathfinding in Law Enforcement. 

Some of the successful programs to come from this new thinking have been : 

The Indianapolis Take Home Patrol Car Plan. Under the plan the men of the 
Operations Division and the TraflBc Division were each assigned a car which was 
to be in their care alone. They were to use it on and off duty. Take care of it, 
and be on call even when off duty. This Plan has saved the taxpayers of Indian- 



162 

apolis some $500,000 a year. Crime has gone down and the people are seeing more 
police cars on the street 24 hours a day, every day of the year. 

The Citizen Observer Program. Under this program, citizens of legal age are 
invited to ride with a patrolman for a few hours of his duty time. To date since 
this was begun in 1968 some 5,500+ citizens have ridden in Patrol Cars. Young 
people are frequently the most changed following such an experience. They begin 
openly hostile to the patrolman, and almost without exception end the evening as 
a friend. The most frequent comment from all riders is something like ... "I 
wouldn't have your job for a million dollars !" 

A public affairs section was formed to work with P.T.A.'s and P.T.O.'s 
Scouting, Neighborhood Organizations and School Principals. The OflBcer Friend- 
ly Program was begun to involve the policeman in the kindergarten and lower 
grades of all Indianapolis Schools. Eventually funding was provided by the Sears 
Foundation. 

The Indianapolis Police Department now makes as many public speaking 
engagements as possible. This year in the continuing effort to take the story 
to the public, they designed and produced an exhibit covering police work, 
history, narcotics and dangerous drugs, a working patrol car, two motorcycles, 
and many many items of a curious nature too numerous to mention here. Four 
officers from the Department travel with this exhibit, one a policewoman, to 
answer questions, and to promote the police community relations situation. To 
date the exhibit has made two public appearances, and has been enjoyed by well 
over 20,000 of the citizens of the city. 

The response of the average citizen has been most heartening. The image of 
the policeman in Indianapolis has improved, and with it the policeman's self 
esteem. Children once again look upon him as a friend and no longer fear him. 
Citizen cooperation with police is reaching an all time high. Never before has 
the Department so enjoyed the relationship with the people it now has. 

The situation of the 1960's has been reversed. Crime has gone Down ! The 
people have helped us do it. 

Indianapolis has enjoyed 26 straight months of crime reduction. A total re- 
duction of 26% over the past two year.s. The Homicide Branch cleared 100% 
of the murders and killings assigned to it this past year ... a record not 
achieved by any large city in recent memory. 

The street crime and home burglary situation is on the decline. Streets in 
Indianapolis are getting safer at night with each passing week. Nightlife is 
returning ! 



163 



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164 

CRIME ALEBT 

Indianapolis Crime Alert was organized February 17, 196f7, to give citizens 
an opportunity to work with the police in stopping crime. 

The Indianapolis Police Department and the Indianapolis Star cooperated 
in organizing the program which enables citizens to call an emergency telephone 
number, 633-2811, to report crimes in progress or suspicious activities. 

The emergency number is published each day on the front page of the Indian- 
apolis Star and the Indianapolis News. 

As soon as a police dispatcher receives a crime alert call and is given the 
emergency information, he dispatches police cars to the scene. 

Many times in the six years of the program's existence arrests at the scene 
of a crime have been attributed directly to Crime Alert calls by alert citizens. 

When the program was unveiled at a meeting of business, civic and law en- 
forcement leaders, hundred thousand copies of Crime Alert pamphlets supplied 
by the Indianapolis Star were distributed. 

Pamphlets and billfold size cards gave information on "How to Describe a 
Suspect". 

Requests for the information flooded the Indianapolis Police Department and 
The Indianapolis Star from individuals, businesses, civic organizations, schools 
and churches. 

Millions of cards and pamphlets since have been distributed by the Police 
Department. 

Hundreds of two-way radio-equipped vehicles operated by utilities joined in 
24-hour Crime Alert participation. 

Also, a special Crime Alert post office box was set up in 1967 so persons with 
detailed information on crime that did not require immediate police action 
could write it down and mail it to the police. 

Tips by mail to Crime Alert have resulted in solution of many crimes. 

Response to Crime Alert was termed "unbelievable" by a policewoman who 
is one of several police personnel who have manned telephones since Crime Alert 
began. 

"I believe Crime Alert has drawn the public and police into a closer relation- 
ship," she observed of the program. 

She uQted that a majority of persons ''take Crime Alert very seriously . . . 
only a few crank calls". 

Inquiries have been received from many cities and newspapers of the tech- 
nique of Crime Alert. 

As a result, similar programs have been inaugurated throughout the Nation. 

J. Edgar Hoover lauded the program soon after it was launched and offered 
suggestions to increase its effectiveness. 

A feature of the program is that tipsters are not required to identify 
themselves. 



165 



HOW TO 
DESCRIBE 
A SUSPECT 




YOU 

to 
for 



. n pe^s^ .. safe 
,«w abld'"9/that '^ 'you 
a '^^ -,muni*y «w ones' 

live '" , and '" .gcted-' 



as 



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ISSUED BY 



INDIANAPOLIS POLICE DEPARTMENT 



HELP THE POLICE 
HELP YOU 



166 



OBSERVE AND R EM EM B ER 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION 

1. SEX 

2. COLOR 

3. AGE 

4. HEIGHT 

5. WEJGHT 

6. BUILD 

7^ HAIR 
S. EYES 

9. COMPLEXION 

10. PECULIARITIES 



WMTB - NBORO - OUBNTAL - RJEKTOUCAN - MBXICAN 
NATI OHAL OM Ca N WHBKB FCGSBLB . 

AmOOaMATB (u clow u poMUito> 



I N COMPAM SON WI TH PI XKD OVBCT OP KNOWN 
HEIOHTOKSBU'. 



AnHUUMATBLY (u dOM  poMiU*) 

AmtOXIMATBLY (w elom — pMsUiia) 

HUBCY • SUM - THN - HBAVY - UOKT - UUSCUIJUt 



COLOR - TBXTUKB - STYU - OROOM - LBNOTH - Cl/T ' 
ARTTFiaAL 



COLOR - SHAn - LASHES - HtOWS - SLANT - 
CLSAR OR BLOOD SHOT 



COLOR - PORBS - POT MARKS - ACNB - RAZOR RASH - BUMPS - 
CLBAN SHAVEN UNSHAVEN - 4 O'CLOCK SHADOW 

MARKS - SCARS - DBPORMmBS - ARITFCIAL LIMBS - MUSTACHE 
OOTTBB - BBARD - WIOS - TOUPEES - MANICURE - MAKE UP 
VaCBCpRck-tOM -ztp -U4>-hl«k-lo«) 
SPEECH ( mU adBcaud - (lof - accot* • UUnnu) 



CLOTHING DESCRIPTION 



1. HAT 

2. SHIRT 

3. COATS 

4. TROUSERS 

5. SOCKS 

6. SHOES 

7. ACCESSORIES 

«. JEWELRY 

9. GENERAL 

APPEARANCE 

10. ODDITIES 



COLOR - nYLB - BLOCK 

CAP - PBDORA - HOOD - BTC. 

ORNAMENTS - PBATHERS 

COLOR - OBSHJN - SLEEVES - COLLAR STYLE 

SUrr - TOP - OVERCOAT 
BinXONS 

COLOR - STYLE ( REO. - IVY - COKHNENTAL ) 
CUPPED • CUPPLBSS 

COLOR - OBSraN - TYPB 

COLOR - STTLB - DESON 

SWEATER - JACKET - SCARPS - OLOVBS 
NBCKHB 

RINGS - WATCHES • BtACBLSTS 
TI E CLASPS- 

NEAT - CLEAN - WELL OROOMBO - IXRTY 
SLOPPY -ETC. 

CLOTTHINOTOO LARGE OR TOO SMALL 
ODD COLORS - PATCHWORK - 



WEAPONS 


VEHICLES 


1. REVOLVER 


1. MAKE 


1. nSTOL 


2. MODBL 


S. SHOTOUN 


i. TYPE 


4. RIPLB 


4. COLOR 


S. KNIPB 


1. OOOITIBS 


«. OTHER 


t. 



HELP THE POLICE 
HELP YOU 



167 




95-158 0—73 — pt. 1- 



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169 



POLICE 
EMERGENCY 

633-2811 



CHECK LIST 



PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION 



1. SEX 



2 COLOR. 

3 ACE _ 



6. BUILD 

7. HAIR . 

8. EYES 



4. HEIGHT , 



9. COMPLEXION 



5. WEIGHT 



10. PECULIARITIES ^ 



CLOTHING DESCRIPTION 



1. HAT 



6. SHOES 



2. SHIRT 



7. ACCESSORIES 



3. COAT 



S. JEWELRY 



4. TROUSERS 



9. GEN. APPEARANCE 



S. SOCKS 



10. ODDITIES 



FACIAL DESCRIPTION 



1. SHAPE 



6. NOSE & EARS. 



2. HAIR & LINE 



7. LIPS & MOUTH 



3. FOREHEAD 



8. CHIN & NECK 



4. EYES & BROWS 



9. AGE LINES & WRINKLES 



S. CHEEKS & JAW 



10. EXPRESSION 



KEEP THIS BOOKLET AND REFER TO IT IN THE 
EVENT YOU HAVE TO DESCRIBE A SUSPECT. 



170 




A MESSAGE FROM 
THE CHIEF 



YOUR POLICE DEPARTMENT 
GOES INTO ACTION 

when you promptly dial 633—2811 and 
give the Police Dispatcher the following 
information. 

Whats Happened?... Happening? 

w Address or Location of the incident. 

Description of Scene and number of 
persons involved — Age — Height 
Weight — Complexion — Clothing etc. 

W Method and Direction of travel — License 
Number — Color and Make of any cars 
used. 

Remember, you saw or heard it happen... 
Fulfull your Civic Responsibility and 
help us apprehend the Criminal. 

Chief of Police 
INDIANAPOLIS POLICE DEPARTMENT 



171 



Teen-agers 
want to know , . . 

WHAT IS THE LAW? 




Published by the Youth Division of 
The Anti-Crime Crusade 

• sponsored by 

The Indianapolis News 

307 North Pennsylvania Street 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 

Telephone: 633-9060 



172 




Why This Booklet? 



This booklet has been edited by teen-agers, in 
cooperation with Indianapolis and Marion County law 
enforcement officials. 

The purpose of the book is to provide better under- 
standing of the laws which affect young people and to 
emphasize the importance of law enforcement and 
civic responsibility. 

Again and again, youths in the court room tell the 
judge, "But I didn't know I was breaking a law." 

"I didn't know it was an offense to be truant . . . 

"I didn't know it was an offense to run away . . . 

"I didn't know it was an offense to swear . . . 



173 



This booklet points out that there are laws -not 
"bad" laws and "good" laws, but laws. Personal re- 
sponsibility and respect for the law are necessary in 
order that millions of people can live together 
harmoniously. 

Many young people have asked for the information 
in this booklet. Judges, the Marion County Prosecutor, 
the Indianapolis Police Department, the Marion County 
Sheriffs Office, and the National Citizens Council on 
Crime and Delinquency have endorsed the publication. 

We believe the booklet will be valuable to young 
people and to their parents. 

For extra copies and other information, write: 

Youth Division, 
The Anti-Crime Crusade 
The Indianapolis News 
307 N. Pennsylvania Street 
Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 



174 
The Youth Division of the Anti-Crime Crusade 

The Youth Division is one of 14 areas of work in 
the Indianapolis Anti-Crime Crusade. Thirty women 
launched the Crusade in March, 1962. There are now 
more than 50,000 volunteers who tackle the widest 
possible field of crime prevention. They have been 
able to get more than 2,000 dropouts back in school 
without tax funds. They are aware that crime costs as 
much as national defense; they are concerned with the 
effect it has on people -the fear of a dark street, the 
unwillingness to trust a stranger, the dread of a knock 
at the door. 

The Youth Division is open to high school and 
junior high school youths throughout Indianapolis and 
Marion County. Last year teen-agers in the Crusade 
edited a booklet called, "Directory for Teen-Age Volun- 
teers." 

Copies of this and the following booklets are avail- 
able by writing to the address on the preceding page: 
selt-protection, how to get dropouts back in school, how 
to light up a city, court watching, church volunteer 
service. 

Who Is A Juvenile? 

Under Indiana law, a juvenile is any boy or girl 
under the full age of 18 years. If you are arrested, you 
will be charged with being a delinquent child by virtue 
of . . . and then the crime with which you are charged 
will be spelled out. 



175 



As a juvenile, you are subject to all Indiana laws 
defining crime, and any act that would be a crime for 
an. adult is also a crime for you. You will normally be 
tried in juvenile court, unless you commit a crime for 
which the penalty is death or life imprisonment. Crimes 
in this hideous category are treason, murder, and being 
an habitual criminal. You may, however, be tried in 
an adult court for traffic offenses and for any violation 
of the law which is so serious that the juvenile court 
judge decides you deserve to be tried as an adult. 




176 
Let's Define "Habitual" 

Now, before we begin the recitation of the law, let 
us understand one word that will be used again and 
again. "Habitually" as used in Indiana law and in- 
terpreted by Indiana courts means three times. For 
example, it is a crime for a child to be habitually dis- 
obedient, to be ungovernable or incorrigible, to be 
habitually beyond the control of his parents or guardian. 
Sometime when your mother says, "If you do that one 
more time, I'll call the police," you might remember 
that she can, and some parents do simply turn their 
children over to juvenile court to be handled as the 
court sees fit. 

Truancy, Running Away from Home 

Being habitually truant (remember, three times) 
is a crime. When the school attendance officer or your 
home room teacher or the principal calls home to 
find out if you're really sick, she's not being nosy; 
she's enforcing the law. 

It is a crime to run away from home -habitually, 
that is. The law says you may not leave home without 
just cause and without the consent of your parents, 
guardian, or other custodian. Juvenile courts have had 
cases of frighteningly young children who run away. 
Don't. Home's a pretty good place to be able to come 
back to. 



177 

Employment Restrictions 

There are occupations, too, which are in violation 
of the law for juveniles. Your school guidance counselor 
will be able to help you with this one. There are limita- 
tions on the hours you can work, the kind of machinery 
you can operate, the places you can work. 

Choose Associates Carefully 

Associating with immoral or vicious persons is also 

against Indiana law. That Halloween stunt you watched 

your friend pull off may land you in jail for associating 
with the wrong kind of person. You are free to choose 
the persons with whom you spend your time. Choose 
carefully; they may change your life. 




L^;>V~. 










What's Off Limits 

Places whose existence is forbidden by law are 
off-limits to juveniles as well as adults. There's a special 
section in the juvenile law that says you can't go into 
after-hours taverns and the like. You may think it 
sounds like fun; but what about that permanent record 
you'll have to carry? 



178 



Begging, receiving or gathering alms is officially 
frowned upon. No reputable organization needs to have 
children on street corners pleading with passersby for 
gifts or donations. 

Two companion parts of the juvenile law are mostly 
for your safety. They make it illegal for you to be found 
about railroad tracks or yards, to jump on or off trains, 
or to enter a car or engine without lawful authority. 
The companion section for trucks forbids you to be 
found in or about truck terminals, including the freight 
docks and garages, or to enter a truck or trailer without 
lawful authority. 




Well Chosen Friends -Important to Youths 



179 . 
Vile Language, Liquor 

Using intoxicating liquor as a beverage or using 

narcotics without the direction of a doctor should have 
been so thoroughly discussed by now that you'd never 
consider doing either. Harmful habits, they are; death 
traps they frequently become. 



Associating with persons you know to be thieves or 
maliciously vicious can also cost you a trip to the police 
.station. America's legal system has always held the 
associates of a criminal to be equally responsible for 
the criminal's acts. You cannot run around with a person 
who wilfully violates the law without eventually violat- 
ing the law yourself. Again, you are free to choose the 
the people with whom you spend your time. 



The other side of the coin makes you responsible 
if you wilfully, deliberately harm someone else; the 
statute refers to this as wilfully endangering the morals 
of himself or others. If you encourage someone to 
commit a crime, help him do it, even suggest that it can 
be done -you may be on your way to jail. 



180 




181 
Indecent? Immoral? 

The catch-all part of juvenile law says you may be 
judged to be a delinquent child if you are guilty of in- 
decent or immoral conduct. What is indecent or immoral 
conduct? Acting in any way that goes against what most 
of the people in your community think is right and 
proper. The sole decider of this section is the juvenile 
court judge, elected by your parents, and therefore 
reflecting the thinking of the majority of the community. 



There's a Curfew Law 

One law always good for an argument is curfew. Once 
again, remember it is not up to you or the polieman to 
decide whether a law is fair. If you don't like the law as 
it is now, tell your legislators who can change it. Curfew 
says you're supposed to be home between 11 p.m. and 
5 a.m. unless you're just coming home after attending a 
religious or educational meeting or a school function 
sponsored by a church or school. There is very little you 
can do after 11 o'clock that you can't do just as well 
before if you put your mind to it. 



182 




Theft, Shoplifting 

In 1963, Indiana's General Assembly put into one 
law, the Offenses Against Property Act, all the varieties 
of theft from grand larceny through vehicle theft and 
embezzlement. One category of theft of which you 
should be particularly aware is shoplifting. Stealing 
something from a store may sound like an exciting dare, 
but remember the maximum penalty for stealing that 
sweater could be five years in prison; it would take less 
time to earn the money and buy the sweater. A con- 
centrated drive on shoplifting in Marion County has 
caught many juveniles; are you next? 

Don't Hitichhike! 

If you hitchhike, you are violating a city ordinance 
and can be picked up by police. Youths who hitchhike 
are endangering themselves and motorists by darting 
into the street to seek rides. Another aspect concerns 
protection of juveniles; it is unwise to get into a car with 
a stranger. Therefore, the ordinance: Don't hitchhike! 
It is unlawful for a person to stand in a roadway for the 
purpose of asking for a ri4e. ~ - 



183 



Think! Don't Crash a Party 

If you crash a party, you are subject to arrest for dis- 
orderly conduct, refusal to leave or creating a dis- 
turbance. You also may be charged with trespassing. 



Alcohol, Cigarettes 

It is unlawful for any person to sell or give any 
alcoholic beverage to a juvenile, or for a minor (anyone 
under th^ age of 21) to buy or possess any alcoholic 
beverages. It is a crime for a minor to misrepresent his 
age in order to buy liquor. 

It is unlawful for a minor to buy cigarettes. 



Ever Hear of Stolen Car? 

If you "borrow a car to go for a ride," you can be 
charged with the crime of theft in that you knowingly, 
unlawfully and feloniously obtained and exerted un- 
authorized control over a certain vehicle. 



Carrying Concealed Weapon a Crime 

It is a crime to carry a concealed weapon -a spring- 
back knife, a firearm of any kind, a spring or air gun 
designed to shoot BB shots or any other missile, am- 
munition of any kind, whether containing an explosive 
or not, for use in any of the weapons mentioned above. 



95-158 O— 73— pt. 1 13 



184 
If You Are Arrested 

• « 

If you are arrested by the Indianapolis police, you 
will be taken to the Juvenile Branch, Indianapolis 
Police Department. Your parents will be notified at 
once. If your parents are not at home, or if a qualified 
adult (guardian) cannot be located, you will be taken to 
the Marion County Juvenile Center to await appearance 
of your parents. You may be released to your parents, 
with guidance on conduct, or you may be released to 
them pending your appearance in juvenile court. An 
information sheet is sent to Juvenile Court and a time 
is set for your appearance there before the Marion 
County Juvenile Judge or a referee (attorney named by 
the Juvenile Judge). Release to parents is not possible 
if you are charged with a crime of violence. For this 
charge you will be taken to the Juvenile Center, or if 
you are charged with murder, you will be taken to the 
Marion County Jail. 

If you are arrested by the Sheriffs Department, you 
will be taken to the Sheriffs office, where you will wait 
until your parents are notified, and go through a process, 
similar to that used by the Juvenile Branch of the Police 
Department. The information sent to Juvenile Court is 
set out on a "petition." 

You can be sent to the Indiana Boys School or the 
Indiana Girls School by the Judge of Juvenile Court, 
or referee before whom you appear. 



185 
A Criminal Record Is Forever 



A Single Act of Recklessness Can Spoil 
Your Entire Life 

A person who has been convicted of a crime in a 
criminal court has a criminal record for the rest of his 
life. The punishment ordered by the court, such as 
prison or a fine, is only one of the consequences of a 
criminal conviction. 

Anyone with a criminal record will find it harder to 
make and keep friends or get a good job. 

Many businesses require employes to be bonded, 
and insurance companies usually refuse to bond anyone 
with a criminal record. 

Civil service and other government jobs may also 
be closed to those convicted of crime. 

A driver's license may be refused on the basis of a 
criminal record. No car or no license closes the door to 
many jobs. 

The Army, the Navy, and the Marine Corps will 
usually not give a commission to anyone who has been 
convicted of a crime. 

A person convicted of a crime cannot be a lawyer. 

A person who has been convicted of a felony loses 
his rights and cannot vote in any election unless the 
governor restores these rights. 



186 




Youth and The Law 



The laws that affect you are these: 



Vol. 4, Burns Indiana Statutes, Part 1, Cumulative 
Pocket Supplement, Sec. 9-3204 (1963). 

"Delinquent Child" defined -The words "delin- 
quent child" shall include any boy under the full age of 
eighteen (18) years and any girl under the full age of 
eighteen (18) years who: 



187 



(1) Commits an act which, if committed by an adult, 
would be a crime not punishable by death or life 
imprisonment: 

(2) Is incorrigible, ungovernable or habitually dis- 
obedient and beyond the control of his parent, 
guardian, or other custodian: 

(3) Is habitually truant: 

(4) Without just cause and without the consent of his 
parent, guardian, or other custodian, repeatedly 
deserts his home or place of abode: 

(5) Engages in an occupation which is in violation of 
law: 

(6) Associates with immoral or vicious persons: 

(7) Frequents a place the existence of which is in 
violation of the law: 

(8) Is found begging, receiving or gathering alms, 
whether actually begging or under the pretext of 
selling or offering anything for sale: 

(9) Unaccompanied by parent, patronizes or visits any 
room wherein there is a bar where intoxicating 
liquors are sold: 

(10) Wanders about the streets of any city, or in (on) or 
about any highways or any public place between the 
hours of eleven (11:00) o'clock P.M. and five (5:00) 
o'clock A.M. without being on any lawful business 
or occupation, except returning home or to his 
place of abode after attending a religious or edu- 
cational meeting or social function sponsored by 
a church or school: 



188 



(11) Is found in or about railroad yards or tracks: or 
who jumps on or off trains: or who enters a car or 
engine without lawful authority: 

(12) Is found in or about truck terminals, including 
freightdocks. garages, other buildings incidental 
thereto, or who enters a truck or trailer without 
lawful authority: 

(13) Uses vile, obscene, vulgar or indecent language: 

(14) Uses intoxicating liquor as a beverage, or who uses 
opiup, cocaine, morphine or other similar drugs 
without the direction of a competent physician: 

(15) Knowingly associates with thieves or other mali- 
ciously vicious persons: 

(16) Is guilty of indecent or immoral conduct: 

(17) Deports himself so as to wilfully injure or en- 
danger the morals or health of himself or others. 

(18) Deports himself so as to wilfully injure or endanger 
the person or property of himself or others (Indiana 
Acts 1945, Ch. 356, Sec. 4, Page 1724: 1959, Ch. 237, 
Sec. 1, Page 566; 1961, Ch. 274, Sec. 1, Page 622). 

In addition, there are ordinances and other laws 
which directly affect juveniles. 

Only about 2% to 3% of young people get into trouble 
-but the repeated problems caused by juvenile de- 
linquents can affect an entire city -an entire county. 
There are no minor crimes. One crime is too many. 
One dropout is too many. 



189 



Inspector Edward C. Kemper Jr., Federal Bureau 
of Investigation staff of Director J. Edgar Hoover, was 
asked when he spoke recently in Indianapolis: "What 
can be done about juvenile delinquency?" 

His answer was the following: 



Open Letter To A Teen-Ager 

What can we do ? 

Where can we go — ? 

The answer is GO HOME! 

Hang the storm windows. Paint the woodwork. Rake 
the leaves. Mow the lawn. Shovel the walk. Wash the 
car. Learn to cook. Scrub some floors. Repair the sink. 
Build a boat. Get a job. 

Help your church, the Red Cross, the Salvation 
Army. Visit the sick. Assist the poor. Study your les- 
sons. And then when you are through -and not too tired 
-read a book. 

Your parents do not owe you entertainment. Your 
village does not owe you recreation facilities. The 
world does not owe you a living. You owe the world 
something. You owe it your time, and energy, and your 
talents so that no one will be at war or in poverty, or 
sick or lonely again. 

In plain, simple words: GROW UP. Quit being a 
crybaby. Get out of your dream world. Develop a back- 
bone, not a wishbone. Start acting like a man or a lady. 



190 



I'm a parent. I'm tired of nursing, protecting, help- 
ing, appealing, begging, excusing, tolerating, denying 
myself needed comforts for every whim and fancy, just 
because your selfish ego, instead of common sense, 
dominates your personality and thinking and requests. 




"The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil 
is for good men to do nothing." 

-Edmund Burke 



191 




192 



EMERGENCY TELEPHONE NUMBERS 



ACCIDENT 



FIRE 



HOSPITALS 



MEDICAL 
EMERGENCY 



POISON 

CONTROL 

CENTER 

DEAD 
ANIMALS 

STRAY DOGS 

WILD ANIMALS 



STREET 
CHUCKHOLES 

PUBLIC 
HEALTH 

PUBLIC 

WELFARE 

DEPARTMENT 



Indianapolis -Call 633-2811 (Police) 

Marion County -(outside city) -633-2811 (Sherif!) 

State -633^926 (State Police) 

Indianapolis Police (Emergency only) -633-2811, or dial 
"O" and tell operator where you live- street and number, 
city or town, as "Greenwood, Plainfield"-each area has 
police agency. 

Information - Police andianapolis)- 633-3000 
(as if you wish information on police recruiting) 

Indianapolis - call 634-1313 

(Other fire departments- inside phone book cover-or dial 

"O" and tell operator exact location where help is needed) 



Community Hospital 
General Hospital 
Methodist Hospital 
St. Francis Hospital 
St. Vincent's Hospital 



353-1411 
636-6311 
924-6411 
787-3311 
926-3301 



(If you need a doctor) -call 926-3466 (Marion County Med- 
ical Society Exchange) 



Call 636-6311 (General Hospital -ask for Poison Control) 

Sanitation Department (Indianapolis)— call 633-3574 

Municipal Dog Pound (Indianapolis) -call 633-7957 

(Fox, opossum, raccoon)- Indiana Natural Resource De- 
partment-call 633-5254 (daytime). (Night)-call 635-2220- 
West Indianapolis. (Night)- call 849-0587 - East Indian- 
apolis. 

Street Commissioner (Indianapolis) -call 633-3623 
(Birth certificates, sanitation, housing) -call 633-3743 



Call 633-3997 



193 

MEASURIINC; THE EFFECTIVENESS 
OF THE 



INDIANAPOLIS POLICE DEPARTMENT 



FLEET 
PLAN 



WINSTON CHURCHILL 
CHIEF OF POLICE 



194 



MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 

THE INDIANAPOLIS POLICE DEPARTMENT 

FLEET PLAN 



AN 

INDIANAPOLIS POLICE DEPARTMENT 

PROJECT 

BY 

RAYMOND A. WALTON, JR. 



December, 1972 



195 



Keepine; in mind the primary objectives of 
any Law Enforcement agency, as well as its 
responsibilities to the citizens it serves, 
the Indianapolis Police Pepartment is 
constantly on watch for new pro',rams and 
ideas which will further these ends. 

When programs meeting these criteria are 
initiated, only part of the task is 
complete. Following implementation must 
be surveillance, evaluation, and if deemed 
necessary, procedure changes or even the 
complete discontinuation, if the program 
is determined insufficiently effective. 

The following document - only a part of the 
Department's continuing crime study and 
research program - was written in an effort 
to determine the effectiveness of the 
Indianapolis Police Department Fleet Plan, 

The data from which the conclusions are 
made are presented in the tables at the 
end of the study so that any department 
interested in initiating a similar Fleet 
Plan program may better compare their 
statistics to those of the Indianapolis 
Police Department. 

We feel that this Fleet Plan is better 
enabling us to meet our responsibilities 
to the Citizens of Indianapolis. 



Winston Churchill 
Chief of Police 



196 



TARLE OF COMTF.MTS 



chart index 
table index 

Sir^lMARY 



111 
iv 



CFAPTFR 



PAGE 



I. INTRODUnTICl' 



TI. AUTHORIZATION - RESTRICT-IOMS - RFISPOMSIBILITIES 



III. TOHICLE COSTS 



IV. VISIBLE CP.IWS 



V. ACciDE'rrs 



VI. TRAFFIC CITATIONS 



VII. MANHOimS OF PATROL TIME 



VITI. xpRALF 



IX. CONCLUSION 



TABLES 



BTBLIOGRAPHy 



3 
h 
9 
19 
27 
28 
31 
32 
3U 
Ui 



ii 



197 

CHART TNDCT 
WART NUlflFR ILLHSTR^.TTON P^^^ 

1^ 'Preventive Maintenance/Repairs Costs 6 

Per Vehicle for 1^68 through 197? 

2, Robberies for 106L through 197? 10 

3, FKirglaries for 196U through 197? 11 
h. Larcenies for 196U through 197? 1? 
$. Vehicle Thefts for 196L through 197? 13 

6, Monetary Savi.ngs in Visible Crimes - 1971 l5 

7, Visible Crime Decrease in Indianapolis 17 
Compared to National Averaj^e Increase - 1971 

8, Accidents Involving Marked Police ?0 
Vehicles for 1968 through 197? 

9, Accidents Per Vehicle for Marked Patrol ?? 
Vehicles for 1968 through 197? 

10. Percent Decrease of Accidents Reported 25 
to Indianapolis Police Department 
for 1967 through 1970 



iil 



198 



TABLF TMDF.X 



TAi^LF, m. '^°F OF DATA P4GF, 



1, Cost of Upkeep on Police Department 

Vehicles for iq6B through 197? 3U 



?. Visible Crimes Reported to the Indianapolis 

Police nepartment for 196lj t'r:rough 197? 35 



3. . Robberies Reported to the F.n.I. for the 

Uniform Crime Renorts for 1966 through 1971 36 

h. Rurglaries Reported to the F.R.I, for the 

Uniform Crime Reports for 1966 through 1971 37 



5, Larcenies Reported to the F.H.I, for the 

Uniform Crime Reports for 1966 through 1971 3f\ 

6. Vehicle Thefts Renorted to the F.T.I, for the 
Uniform Crime Reports for 1966 through 1971 39 



Tfethod used for Arriving at the Met 

Savings in Visible Crimes for 1971 Uo 



8. Accidents Involving Marked Patrol Cars 

for 1968 through 197? Ul 



9. Number and Types of Accidents Reported 

for 196U through 197? U2 



10, Percent of Annual Change in Reported 

Accidents for 1965 through 197? U3 



IV 



199 



SUM-zTARY 

This study is intended to evaluate the Indianapolis Police 
Department's Fleet Plan. Under this plan each field patrolman was 
issued =1 marked patrol car to use full tine. This included both 
on-duty and off-duty. The field Sergeants and Lieutenants vrere also 
issued their o'-m personal marked patrol vehicle. 

These officers nay - and in fact are encouraged to - use 
their patrol cars while off-duty, hut when doing so must main- 
tain radio contact at all times so as to be available for emer- 
gencies which nay occur in their immediate vicinity. The indi- 
vidual officers are resoonsible for the cleanliness of their ve- 
hicle, inside and outside, and must change their own flat tires 
when off-duty. 

In return for this personal use of department vehicles, 
the department buys the vehicles, provides all preventive main- 
tenance, including gasoline, provides all repairs, both mechan- 
ical and body, and pays for the insurance coverage. 

This study is based on two types of analysis of data. One 
is comparing data before and a^'ter the inception of the Fleet 
Plan. The other is analyzing data covering a period of several 
years to indicate trends which may or may not be effected by 
this plan. 

Following are the principle findings of this study. 



95-158 O — 73— pt. 1 14 



200 



Vehicle Costs 

The initial cost of increasing the fleet size from 110 
vehicles to h^'? vrhiclrs was 3'.650,OOn, of which about $?1?,500 
would have been spent on normal replacement. This puts the in- 
creased expenditure at $)i37,?00. 

Average anntial vehicle replacement costs have increased 
about S:50,000. 

Average annual preventive maintenance/repair costs have 
increased about ?. .317, 000. 

Insurance premiums have increased $52,000 a year. 

Preventive maintenance/repair costs per vehicle dropped 
17.3^ in the first full calendar year after the Fleet Plan. 
Visible Crimes 

Due to a more complete and accurate reporting system 
going into effect in 1970, selected crimes - Robbery, Burglary, 
Larceny and Vehicle Theft - went up. However, the drop in these 
selected crimes in 1971 saved potential victims about a half 
million dollars. These crimes were selected because of their 
visibility from a patrol car and the deterrent factor which 
marked patrol vehicles can have on these crimes. 
Accidents 

Although the total number of accidents involving marked 
patrol cars increased slightly, on an accident-per-vehicle rate, 
there was a decrease from 3.1 accidents to 1.8 accidents per 
marked vehicle per year. 



vi 



201 



Reported accidents fron citizens were already on a down- 
ward trend before this plan, hut during the full calendar year 
after the Fleet Plan the total reported accidents dropped an 
actual 10.6?!. This was 7. 3"^^ more decrease than indicated by a 
projected trend. On a per accident cost basis in the three gen- 
eral categories of fatalities, personal injuries, and property 
damage accidents, this amounted to a savings of about .7 million 
dollars . 
Citations for Moving Traffic Violations 

Citations issued for moving traffic violations increased 
Lfl.B? in 1970 over 1968. 
Manhours of Street Exposure 

There is a definite increase in manhours of street ex- 
posure without having to hire more personnel. The one measurable 
facet of this is an additional 1.? hours per man per day of pa- 
trol time. This is the equivalent of an additional 73.8 patrol- 
men at an amnual salary of $635,000, not including any fringe 
benefits . 
Morale 

No documentable facts were uncovered, but the indications 
point to an upward trend . 



Vll 



202 



CHAPTER I 

INT'P.ODHCTION 

The Indianapolis Police Departnent Fleet Plan is the 
issuance of marked natrol vehicles to each officer in the Oper- 
ations Division who is assif^ned to the field. This includes 
beat Patrolmen, field Sergeants and field Lieutenants. Each 
of these men has full use of his ovm marked patrol vehicle 
on'a 2U-hour basis, including on-duty and o*'f-duty time. These 
officers are encouraged to drive their natrol vehicles when off- 
duty, but must observe certain rules which were established to 
govern their conduct when doing so. 

When the Indianapolis Police Denartment implemented its 
Fleet Plan, expectations of resulting effects were high. The 
areas of expectation are pursued in this study in an attempt 
to determine the "cost vs benefits" effectiveness of the Fleet 
Plan, 

Some of the data collected lends itself to a comparison 
of the facts immediately before and after full implementation 
of the plan. Other data presented covers a period of years 
indicating a trend which, in some cases, changes during the full 
calendar year following the plan going into effect. 

The Indianapolis Police Department started issuing the 
new vehicles in June of 1969 and by August the Fleet Plan was 
in full swing. However, due to the available data being grouped 
by calendar years, it was decided to use calendar years for this 



203 



study rather th^n fleet years, which would have been from 

Auf^ust to August. 

The general areas pursued by this study are: 

1. Vehicle costs 

2. Visible Crimes 

3. Tra^'fic Accidents 

k. rianhours of Street Exposure 

5. Traffic Citations 

6. Morale 



-2- 



204 



CHAPTER II 

AUTH0RI7.ATI0r - RESTRICTIONS - R'^SPOMSniTJTIES 

In order to implement the Fleet Plan, a City Ordinance 
had to be passed authorizinft the purchase and financing of 
these fleet vehicles. This included not only the maximum a- 
mount of money to be spent but complete and precise vehicle 
specifications as well. 

The Indianapolis Police Department then issued a Special 
Order covering the maintenance, care, and responsibilities of 
driving the city-owned marked patrol vehicle. The maintenance, 
including gasoline and oil and all repairs, is the responsi- 
bility of the Department. Each officer, however, for presenting 
his car at the city garage in order to receive this work. Each 
officer is also responsible for the cleanliness of his vehicle, 
inside and outside, 

VJhen an officer is driving his vehicle off-duty, non- 
sworn or civilian personnel may ride in the vehicle but shall 
not drive it. At all times, however, the officer driving the car 
is responsible for the actions of any "non-official" passengers. 
Each officer is required to stay in radio contact anytime he is 
in the vehicle and must respond to any emergency in his immediate 
vicinity. Mo vehicle may be taken outside of the county without 
proper permission. 



-3- 



205 



CHAPTFR III 

VEHICLE COSTS 
Initial Cost 

The greatest single expenditure of the Fleet Plan was 
the initial cost of purchasing the vehicles. Prior to this 
plan, the Operations Division maintained about 110 narked 
vehicles, replacing about 85 of them each year. 

To put the Fleet Plan into effect, 320 new vehicles 

were purchased. For this ourpose, the city council appropiri- 

3 
ated S650,000, 

Replacement Cost 

The department expected the new fleet vehicles to last 

about three times as long as they did under the former plan. 

This expectation was realized and in the late spring of 197? 

another fleet purchase took place. This time 3lU new vehicles 

h 
were purchased at a per unit cost of $2912.27, Considering the 

former replacement rate of 85 vehicles per year, then the new 

Fleet Plan shows an average annual replacement rate of 105, or 

Just 20 more per year than before the new Fleet Plan, Since the 

cost of vehicles varies from year to year, an arbitrary amount 

of $2500.00 per unit is used to compare the before aid after 

the Fleet Plan cost of vehicle replacement. 

At the replacement rate of 85 vehicles per year at 

$?500 per vehicle, the cost of vehicle replacement prior to 

the Fleet Plan was about $212,500 annually. The ad'ter-the-plan 

•Superscripts refer to the corresponding number in the Bibliography 



-u- 



206 



rate being 10?, puts this amount up to $262,500 or an average 
annual increased expenditure of about $50,000. 
Preventive Maintenance/Repairs 

The total funds disbursed by the Indianapolis Police 
Department to the city garage furnished the basis for analy- 
zing this area of study. The city garage provides all mainten- 
ance and repairs for the department's vehicles. The categories 
covered under these funds are: 

1. Parts and Supplies - including gasoline and oil 

2. Labor 

3. Overhead 

li. Outside Contractual Services 

The amount disbursed (Table 1) went from $127,103.90 
in 1968 to an annual average of $UUU,05l.lfi. This is an in- 
creased annual expenditure of $3l6,9U7.28, 

An interesting point brought to light while checking 
the garage disbursements was the per vehicle cost (Chart 1), 
The preventive maintenance/repair cost per vehicle in 1970 
dropped 17.3^ from I968. The increase in per vehicle cost of 
2,85? in 1971 and ,9% in 1972 seems to reflect the nomal in- 
crease in the cost of everything. The fact that the per vehicle 
cost decreased this much and has fairly well held it for three 
years is reflected in the vehicles lasting for three years. 
Insurance Costs 

The Indianapolis Police Department carries liability 
insurance on each of its vehicles. This insurance covers other 



-5- 



207 



CHART 1 



PRFVF>'TI\fK miMTENANCE ^m REPAIR COSTS PER VEHICIE FOR 
THE INDIAKAPOLTS POLICE DEPART'f tn" ELEET 





1200 


- 




1190 


- 




llBO 


- 




1170 


_ 




1160 


N 




ll'^O 


\ 




llUO 


\ 




1130 


\ 




1120 


\ 




"1110 


\ 




1100 


\ 




1090 


\ 




lOBO 


\ 




1070 


\ 




1060 


\ 


^ 


1050 


\ 


loLo 


\ 


1030 


\ 


s 


1020 


\ 




1010 


\ 




1000 


m \ 


 


990 


\ ^"-"^ 




980 


\ y^ 




970 


\ j^ 




960 


\y^ 




950 


- 




9l»0 


. 




930 


. 




920 


• 




910 


- 




900 


- 1 1 1 1 _ 



SOURCE: INDIANAPOLIS 
POLICE DEPART^IEMT 
BUDGET RECORDS 



1968 1970 1971 1972' 



YEAR 



*THE FIOHRES FOR 1972 ARE PROJECTED EROH THE STATISTICS 
FOR T^T. FIRST MINE MONTHS OF THE YEAR 



208 



drivers, passengers and vehicles for both personal injury and 

repair, should the driver of a police vehicle be involved in 

an accident in which it is determined that the officer is at 

fault. The police vehicles are repaired in the city garage at 

the Police Denartment's expense. 

The cost of this insurance coverage in 1968 was $100 per 

vehicle and was raised to $137 per vehicle after implementation 

6 
of the Fleet Plan, With the increase per vehicle and the greater 

number of vehicles, this represents an increase of $5?, 000 for 

the after- the -plan costs. 

Car Washes 

Prior to this plan the marked patrol vehicles were washed 
about once a week at a cost of $1.?5 each. Under the Fleet Plan 
each officer is responsible for washing his own car - or having 
it washed. This is a savings of about $7,000 annually. 
Snow Tires 

The department formerly furnished snow tires for each 
marked patrol vehicle. This is no longer true under the Fleet 
Plan, If an officer wants snow tires on his personal patrol 
car, he must furnish them at his own expense. This is not a 
savings, however, because the department now equips the patrol 
vehicles with positraction type rear axles. The savings on the 
snow tires and the cost of the special axle just about cancel 
each other out. 
Miscellaneous 

Batteries and brakes on the vehicles used twenty-four 



209 



hours a day, seven days a week, averaf^ed lasting about six 
months. Under the Fleet Plan the average life of both of these 
items has increased ^OO"? to eighteen months. 

Arcordinp to the Indianapolis Police Denartment Vehicle 
Inspection records, the breakdown of hov; well the officers are 
taking care of their nersonal police cars is as follows: 

one third took averarte care 

one third took good care 

one third took excellent care 



-8- 



210 



CHAPTER IV 

VISIRLF, CRIMES 
One of the higher expectations of the result of more 
marked patrol cars on the street was the deterrent factor in 
crimes which may he visible - and consequently somewhat pre- 
ventable - from a patrol car. The crimes selected which ful- 
fill this criteria are Robbery, Burglary, Larceny and Vehicle 
Theft. Charts 2 through $ illustrate the number of crimes re- 
ported to the Indianapolis Police Department for 196h through 

7 
197?. 

As can be seen in these charts, there was a substantial 
increase in imported crimes in 1970, which was the first full 
calendar year after the initiation of the Fleet Plan. This in- 
crease may well be due to the department changing its reporting 
system to be more comDlete and accurate. This change involved 
not only using more of the computer's potential, but also com- 
ing more closely in line with the F. B. I. Uniform Crime Report- 
ing system. 

Another factor to be considered is the national average. 

As shown in Tables 3 through 6, the total number of selected 

8 
crimes showed a substantial increase nationally. To state this 

another way, also listed on these tables is the percentage in- 
crease of each of the four selected crimes for several years . 
This, too, illustrates that the national average was on the 
rise in 1970. 

Due to these factors, 1971 is used in an attempt to de- 



-9- 



211 



CHART 2 



R0hE_Ri:i3 REPORTiiD TC THiJ IKDIAl'APOLIS POLId;; 
D .lAnTI-i.:.r T BY YiilitR AKD NUf BiR 



2300 
2200 



i 

o 
g 







196k 1965 1966 196? 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972" 

YEAR 

SOURCE: I1:DIANAP0LIS POLICii; 
Dj.?ARTI-:£i;T'3 Alvl:UAL STATISTICAL 

■"'THB; 1972 STATISTICS ARE PI-'" J ii'IlT.^D i^ROL THb STATISTICS 
FOR Tll-i FIRST TEI' MONTHS OF TTIE Yi::AR 



-10- 



212 



CHART 3 



BUHnLARTF^S RFPOPTpD TO Tr^i PIDIAMAPOLIS 
POLICE DEPART?{FMT BY YEAR A^Ti Ml'riBFR 





11000 




10500 




10000 




9? 00 


h-1 


9000 




8500 


C3 




a: 


8000 


c 




g 


7500 


S: 


7000 




6500 




6000 




5500 




5000 




196h 1965 1966 1967 1963 1969 1970 1971 1972 
YEAR 



SOURCE: IMDIANAPOLTS POLICE 
DEPART'IENT ANNUAL STATISTICAL 
REPORTS 



THE 197? STATISTICS ARE PRO-IECTED FROM T'TTO 
STATISTICS FOR T!"^ FIRST TEN MONTHS 0!' r,W YEAR 



-11. 



w 
K 



u 

I 



213 



cyiART' U 



LARCENIES R^POR'^^D TO ^tfr ITIDTANAPOLTS 
POTJCF DF'^ART'lf'FT BY ^\R Affll MU-^'^ER 



19000 




196U 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972* 
YEAR 



SOURCE: IMDIAMAPOLTS POLICE 
DEPARTMENT ANNUAL 
STATISTICAL RE.PORTS 



^HF 197? STATISTICS ARE orojECTFD FROTI T}^- 
S'^ATISTTCS FOR '""F '^IRST T" MOT'THS ">^ T'f^ V'\R 



■1?- 



E-i 

is 

E-' 

O 



o 



214 



CHART 5 



VEHTCLF. THEFTS RE^ORTm T^ THF I>[DIANAPOLLS 
POLICF, nEP^RT'TFNT RY YT:AR A'D NUl^ER 



6000 




196h 1965 1966 196? 1968 I969 1970 1971 1972* 
YEAR 



source: indianapolis police 
departmf:nt annual 
statistical reports 



THF 197? STATISTICS ARE PROJECTED FROM 
TfiE FIRST TFN MONTHS OF THE YEAR 



-13- 



215 



termtne tbe effectiveness, if any, of the additional exposure 
of the marked patrol cars. Again, looking at Charts 2 through 5 
it is ob\rious that the decrease in these visible crimes is no- 
table. It is felt by this writer that the increased exposure of 
marked police vehicles is primarily responsible for these de- 
creases. 

To measure tMs decrease in reported visible crimes, it 
was necessary to translate it into dollars. This was done by 
using the total value of stolen it,ems as listed in the Indiana- 
polis Police Department's annual statistical report. Usin^; this 
amount in each category along with the number of reported crimes 
listed in each category, an average dollar-value per crime was 
comouted. Table 7 shows the method of computation which took into 
consideration the value of stolen property which was recovered. 

The final totel dollar-value for each category of crime 
is illustrated in Chart 6 which indicates +he savings to the 
citi7.ens of Indianapolis in 1971 due to the decrease in the 
selected visible crimes. Figure 1, which illustrates the per 
crime savings, also shows that the total savings is close to a 
million dollars. 



Robbery $ 1?,038.U6 

Burglary Slih3,823.20 

Larceny $220,227.02 

Vehicle Theft $255,937.10 

Total $932,025.78 



(Figure 1) 
Although no other major change in the Indianapolis Police 
Department's procedures came to light during this study, it is 



-lU- 



95-158 O— 73— pt. 1 15 



216 



8 



CHART 6 



MONEY SAVED BY THE CITIZENS OF BIDIANAPOLIS 
IN 1971 DUE TO DECREASE IN VISIBLE CRIfffiS 



500,000 


- 


U5o,ooo 


I 


hOOjOOO 








350,000 


- 






300,000 


- 






250,000 
200,000 


- 














150,000 


- 














100,000 


- 














50,000 


- 

















- 1-1 















ROBBERY BURGLARY LARCENY WHICLE THEFT 
CRIME 



SOURCE: INDIANAPOLIS POLICE DEPARTMENT 

ANNUAL STATISTICAL REPORT - 1971 



-15- 



217 



recognised that these are probably other variables involved 
which are not explored here. Due to this, it will be conser- 
vatively estimated that only about fifty oercent of the de- 
crease in selected visible crimes is attributable to the Fleet 
Plan. 

This brings the amount saved down to a probably more 
realistic figure of about .5 million dollars. This amount in 
itself would almost cover the original investment of the ad- 
ditional vehicles for this Fleet Plan. 

One other possible variable which could be part of the 
answer to the decrease in these crimes is the national average. 
It was thought that if the national average had also dropped 
noticeably in 1971 that whatever caused this drop could have 
also contributed to the decrease in Indianapolis. However, a 
quick look at Tables 3 through 6 show that the national aver- 
age not only did not decrease but in fact substantially in- 

P 

creased. 

For a comoarison of the national average in 1971 to 
Indianaoolis in 1971, Chart 7 very clearly shows that India- 
napolis v/as in much better shape statistically. Figure 2 shows 
the difference between Indianapolis and the national average. 



Crime Nation. Avg. Increase Indpls Decrease Difference 
Robbery ^J^CT -25.1% *U9.1'J^ 
^rglary nh.^?? -25.3'*; *39,QA 
larceny +lii5? -31.85? *U5.8^ 

Vehicle Theft +011"^^ -37.7? *hl.7'i 



(Figure 2) 
Therefore, the decrease in Indianapolis can not be con- 
sidered indicative of the national average. In fact, the differ- 



-16- 



218 



m 

M 

a. 



f^ 




#- 




t- 




g 


u 


G 


^ 


.1. 




H 




C5 


<c 


a 


tn 


pu 


< 


fO 






o 


Q 


f- 


^ 


f-i 


K 




o a 


Oh 




^ 


M 


K 


CD 






U- 




a 


<H 




t^ 


u 


o 


cr, 


fH 


«■ 




fe 


?; 


ri 


fe. 


K 




o 


W 




CT 


cr; < 




1 


E 


< 


< 






iJ 


K «; 


CO 


s^ 


•< 


o 


[«- 


M 


& 




S: 




M 




fe 


g 


F- 






c- 


C- 


F- 


o 






ci 


^ 


U- 


O Ct 


M 


«* 




c 


F-H 


o 


rn 




E3 


rH 


►J r- 


H^ 


O- 


M r-l 


<c 


g 



CHART 7 



siJWiHO aaL05n;is 



o 






w 
o 






(0Z6T) 




g 



CO 
M 
•-] 

o 
a. 



o 

Eh Os 
to i-t 



o 



I <: 

E- 






OC On 



CO 

E-i 

g 
p.. 



0\ << W 
<-• Pr 2 



^sey 



o 
CO 



1 E- 

oi 

o 






. . E-" 
>J CO 
O M 

a, E-i 



K 
O 

< 

o 

o 

E-< 

« 
a. 



sjwiao aaioaias 



-17- 



219 



ence could be computed on the same dollar-value per crime basis 
as before and probably show a savings of well over a million 
dollars. However, it seems that the nrthod already used for 
conputinc: the sa^^in^^s is a much more accurate one, which, to 
reiterate, saved the neonle of Indianapolis about a half- 
million dollars in 1971. 



-38 • 



220 



CFAPTER V 

ACCIDEMTS 

In a study of this type, two general categories of 
accidents must be considered. One is accidents involving ve- 
hicles of the Indianapolis Police Department fleet and the 
other is reported accidents fron the community. 
Fleet '^ehicle Accidents 

Accidents involving police vehicles have always been 

an area of concern to the administrators of a oolice departnent, 

and with the coming of the Fleet Plan has become more so to the 

Indianapolis Police Department Officials. A superficial look at 

10 
the total accidents involving marked patrol cars (See Chart 8) 

shows the cause for the increased concern. Although the total 

number of accidents dropped in 1971, it shot up in 1970 and 

headed back up in 1972. At no time has the number of accidents 

dropped below what they were before the start of the F'leet Plan. 

The cost of these accidents is difficult to determine 
since the City's insurance does not cover the repair of the City- 
owned vehicles. In addition to this, a settlement from a citi- 
zen's insurance company does not come back to the Indianapolis 
Police Department to pay for repairs but, instead, is put into 
the City's General Fund, This means that both under the old and 
the new plan, the Indianapolis Police Department loses money 
from its budget. 

The superficial picture, however, does not point out an 
interesting fact which does come to light when the fleet ve- 



-19" 



221 



CHART 8 



"ARKV'D PA'^ROL CARS OF THF P!DIAMAPnLIS POLICE 
DEPARTMF.N'^ WOL'^FD IN ACCIDEMTS 









total 




SOIFRCF: "PIDIANAPOLIS POLICE 
DEPART'WIT'S ACCIDENT Kl'.VIFM 
ROAFD RECORDS 



YEAR 



*THE MUMRFR OF ACCTDEMTS FOR 197? AR'' PROJECTED 
FROM TV^ STATISTICS FOR T"F FI"?ST NINE MONTHS 



-20- 



222 



hide accidents are more closley scrutinized. Chart 8 also 
breaks down the accidents into two sub-categories: 

1. On-duty accidents 

2. Off-duty accidents 

vrhen these sub-categories are studied, it can be seen why the 
total number of accidents is increasing: the off-duty accidents 
are the cause. Since marked patrol cars were not generally used 
off-duty prior to the Fleet Plan, the off-duty accident rate 
starts in 1970, and steadily raises. The on-duty accidents, 
however, run just the opposite. They have declined since 1968 
at a more than casual rate, Follovring the present trend of on- 
duty and off-duty accidents, they should he about the same in 
a few years. 

This writer feels that in order to stem th«^ tide of 
off-duty accidents, the Indianajjolis Police Department will 
have to apply more stringent restrictions on the off-duty dri- 
ving of marked oatrol vehicles. This is not to suggest that they 
not be driven off-duty, because this would kill the "more ex- 
posure - less crime and accidents" theory. It is recommended, 
however, that the types of errands on which they should not be 
driven off-duty be more explicitly stated by the department. 
It would then necessarily follow that an officer involved in an 
off-duty accident who was found guilty of violating these re- 
strtctions must be more surely disciplined. 

Still another way of looking at these accidents is on 
an average accident per vehicle basis. Chart 9 shows the average 



-21- 



223 



CHART 9 



AVERAGF. NUMBER OF ACCIDEIITS PER YEAR 
PER MARKED PATROL VEHICIE 



^ 



o 

< 

o 

I 

2 



U.o 


^ 




3.8 


. 


3.6 


- 


3.U 


- 


3.2 


- 


3.0 


- 






2.8 


_ 






2.6 


^ 






2.U 


k 






2.? 


- 






2.0 


- 






1.8 


- 








! 


1.6 


- 








1 






l.U 


- 
















1.2 


- 
















1.0 


- 
















.8 


. 
















.6 


. 
















M 


_ 
















.2 



2 


l._ 




_L__ 




L.. 




1 



SOURCE: INDIAtlAT'OLIS 
POLICE DEPART?1ENT 
ACCIDEMT REVIEW BOARD 
RECORDS 



1968 1970 1971 1972* 
YEAR 

*THE FTOURE USED FOR 1972 IS PROJECTED FROM 
THE STATISTICS FOR THE FIRST NINE J«)NTHS 



-??- 



224 



accident prr vehicle rate before and after the plan. Since 
each car is - in theorv'^ - only on-duty one third as much as 
it was previously, this exposure factor was included in com- 
puting the accidents per vehicle rate. Thje actual average 
accident ner vehicle rate was as follows! 

1968 3.1 accidents per vehicle 

1970 .9 accidents per vr-hicle 

1971 .8 accidents per vehicle 
197? .8 accidents per vehicle 

However, under the Fleet Plan, the marked patrol cars are on 
the street much more than the former seven and a half hours. 
For one einht hour shift they are on the street about nine 
hours considering travel-time from home to the roll-call sight 
and back home again. 

They are also on the street on the officer's day off for 
preventive maintenance, renairs, court, inspections and other 
errands of a personal nature. Therefore, it is thought that 
each car is moving on the street only about half as much as it 
was before the plan. Using this as a measure, the average acci- 
dents per vehicle were doubled, arriving in the amount shown in 
Chart 9. Although tbere must be an overall increase in the total 
cost of renairs due to the increase in total number of vehicles, 
it is a Doint in favor of the plan that the per vehicle repair 
cost has decreased. 
Reported Accidents from Citizens 

This is another area of high expectations by the creators 

of the Fleet Plan. To measure the plan's effectiveness in this 

11 
area, statistics have been analyzed for 196U through 1972. 



-?3. 



225 



The*>e statistics (Table 9) indicate trends in thp annual num- 
ber of retxjrtod accidents in all categories. For this reason, 
the period of time covering the trend immediately beforfe and 
after the start of the Fleet Plan is the period of time used 
here to study the plan's success or failure. 

The year 1968 began a general downward trend of total 
annual accidents. Therefore, when it is said that the number 
of accidents decreased in 1970, the first full calendar year 
of the Fleet Plan, it does not give a true picture of what 
really happened. To get a true pictur- the already downward 
trend was projected for 1070. This, compared to the actual 
number of accidents in each category in 1970, could be com- 
pared as shown in Chart 10. The difference between the pro- 
.iected trend and the actual number of total accidents is 109h. 
In other words there were 7.3'^ less total accidents in 1970 
than night have been expected through projection. 

What this means to the citizens o^ Indjananolis is less 
money expended. Every accident, regardless of the type, repre- 
sents money spent by someone. These expenditures include but 
are not limited to salary lost due to time off from work, car 
repairs, hospital costs and increased insurance premiums. While 
a continued decrease in the accident rate might not cause in- 
surance rates to decrease, it should lessen the proability of 

them being raised. 

In terms of dollars, the difference betwpen the project- 
ed number of accidents and the actual number was used to com- 
pute the savings. 



-2U. 



226 



Ci'kRT 10 



TYPE km niPIBEn ok ACCTDEMTS PFPORTrn T'O THF I'IDTA'^IAPOLTS 
POTJCF DF"ARTr!ETIT FOR 1967 through 1970 



O 
M 

o 
o 

-a: 

c 

a; 



16,000 
IS', 500 

15,000 
iii,5oo L 
lL,ooo - 
13,500 - 
13,000 . 



''.^OO 
9,000 
8,500 
8,000 

7,500 
7,000 
6,500 
6,000 
5,500 



90 . 
80 . 
70 1- 
60 



total 
accidents 



'.3^ 



property 
damage 




personal injury 



fatal 



-10.8;? 



.2.2f, 



SOURCE: 
INDIANAPOLIS POLICE 
DEPARTrtENT'S ANMUAL 
STATISTICAL REPORTS 
FOR 1967 - 1970 



-23.8^ 



— L ' „ I ll_ 

1967 1968 1969 1970^ 



YEAR 



ACTUAL 
PROJECTED 



-?5- 



227 



ROO 

700 

05 600 

^ c 1 "^^ 
r-* -H m iiOO 

o o 300 

° e ?00 

100 






Property Personal Fatality 
Damage Injury 

Type of Accident (Figure 3 ) 



Figure 3 graphically illustrates the decrease into dollars 

saved. The translation into dollars was accomplished using 

12 
the following information: 

Average $ 3^0 per Property Damage accident; 
Average $ ?,300 per Personal Injury accident; 
Average $38,700 per Fatality accident, 
93ii fewer Property Damage accidents than projected; 
13U fewer Personal Injury accidents than projected; 
18 fevrer Fatality accidents than projected. 
Therefore the gross amount saved is $l,338,OliO. 

Here again, as in the visible crimes discussed earlier, 
it is recognized that there may be other variables involved. Al- 
though none were uncovered by this study, it is estimated that 
the net savings contributable to the Fleet Plan are about half 
of the total. This brings the savings to about ,7 million dol- 
lars. 



-26- 



228 



CHAPTER VT 

.TRAFFIC CITATIONS 

Although there are about the same number of marked pa- 
trol vehicles on-duty at any Riven time, due to there being 
off-d\ity cars on the street too, the total number has increased. 
The anticipated effects of this additional exposure led the de- 
partment to expect an increase in citations written for moving 
violations. It was thought that the additional citations written 
might help contribute to a decrease in the total accident picture. 

From Chanter V it has been seen that the accidents have 

substantially decreased. Whether or not citations written for 

moving violations influenced this decrease is only speculation. 

It is knovm, however, that the number of citations issued for 

moving traffic violations jumped from 32,701 in 1968 to 58,62li 

13 
in 1970. This is an increase of hfl.8^. 

Although these citations were paid for by the citizens 
who received them, it is felt that this expense by the violators 
is far more than cancelled out by the monetary savings in acci- 
dents. 



-?7- 



229 



CHAPTTP. VTT 

mMHOlIRS OP PA-^RnL TT'IF 

What, is heinp studied here is an increase of nanhours 
on the street in marked patrol vehicles without an increase 
in the nunher of personnel. This area is much more difficult 
to n:n down. It is hard to substantiate the true number of extra 
nanhours received because it is not exactly how many off-duty 
hours the marked patrol vehicles are on the street. It is known, 
however, that the officers are nsinr, their marked cars off-duty. 
This is evidenced hv the fact that from ?0% to 30^ of the acci- 
dents involving marked natrol cars hanpened during off-duty 
driving time. 

For the purnose of this study two areas of additional 
manhours will be considered: the incalculable areas; and the 
calculable areas. The areas of activities which can not be 
measured anywhere close to accurately includes: 

1, O^f-duty officers responding to radio calls 

?, Emergency mobilization 

3. Non-report ser^/ices oerformed 
Off-duty Cars Responding to Radio Calls 

Under the Fleet Plan, each officer is charged with the 
responsibility of remaining in radio contact anytime he is in 
his police car. It is well known within the department that 
this resTX)nsibility is - for the most part - being met. At the 
scene of an incident requiring several officers, it is common- 
place to see some of them i n civilian clothing, an indicator 
of their off-duty status. 



-28- 



230 



FTtiergency Mobilization 

Unfortunately, there vrill be occasions when it is 
necessary to mobilize off-duty personnal. Prior to this plan, 
an officer had to drive his personal car to headquarters, 
hope to find a parking place and then wait at hp^dquarters 
for deoartment transportation to the emergency area. 

Under the Fleet Plan, when an officer receives the call 
to mobilize, he may also be told where to mobilize. This saves 
all of the time previously stated and puts the officer right 
into the exact location needed to deal with the emergency. 
Mon-report Services Performed 

Non-report services are those services for which it is 
not necessary to submit a formal report. An example might be 
a citizen requesting information of some type. In an instance 
in vrhich a citizen might normally have to telephone head- 
quarters for a patrol car, the chances are good that the same 
citizen will see one of the many off-duty cars and be able to 
obtain the information from him. This would save the time of 
an on-duty officer thereby freeing him for other radio runs. 
Measurable Area 

The area of increased manhours which can be measured 
is that of extra time on the street immediately before and 
after the assigned on-duty time. As an example, an officer 
who was on the fi:0O A.M. to h:00 P.M. shift did not leave 
roll-call until abotitt 8:1? A.M. and left his beat to return 
the car to headquarters about 3:li? P.M. This amounts to a 



-99- 



231 



street time of about seven and one-half hours. 

Under the Fleet Plan, the same officer on the same shift 
will leave hone in his marked police vehicle by 7:30 A.M. and 
will hopefully be back home by U:30 P.M. This comes to about 
nine hours of street time which is an increase of an hour and 
one half per man per day. The number of additional manhours on 
the street gained per year amounts to 136,9%. Translated into 
additional manpower, this is equivalent to hiring an additional 

73. R men. 

This would require an initial budget increase of $5U2,L30 
for salaries alone. The average length-of-service time of the 
patrolman on the street is five years, according to the Planning 
and Research Branch of the Department. The salary for these addi- 
tional 73.8 men at the five year level would he $63'5,060. This is 
a more realistic amount and still does not include items such as 
clothing allowance and other benefits or normal personnel costs. 

Other increases in manhours on the street to be mentioned 
are travel time while obtaining preventive maintenance, repairs, 
inspections and car washes. Whereas all of these activities used 
to be accomplished while on-duty, they are now performed during 
off-duty hours. This puts marked patrol cars on the street and 
increases their exposure. 



-30- 



95-158 O — 73— pt. 1 16 



232 



CHAPTFP. VITI 

This is onR area in vrhich there are no data from 
which to draw a conclusion. There are, hovever, indications 
tending to suoport the Fleet Plan from a morale point of 
view, T'he department hris nresented this Fleet Plan as hav- 
ing the effect on each individual officer who has the use 
of a full time police vehicle of the equivalent of a size- 
ahle raise in pay. This contention is hacked hy the fact 
that the officers are encouraged to drive their police ve- 
hicles off-duty, therehy sabring these officers the expense 
of driving their personal car or of buying a second car. 

This premise appears valid, although it is not known 
Just how much of a morale boost this is for those officers 
who have their own police vehicles. Conversely, it is not 
known whether or not this has any negative effect on those 
officers working in other divisions of the department who 
are not assigned their ovm police vehicles. 

To reach a conclusion on the total morale factor - 
positive or negative - would require an in-depth study of 
all of the swom personnel on the department. 



-31- 



233 



CHAPTER IX 

CONCLUSION 

This study has attempted to analyze the Indianapolis 
Police Departmpnt's Fleet Plan. To arrive at a conclusion on 
a cost vs savings basis, as nany areas as possible have been 
translated into dollar values. Following are the findings: 
Costs 

Initial cost $650,000 

Minus the 2SS cars which would have 

been purchased under the old plan 

in 1969, 1970, 1971 -$5lO,000 

Net Cost $mo,000 

Increase in Preventive Maintenance/Repairs $317,000 

Increase in cost of insurance coverage $ $2,000 

Savings 

Car VJashes $ 7,000 

Decrease in Visible Crimes $500,000 

Decrease in Citizen' s accidents $700,000 

Increased Ifenhours of Patrol time $635,000 



Total Costs $ 509,000 

Total Savings $1,8U?,000 

Difference $1,333,000 



-32- 



234 



Therfifore, t.hf result of this sturfj' is that the citizens 
of Indianapolis have thus far saved about 1,3 million dollars 
on the Indianapolis Police Denartment Fleet Plan. 

Further, i t is recoimended that any police department 
considering conversion to a Fleet Plan should include in this 
conversion a pre-established method of collecting data for 
periodic analysis of the plan's effectiveness. In this way a 
department can either justify the continuation of a Fleet Plan 
or make necessary changes in thp plan which wil] keep it an 
on-going and effective program. 



-33- 



235 



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-35- 



237 



ROBBERY INCIDENTS REPORTED TO THE F.B.I. FROM THE UNITED SOURCE; 

ST-ATES UNDER fm' UNIFORM CRIME REPORTING SYSTEM F.B.I. UNIFORM CRIME REPORT - 1971 






































































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NUMBER OF 

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PERCENT OF 
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-36- 



238 






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BIBLIOGRAPHY 

I. , Annual Statistical Reports ^ Indianapolis Police 

Department, 196? through 1970 

? . Fisk, Donald M, , The Indianapolis Police Fleet Plan , 
October 1970, The Urban Institute, Washington, D. C. 

3. , Operation of Police Vehicle Assignment , An 

Indiananolis Police Departnrnt Publication 

h, Indianapolis Police Department Budget Records, 
1968 through 1972 

5. Ibid (U) 

6. Indiananolis City Controller's Records, 1968, 1970 

7. Ibid (1> 

8. , F. B. I. Uniform Crime Reports - 1971 , August 

1972, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C, 

9. Ibid (8) 

10. Indianapolis Police Department's Accident Review 
Board Records, 1968 through 1972 

II. Ibid (1) 

12, , "Estimating the Costs of Accidents", Public 

Safety Memos , National Safety Congress, 1969, Memo #113 

13. Ibid (1) 



-uu- 



246 

Chairman Pepper. I will ask Mr. Keating if he will be kind enough 
to present the distinguished witness. 

Mr. Keating ? ' ^ 

Mr. Keating. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. 

I appreciate the opportunity to introduce Carl Goodin and the 
other representatives from Cincinnati who will be talking about the 
Com-Sec program. 

I might say this is the second opportunity I have had to introduce 
Chief Goodin, the first occasion being made when he testified on 
gun control, and he managed to come all the way to Washington with 
a kit full of guns and nobody stopped him until he got in the Rayburn 
Building. 

Chief Goodin was selected to head the 1,000-member police force 
in Cincinnati at the age of 37, after progressing through the ranks 
of the police department. Having obtained a master's degree in police 
science and administration from Michigan State University, Chief 
Goodin has been thoroughly trained and educated for the position 
he now holds. During his tenure as police chief, Carl Goodin has im- 
plemented many innovative programs which have been accepted by 
all areas of the Cincinnati community. 

He has also developed and earned a high de^ee of confidence and 
respect from the general public as he recognizes the many human 
values which are an integral part of police work. 

I am confident that Chief Goodin will continue to bring honor to 
his chosen profession, to the city of Cincinnati, and to the Nation 
as a whole. 

We also have with us today Mr. Carl Lind, whom I have known for 
more than 20 years, I suppose, in different capacities. He is the director 
of the program management bureau of the Cincinnati Police Depart- 
ment. Mr. Lind played a key role in the planning of the Com-Sec 
program, as he had overall responsibility for coordinating the effort 
within the police department to design a program that would be 
meaningful and effective. 

Captain Howard Espelage is also with the committee this after- 
noon. He is the individual who commands police district 1, where the 
Com-Sec program has been fully implemented. Captain Espelage has 
overall control for the sectors which comprise that district. I am cer- 
tain he can give the committee some helpful insight on how this pro- 
gram is functioning. 

Officer Lawrence Panno and Officer Richard Brand are also with 
us today. They are two police officers who work daily in the Com-Sec 
program as policemen on the beat, These policemen are actually 
charged with the responsibility for making Com-Sec fulfill its mission. 

Finally, Mr. Frank Yunger, president of Findlay Market Associa- 
tion, has come before the committee today to give us a better view 
of how Com-Sec has helped those businesses directly affected by this 
new and innovative form of police protection. 

Mr. Chairman, I believe this distinguished group of men from Cin- 
cinnati will provide the committee with some valuable insight into 
the program, and although it still is in the beginning stages, it offers 
a great deal of hope for even better police protection in the communi- 
ties throughout the United States. 

I just want to say that, personally, I have been associated in a 
professional fnanner, social manner, with these men over an extended 



247 

period of years and I have the highest regard and respect for them 
and their ability. 

Chairman Pepper. Thank you very much, Mr. Keating. 

Chief Goodin, we are dehghted to have you and your able as- 
sociates with us today. 

Mr. Lynch, will you proceed. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief Goodin, I believe you have a statement to 
present to the committee. Would you do so now ? 

PANEL OF CINCINNATI (OHIO) POLICE DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS, 
ACCOMPANIED BY LOCAL BUSINESS REPRESENTATIVE: 
BRAND, RICHARD L., PATROLMAN; 
ESPELAGE, HOWARD, CAPTAIN; 
GOODIN, CARL V., CHIEF OF POLICE; 

LIND, CARL A., DIRECTOR, PROGRAM MANAGEMENT DIVISION; 
PANNO, LAWRENCE C, PATROLMAN; AND 
YTJNGER, FRANK, PRESIDENT, FINDLAY MARKET ASSOCIATION 

Statement of Carl V. Goodin 

Mr. Goodin. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, Congressman Keating, 
and distinguished members of the committee. 

It is indeed an honor and a pleasure for us to appear before your 
committee to discuss the very important issue of crime. 

We believe the basic question to be addressed in this brief discussion 
is: How can a police agency organize itself to deal more effectively 
with its primary responsibilities in the coming years? A very com- 
mon reply given in the United States today is "team policing." 

Among the many programs called team policing, the common 
denominator seems to be the assignment of a group of officers to patrol 
a given area. We need to go much beyond this simplistic statement 
in order to determine what there is in team policing which generates 
some ray of hope for the future of policing. Therefore, the focus of 
this paper will be to analyze the mechanisms which are present in 
some team policing models which would enable a police agency to 
more effectively deal with criminal victimization. 

The objectives of police agencies are often described as being: 

( 1 ) Prevention of crime ; 

( 2 ) Protection of life and property ; 

( 3 ) Suppression of criminal activity ; 

(4 ) Apprehension and prosecution of offenders ; 

( 5 ) Regulation of noncriminal conduct ; and 

(6) Preservation of the public peace. 

We have found that we are not uniformly effective in attaining 
these objectives ; crime is still increasing despite our best efforts. The 
President's Commission on Crime pointed this out and also indicated 
that we cannot attain these objectives so long as police agencies are 
expected to struggle with these problems in an atmosphere lacking 
the assistance of the greater community. 

The Conmiission also suggested a solution — team policing. Team 
policing does not aim toward new objectives and goals — it is not 
)ust a public relations program — in fact, the goals and objectives of 
the police have stood the test of time. Team policing is designed to 

95-158 0—73 — pt. 1 17 



248 

recognize that the attainment of these goals cannot be accomplished 
by the police agency alone. Instead of operating in a vacuum, the 
community, social and other governmental agencies, and society itself, 
all play a role in carrying out the police function. 

The aspects of team policing which are crucial for reducing criminal 
victimization seem to be: 

( 1 ) Consistent assignment ; 

(2) Unification of control, responsibility ; 

(3) Team decisionmaking power ; 

(4) Development of the police officer as a generalist ; and 

(5) Communications. 

The consistent assignment of an officer to the same area allows the 
officer to become familiar with that area and its people to a much 
greater extent than is possible under a system of rotating assignments. 
Consistent assignment tends to breed a proprietary interest in the 
community on the part of the police officer once the officer recognizes 
that present actions may cause problems for him in the future. 

By unifying the control, responsibility, and supervision in an area, 
the actions taken by police officers can become more consistent. By 
developing a consistent, high level of service, a major roadblock to 
communication is removed. We all too often find a high level of fear 
attached to situations with which we are unfamiliar. 

Certainly citizens must experience great anxiety in their contacts 
with police officers, considering the current practices of many police 
agencies. Many different units, each having its own specialized func- 
tion and its own line of command, may operate in the same small area 
in the same day. 

As an example, in a very small geographical area, indeed, the 
citizens could be exposed to a traffic specialist, an investigator, a patrol 
officer, and tactical unit officer, all within the same timeframe. 

Coupling a simplified control structure with team decisionmaking 
power enables the police to develop plans on the basis of local level 
information which should be more in keeping with community needs. 
This approach allows the officer on the street more latitude in dealing 
with the problems he faces. The more consistent performance and 
greater commitment developed through such a system should create 
an environment in which police officers and community residents can 
develop an effective alliance against crime. 

Another element of this plan is the development of a generalist 
officer. A generalist should be capable of delivering the complete spec- 
trum of police services, thus providing more effective followthrough 
concerning the delivery of those services. An officer who has had ade- 
quate training and experience should be able to carry out investigations 
of all types as well as provide the routine services expected of patrol 
officers. 

All of the above factors should also tend to improve communications 
both within the agency as well as between its representatives and the 
community. The current structure of police agencies is a great deter- 
rent to the effective communication of information which is of im- 
portance to the agency. By simplifying the chain of command and 
responsibility, the major obstacle to internal communication is re- 
moved. Furthermore, the policy agency itself must, take the first step 
in improving its relations with the community. The development of 
stable lines of communications is of great importance in encouraging 



249 

mutual trust, understanding, and aid among the police and the 
community. 

Providing an officer the opportunity to understand the community, 
allowing a group of officers to define their own problems, goals, and 
policies, developing a generalist notion of policing and improving 
communications should improve the outlook of policing in the future. 

Perhaps none of this discussion is new to any of us, but we must 
begin to look for new methods of providing police services. The ever- 
increasing problems that face us serve as prima facie evidence that we 
have not yet obtained the ultimate goals of policing. 

The need to find new solutions is to become even more urgent as our 
society clamors ever more vociferously for better police service. Even 
if crime does not overwhelm us in the coming years, public sentiment 
will, unless viable methods of policing are developed. The reorganiza- 
tion which has been outlined in these pages is one method which hopes 
to achieve the vital alliance among the police and the community 
needed to promulgate the more effective delivery of police services. 

Cincinnati, in keeping with these principles, has developed, has 
designed and implemented a form of team policing called community 
sector team policing. For short, we call it Com-Sec. It is known in the 
community as Com-Sec. 

It has as its overall goal to improve the effectiveness of the services 
to the community. This overall goal has been broken down by people 
in the community, by the police officers who deliver the services, into 
several impact goals and they are to, very briefly, reduce the level of 
criminal victimization of both people and property, to improve the 
understanding by the police and sensitivity to the people they serve, 
to develop a proprietary interest in the police for the safety and 
welfare of the people, improve citizen cooperation with the police in 
crime prevention, detection, and apprehension, and develop in the 
citizens a sense of trust and close identity with the police officers. 

Along with this are a couple of other impact goals which have, I am 
sure, importance to this committee, and one of the major reasons this 
is a funded project by the Police Foundation based in Washington, is 
that they hope to develop some innovations in patrol and in policing, 
the basic delivery of police service to the community, which can be 
transported then to other cities and other police agencies throughout 
the country. 

Some of the Com-Sec design concepts which are highlighted in our 
system of team policing are these. We had divided the district 1 area 
geographically into six sectors. These six sectors conform naturally 
to neighborhood boundaries and neighborhood boundaries are con- 
ceived by those people who live and work in those areas. 

One of the highlights of Com-Sec is the fact the basic operational 
unit provides all police services to the residents and the business people 
in that sector, with the exception of the investigation of homicide. The 
other services totally are delivered by those police officers. 

We have realined the supervisory structure from the traditional 
three shifts, or three watches, or three relays commanded by the 
lieutenant and supervising personnel and changing every so often, and 
so forth, to one in which the leader, the commander of the shift, or 
the commander of that area, of the Com-Sec, is a lieutenant, he is a 
team leader. 



250 

He is responsible for the delivery of police service over a 24-liour day, 
365-days-a-year operation. He has a great deal of flexibility in both 
the assignment of personnel, equipment, and methods to meet the 
needs of the people. He may assign his officers, deploy his officers, on 
a proportional need basis, so that there is a minimum representation 
of uniformed police during certain hours of the day, and others there 
is a saturation patrol. He and the team membei-s make a decision as to 
methods of patrol, whether they will be on foot, by motor scooter, 
automobiles, rooftop surveillance, undercover surveillance, or what- 
ever methods may be provided by the patrol officers and team 
members. 

Essentially those are the outstanding features of Com-Sec. The 
expanded scope of responsibility and authority permit the team police- 
men to do the preliminary investigations and followup investigations 
on all crimes except homicide. They can make direct referrals to 
social agencies, to circumvent the overcrowded criminal justice sys- 
tem, the court system. 

They can devise and operate various kinds of patrol procedures and 
they take part in the decisionmaking process of the team. 

They meet at least once a month on a formal basis with the resi- 
dents and working people in their sector to discuss the problems, 
mutual problems, identifying needs of the people, and working to- 
gether to resolve how best to meet those needs. And, certainly, the 
day-to-day relationships with the people are those features of the Com- 
Sec program that we hope will achieve the kinds of cooperation so 
vital to reducing crime in Cincinnati. 

We think this is probably the most outstanding project with which 
we are involved. We have a list of about 30 others that will be avail- 
able to your staff, but we feel this probably has more importance for 
the committee than any others. 

We have with us personnel who have responsibility for the manning 
of this, as Congressman Keating pointed out, the district commander. 
And we brought the live article to the committee in the form of these 
two police officers who actually deliver the police service, and a recip- 
ient of those services, Mr. Yunger. 

We stand ready to try to respond to any questions by the committee. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Chairman, if it would be agreeable, I think it might 
facilitate matters if we could quite briefly hear from Officers Brand 
and Panno, as to what it is they do as community sector policemen 
which is different from that the regular patrolman will do. Perhaps 
Captain Espelage could describe his duties and from there, we could 
go to individual questions. 

Chairman Pepper. Go right ahead. 

Statement of Richard L. Brand 

Mr. Brand. Basically, we do the same thing in Com-Sec that we do 
throughout the rest of the Cincinnati Police Division. However, the 
big difference is we have more time to do the things that we need to 
do. For example, in Com-Sec the basic means of patrol is foot patrol. 
That means that several men throughout district 1 are assigiied to 
foot patrol. If a man is assigned to an automobile, to automobile pa- 
trol, he takes his automobile, he takes it out someplace, he parks it, 
he gets out of his automobile, he walks around on foot, he meets dif- 



251 

ferent members of the community, he stops and talks to businessmen, 
things like that. 

If a crime happens we go to the crime scene. We not only do a police 
investigation but we also do followup investigations. 

Prior to Com-Sec, mainly, we were what you would call report 
takers. We would go to the scene, make some type of investigation ; we 
would make a report, and that would be about the last we would 
hear of it. This way there is a followup investigation. AVe are respon- 
sible for everything. 

Many times in the past, prior to Com-Sec, if a citizen needed a 
particular type of ipolice service we would refer (them to someone else, 
refer them to some other portion of the police department to get that 
kind of service. But now we don't do that ibecause we provide all of 
the services, we don't refer anybody any place else. We are the people 
that provide all types of service. 

It used to be that if you were having a problem with someone, if a 
particular family on the beat you ,patroled was always fighting on 
Saturday night, or things along that nature, there was nothing we 
could do with them. We couldn't send them any iplace. The only thing 
we could do was put them in jail. But now we have the capacity, in- 
stead of putting them in jail, we can refer them ,to an agency where 
they can get perhaps what we hope is help. So we don't continually 
respond back to one location, time in and time out, with nothing you 
can do. We are trying also to get them help. 

I guess I could go on and on. There are a lot of different things we 
do now we icould never do in the past. 

Mr. Lynch. I w^onder if we could hear from your partner now. 

For purposes of the record, are you Officer Panno ? 

Statement of Lawrence C. Panno 

Mr. Panno. Yes, sir. 

In addition to what Patrolman Brand said, operating under the 
function of the complete service policeman, when we are summoned 
to a scene and investigate a crime, we become better policemen, better 
investigators, and better citizens under the Com-Sec philosophy. 

We improve ourselves because we know more about the investiga- 
tive techniques from motor patrolmen or just from experience. We 
take the case from the time it happens until the time of the conviction 
in court — we hope conviction in court. 

Before, when we responded to the scene, we gave the emergency as- 
sistance that was needed, then, wrote up the report, and, usually, on 
felony cases, it was turned over to our crime bureau. Now the police- 
man that responds investigates that crime, and I believe it is working 
out real good. 

It has made us all a little bit better investigators. It makes us work 
harder and does build a iproprietary interest in the service that we 
deliver at that time. 

As Patrolman Brand said, we are basically all foot patrolmen. 
Polarization got us a>way from the public ; and that is one of our goals, 
to try and get closer to the public. Most of the officers still have an 
automobile. We drive it to our beat and get out and walk as much as 
we can. In the past, especially during the summer months, we re- 



252 

sponded to so many radio runs we barely had time to wave to someone 
going by. Now, under the Com-Sec philosophy, with a few more police- 
men out in a certain area, we can stop and talk with the merchants 
and the people in the street. 

We stay iwithin our district or our sector iboundaries. Before we 
would be assigned to one specific area and 60 ipercent of our calls would 
be out of that area. It is kind of hard to keep your finger on the pulse 
of that neighborhood when you are spending 60 percent of your time 
somewhere else. 

Mr. Lynch. Are you in uniform all of this time ? 

Mr. Panno. I work in uniform. I work in plainclothes. That is the 
flexibility the concept has. If I get a line on some narcotics case or 
some burglar working in the area, I go to my team leader and we de- 
cide, first of all, if I can afford to be put in plainclothes. If we can, 
then I get a chance to follow through on that investigation, or on that 
lead. 

Com-Sec is helping us out. Just in the past month or so, since it has 
been in full swing, we have gotten a better response from the public, 
more tips on things that are going on in the neighborhood. The people 
feel closer to the policeman and hence feel more secure. 

I heard the comment several times that these are "our" policemen, 
not "a'- policeman. 

Mr. Keating. Years ago when you had indigents on the beat, usually 
elderly persons who had no home, they would ask the police officer to 
lock them up so they could go out to the workhouse to get cleaned up, 
to get a few meals, and so on. What do you do with that person now ? 

Mr. Panno. The person falls in several different categories. The 
ones that will accept help we can send to the Salvation Army Post or 
give them advice on places where to go. But they have to help them- 
selves. We give them the available avenues to help, rather than be 
locked up during the winter months or sleep in the alleys at night. But 
we do send them to the Salvation Army and other agencies that can 
care for them and can help them along. 

Mr. Keating. You are better equipped with that knowledge, being 
part of the Com-Sec proa:ram and knowing people in the neighbor- 
hood you are working with, so you can give them these alternatives. 
Whereas, before, they bring them in and put them in the station, and 
the judge would send them out to the workhouse where they could get 
cleaned up and get a few meals and they would be back on the streets 
again. 

Mr. Panno. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Keating. So this program has more effect, and in a new manner 
may solve that problem. 

Mr. Panno. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Keating. Not completely ? 

Mr. Panno. Solving the problem on the long basis that Patrolman 
Brand hit on softly, but in the past, when we responded to a family 
fight or a person that was down and out, had no means of support or 
no place to go 

Mr. Keating. Could you tell people who don't have the background, 
what "down and out" means ? 

Mr. Panno. Just broke and no place to go or food to eat. Down and 
out drunk, maybe. But in the past, we had always taken care of it 



253 

during the 10-minute timespan. You have a problem, this man is on 
the street, how do you get rid of this man ? You lock him up since he is 
drunk or is a vagrant. Since then, they abolished the vagrancy laws 
in Cincinnati and I am not too sure it was a good one to begin with. 

But the time of problem solving we have is a long-range basis, 
rather than locking the guy up every other day throughout the year, or 
6 months, send him some place where they can help him. Maybe they 
will only have two or three contacts with him until they instill in him 
the way to help himself, or they can help him. 

Mr. Keating. In the "Over-the-Rhine" area, which is part of the 
area you are covering in Com-Sec, do you have confrontations between 
Appalachian groups and maybe black groups, or some other composi- 
tion ? Is it easier for you to meet that situation and solve it without a 
flareup because you know the principals involved ? 

Mr. Panno. Yes. Many times when they see a police officer that 
they know responding to the scene, they automatically calm down a 
little bit. Through past experience with the policeman, through the 
policeman knowing this individual. There are a lot of people that get 
loud and boisterous that are harmless. There are some people that are 
quiet and quite dangerous. As a policeman, you get to know these 
people, their moods, and how they will react. 

It is a lot easier to deal with them. Again, they know the policeman 
and they know how to deal with the policeman, also. 

Mr. Keating. Whereas you were a third force before, you now 
become an intermediary. 

Mr. Panno. That is right. Many times we responded to break up a 
fight and both parties turned on us simply because of the lack of 
knowledge and communication. 

Mr. Keating. That has diminished as a result of the program. 

Officer Brand? 

Mr. Brand. A couple of other points I would like to make. One of 
the biggest things is that the patrolman has a voice in the decision- 
making process of the police department and in the decisionmaking 
process of your team. When the team meets we have a chance to put 
our views forward. 

There is one thing that is in the program that is very good from a 
patrolman's standpoint, and that is what is called an acting team 
leader. When there is no supervisor working in a particular sector you 
work in, a patrohnan is appointed as an acting team leader and he as- 
sumes all of the responsibilities of a supervisor, with a few exceptions. 

Also, Chief Goodin touched on this briefly. When you are assigned 
to a certain area, it does breed a type of ownership in you for that 
particular area and when a crime is committed in that area, or to use 
a slang expression, it does gripe you so you have a greater interest 
in solving the crime than you had before. 

Mr. Keating. Do you have any statistical impact. Chief, on the 
results of your program to date ? 

Mr. LiND. Mr. Keating, we looked at the record and Com-Sec has 
been in existence just such a short period of time that we were unable 
to get any impression in connection with any changes in crime. Crime 
in Cincinnati has been in very minor decline. The decline began 
sometime in 1972. And because of the fluctuations occurring in the 
crime pattern we are really unable to make any decision. 



254 

Mr. Winn. May I ask a question? 

Chairman Pepper. Yes. 

Mr. Winn. To what do you attribute the slight decline in crime in 
1972? 

Mr. Keating. Obviously, the excellent performance of the Cincin- 
nati Police Department. 

Mr. LiND. We took some special measures to deal with the problems 
of crime toward the end of the year. There were some fluctuations in 
crime. It appeared to be stable in 1972, compared to 1971. But in late 
November, because of the unusual seasonal crime experience at that 
time, street crime particularly, the chief instituted a task force which 
was representative of the entire division, drawing on the various 
bureaus and sections for their personnel. 

This was an 80-man task force and its principal mission was to go 
out on the street, selecting those areas which had been target areas 
for victimization, and concentrate the special task force. 

As we reduced crime in this 5-week period of time considerably, we 
reduced our robberies that we had projected by 50 percent, and there 
were also other interesting things that occurred. It seems crime was 
depressed, all index crime, during a period of time and our crime 
overall declined 5 percent. A 4-percent decline is found in the index of 
larceny; 1 percent in the auto theft; with a decline in aggravated 
assault and in murder. 

But burglary and robbery for the year were stable. They did not 
decline. We think that a special effort toward the end of the year, 
put us on the minus side. 

Mr. Lynch. I point out that Mr. Carl Lind, while he is a civilian 
as I understand it, at this time has long years of experience with the 
Cincinnati Police Department and is head of the program manage- 
ment bureau in that department. He was one of the architects of this 
plan and worked closely with the police foundation in formulating 
the proposal. 

I wonder if Mr. Lind could briefly tell us what position of this 
grant from the police foundation will be involved with evaluation 
work on the project. 

Statement of Carl A. Lind 

Mr. Lind. We received two awards from the police foundation. 
We received the planning grant of $478,100 in October of 1971. And 
in July of 1972 we received an action grant of $1.9 million. Now, the 
evaluation program is being conducted at two levels. The urban 
institute, a research and evaluation organization based here in Wash- 
ington, is doing a long-term evaluation of Com-Sec. The cost of that is 
close to $400,000. 

We are doing a short term, using in-house personnel, to conduct 
our evaluation. 

Mr. GooDiN. If I may add just a comment to Carl's statement 
about our response to the pending dramatic increase in street crime and 
armed robberies, and so forth, toward the end of the year, this really 
was a four-point involvement in the community, the media, and the 
police. 

Through Carl's operation in the analysis unit they predicted there 
would be a dramatic increase in the number of robberies and street 



255 

crimes during the holiday season. I met with the Media Advisory 
Committee in Cincinnati, which is sort of an ad hoc group of repre- 
sentatives from every member of the print and electronic media in 
Cincinnati, to discuss this problem. 

We decided on sort of a task force approach from the police stand- 
point and asked their assistance in making Cincinnati safer in the 
coming days. The media, there is no question about it, spent thousands 
of dollars on air time, prime air time, to instruct and educate citizens 
on how to harden the target, both from their physical person stand- 
point and from their own residence and business standpoint. 

They publicized the task force, the arrests it was making, and so 
on. The police canvassed 2,400 business establishments in that period 
of time in high-crime areas and gave them literature and also person- 
to-person instruction on how to harden the target. 

We met witli the municipal level courts and they agreed in those 
instances where we would bring in people who were multiple offend- 
ers, repeat offenders, they would set a sufficiently high bond to keep 
them off the street. That was done and through that cooperative effort, 
we feel we reduced crime dramatically during that period of time, 
although certainly those task forces are short range, we feel Com-Sec 
has long-range implication. 

Mr. Keating. May I ask one more question? 

Chairman Pepper. Yes. 

Mr. Keating. Mr. Yunger, could you give the citizens' and business- 
men's viewpoint of the Com-Sec program, as you see it? 

Statement of Frank Yunger 

Mr. Yunger. I have in the past attended three Com-Sec meetings, 
and as have members of my association, which is the Findlay Market 
Association. Findlay Market is a national historical association and 
we are proud to be a part of this area. 

Many oldtimers in this old marketplace have always said the 
foot patrolman is the thing to prevent crime — now, since we have 
foot patrolmen in the area, I have noticed the close contact between 
the partolman and merchant. Now the merchants realize greater se- 
curity, knowing a patrolman is close by. This patrolman has a personal 
radio so he can call for help if needed. 

There has been in the past, before this started, many, many cases of 
window breaking. We have furniture stores and other merchandise 
stores in the area subject to this destruction of property. 

I can see there has been a drastic reduction in purse snatching and 
window breaking, burglary, and similar crimes. I think our police 
department is to be commended on what they have done to this point 
and I see nothing but good things for the future. 

Statement of Howard Espelage 

Mr, EsPELAGE. I would like to respond. All Cincinnati policemen 
have equipment, what we call personalized radio. This enables any 
of the policemen, regardless whether in cars or on foot, to respond 
anywhere, and they can be recallable from any location. Even thougli 
a man is assigned to a car, he can actually park the car and still be 
recallable and be on foot patrol. 



256 

Mr. Lynch. Chief Goodin, you were in the audience when Chief 
Churchill testified he has 140 patrol cars, single-man cars. And if I 
recollect his testimony properly, he does not employ foot patrolmen. 
It seems to me, in essence, your young patrolmen here are telling us 
your philosophy is directly opposite to that. Would you comment 
on that? 

Mr. GooDiN. It is substantially different in the sense that Indianap- 
olis and most other police agencies equip the automobile or the vehicle 
with a radio, which in essence anchors the policeman to that unit. We 
equip policemen with the radio. We have no radios in automobiles, or 
on motorcycles, or anything else.. The policeman carries it and he never, 
never is, in essence, out of service for an emergency call. 

Mr. Lynch. Excuse me. 

With that radio he carries, can he communicate with other foot pa- 
trolmen as well as the base ? 

Mr. Goodin. He can communicate with other policemen and the 
base station. It is a six-channeled unit, bought and paid for by the 
citizens of Cincinnati. And, really, quite sincerely, has been the tech- 
nological advance of this in team policing that has convinced Cin- 
cinnati to experiment with, and be innovative in, terms of patrol strat- 
egies and things of that nature. 

Mr. Lynch. Could you tell us. Chief, why you selected district 1 
as the sector for this experiment ? 

Mr. GooDiN. It is a high-crime area. It has a mix, and sort of 
services as a microcosm for the city. It is composed of the downtown 
business district, black neighborhoods, it has the poor white Appa- 
lachian neighborhood, it has a rather affluent neighborhood on the 
hill overlooking Cincinnati, and it sort of serves, in terms of crime, 
as a good composite of crime in the city. 

It boils it down to one- fourth of the total workload for the Cin- 
cinnati Police Division. We felt in the experiment if we can prove 
Com- Sec successful in district 1, it will work anywhere. 

Mr. Lynch. I know the members of the committee will have some 
questions for you, especially Mr. Keating. I would like to ask Captain 
Espelage, if he would, to describe his role as the commander of this 
unit; how it differs from your past experience. Captain, with the de- 
partment, and what progress you think it is making in reducing 
crime. 

Mr. Espelage. My role mainly is that of coordinator. I have six 
police departments under my control and I have to pull them all to- 
gether as a district operation. I act as an adviser to the team leaders 
and, of course, all of the paper flow goes to and from my office to 
upstairs, the chief's office, to other districts, et cetera. 

I really have been enthused about this thing since March 4, 1973, 
for the simple reason the men have really innovated us down there. 
Of course, it is too early to tell, but from the enthusiasm put forth 
by the men I think it is really going to be the plan of the future. 

Chairman Pepper. Any questions ? 

Mr. Rangel. No questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Winn ? 

Mr. Winn. No questions. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Keating. 

Mr. Keating. I just want to again compliment the chief and mem- 
bers of his staff for doing for my city and the rest of the citizens of 



257 

Cincinnati such a fine job in trying to innovate and work with the 
people in the community in a very effective manner. Do you have 
any other plans you want to tell us about ? 

Mr. GooDiN. As I mentioned, we have about 30 other odd projects, 
which are conventional in scope, innovative in terms of the criminal 
justice units, which we are instituting, designed to improve the flow 
of the offender from detection and apprehension through the system. 
To track him, we have criminal justice information systems which 
are computerized, and I heard you ask the previous witness whether 
we need to make this information available to the public. 

Indeed, it will be available to the media on computer printouts all 
the way through the system. We feel that, to support something Mr. 
Keating said earlier, I sincerely believe that there is a tremendous 
amount of help that is needed, not only in terms of crime, but train- 
ing and management response in the court system and the other 
parts of the system. 

We need help as well and we have seen this in Com-Sec; to improve 
one part of the system dramatically so their effectiveness increases the 
impact and clogs up the other end of the system and we go back in a 
circle. Unless tlie other components of the justice system are brought 
along at the same pace we are going through a revolving door kind of 
situation. 

Mr. Keating. Let me make one comment. The computer system we 
have in the community, would you like to comment on that ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. This is a countrywide computer system. It is a 
shared system and one which is made up of the components. It has a 
law enforcement component which is countywide, 39 separate police 
agencies within Hamilton County — Cincinnati being the largest — and 
it is a shared system among all of those police agencies. 

There is another component which deals with the county administra- 
tive system, the court system, welfare system, things of this nature, 
which are countywide. Another component which deals with the city of 
Cincinnati, computerizing payroll records and other administrative 
matters such as that. This is a system, the law enforcement component, 
which is paid for through a renewal levy by the voters of Hamilton 
County, and has its primary emphasis and operational data for the 
policeman on the street. 

Our police officers with portable radios can make an inquiry through 
the computer center, statewide, for our own records, statewide, and 
through the FBI's National Crime Center, from the alley where they 
are talking to a complainant. They need not go to a phone or to an in- 
stallation to make that inquiry. They can do it right at the scene. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, I guess there are several areas we have not yet 
touched on. It is my understanding that your teams, the community 
sector teams, hold monthly meetings out in the neighborhoods in which 
they are policing. Could you describe those for us? Tell us what takes 
place at one of those meetings ? 

Mr. Panno. Our community section meetings, what we call them, 
■and every month at the same time and the same location, we 
have a community meeting. We invite all of the public who 
wish to attend to come and the policemen that are involved in policing 
that area, the Com-Sec policemen, go to the meeting. 

We start out with a formal-type meeting, just to get things going. 
When I say "formal," I mean the policemen made the agenda. After 



258 

we got things going, got some people coming in, we changed it to where 
half was run by the policemen, and the other half more or less the citi- 
zens themselves. 

We got suggestions on speakers they wanted to hear and we got 
movies on accident information and burglaries. We brought one of our 
K-9 dogs down. The policemen themselves give lectures and instruc- 
tions on how to secure homes against burglars and housebreakers, how 
to better protect themselves out in the street, to guard against street 
robberies. How to protect their automobile and the packages or articles 
they have in there. There are numerous types of ways to help them help 
themselves and help us. 

Mr. Lynch. What kind of public turnout do you get at those meet- 
ings ? 

Mr. Panno. They vary. Depending on the geographical location, the 
weather conditions. Our biggest meeting has been when we had inci- 
dents within the community that there might be a little hostility be- 
tween two groups or between one group and the police. But they have 
always, in my opinion, helped settle those hostilities that cut off future 
hostilities. 

Mr. Lynch. Thank you. 

Chief, could you tell us, or could one of the gentlemen here tell us. 
what criteria you used to select officers for this program ? 

Mr. GooDiN. I will reply very briefly. We used existing personnel in 
the district. The additional officers that were assigned, to make sure 
for evaluation purposes we had a proper blend of people, of both poor 
performers and average and outstanding performers, we assured that 
by selection of those people who were on what we call a rotation assign- 
ment, those duties to be rotated throughout the police division, through 
the six police divisions. 

So we selected a broad blend of those people so the previous rating 
levels represent fairly well the entire range of policemen in Cincinnati. 

We provided to all the Com-Sec officers a series of training exposures 
and interpersonal relations and philosophies of Com-Sec and things of 
that nature; technical training such as crime scene searches, finger- 
printing, things of that nature, being conducted among the teams 
themselves. 

Mr. Lynch. In other words, the selection criteria in part was used 
to facilitate individual performance evaluation later on. You have in 
essence a cross section, as it were, of the department. 

Mr. GooDiN. That is correct. 

Mr. Lynch. What kind of morale effect has this program had on the 
overall police operations, in your department as a whole ? 

Mr. GooDiN. I think it has had a very stimulating effect. There have 
been some negative indicators of morale, but overall, I would say the 
morale of the Cincinnati Police Division, if measured by all of the ac- 
cepted indexes of high morale — response to the problem, willingness 
to work overtime, numbers of activities in which they are engaged for 
the benefit of the division — is the highest it has ever been in our 
history. 

I would say morale is high. If there is grumbling within the division, 
it is like in the military. I was told as a military man, if there isn't some 
grumbling, the morale is low. It was based primarily on the belief by 
some of the other commanders, Com-Sec would rob them of their best 



259 

personnel and they would be stripped of numbers of people so they 
could not deliver adequate services to the community. 

This was found not to be the case. Through some adjustments with- 
in the di\ision, we disbanded the traffic section considerably ; we do not 
have a tactical unit as most cities do ; and we are adhering to the gen- 
eralized concept in Cincinnati. This then convinced the commanders 
they had the same proportion of personnel in the division as district 
1. So that sort of negated a lot of the negative obstacles that had been 
placed in the path of Com-Sec implementation. 

Just the planning and design of it, the involvement of people — we 
involved officers from cadets, patrolmen, all the way through the 
ranks — in the actual design and planning and implementation of this 
project. It is truly a Cincinnati Police Division project. These two 
officers here were involved in writing the guidelines and how to imple- 
ment them. The fellows who are actually going to have to do the work, 
wrote the rules, so to speak. 

It is their program ; it is not something that came down from the 
ivory tower. It is a police division project interspersed with citizen 
cooperation, citizen input, policemen. It is their program and if en- 
tliusiasm is any indication of success, it is successful already. 

Mr. Lynch. In reading your proposal it became apparent — and 
1 assume it was Mr. Lind that made a very strong point — in programs 
of this nature that frequently they are developed by people who, in 
your term, are "ivory tower" types and not policemen. xVpparently that 
was not the case. 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Lyxch. Chief, earlier this afternoon, you heard Chief Churchill 
indicate that while he only has 1.7 policemen per thousand population, 
he did not feel a need for additional police. You have, I believe, some- 
tliing in the neighborhood of 2.5 police per thousand inhabitants. That 
is the standard metropolitan area figure, not the Cincinnati figure. I 
assume it is somewhat close to actuality, however. 

Mr. GooDiN. That is a close figure and that really is total police 
employees. 

Mr. Lynch. I understand that. 

Mr. GooDiN. I was delighted to hear IVIr. Churchill, who is a friend 
of mine, say he didn't need persomiel. He is the first chief I met who 
said that. In Cincinnati we need 244 sworn people, additional, to im- 
plement Com-Sec. This is based on hard data that was gathered on 
all time spent in servicing citizen calls and a built-in component for 
police-citizen interaction, positive police-citizen action. 

Mr. Lynch. An additional 244 men ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, based on 1972 data. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you have present plans to implement Com-Sec on a 
city wide basis ? 

Mr. GooDiN. We have a plan that developed, that if proved suc- 
cessful, based on our evaluation or whatever modifications need 
to be made, we are convinced, philosophically, it is the right approach. 
We have asked for that number of personnel, to be granted over a 
o-year period, 76 for this year, with the design in mind to implement 
the team policing principle throughout the city. 

Whether or not we will get them next year we do not know. We 
have to go on a year-to-year basis. 



260 

Mr. Lynch. One more question. How is the action money from the 
Police Foundation being used ? Is that paying for any of your Com- 
Sec personnel ? 

Mr. GooDiN. It is paying for 62 persoimel. 

Mr. Lynch. Thank you very much. No more questions. 

Mr. KJEATiNG. Just a couple of questions. Wliat is your per capita of 
uniformed policemen per thousand population, which, I believe, was 
the reference points made by Chief Churchill ? 

Mr. GooDiN. It is a little better than two. 

Mr. Keating. About 2.1 ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Something like that. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Keating. You said you needed 244 uniformed policemen ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Uniformed policemen. 

Mr. Keating. What do you need to back up those personnel ? 

Mr. GooDiN. I think with our civilian levels, ratio levels increased 
substantially during the past 2 or 3 years, to the point that I think with 
a minimum of civilian personnel, about 60 civilian personnel, we can 
maximize the civilians in the police division and accomplish the team 
policing philosophy throughout the city. About 60 civilians. 

Mr. Keating. If you ran two recruit classes a year, which I guess 
is about as many as you can run — can you run more than that ? 

Mr. GooDiN, We can run them continuously now. We have different 
academy facilities. 

Mr. Keating. You can actually get an increment of 75 in 1 year? 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. Easily. 

Mr. Keating. Do you have enough apiDlicants in order to meet this 
need? 

Mr. Goodin. Yes, sir; we do. We have enough applicants and we 
pay our starting police officers almost $10,000 a year. Roughly, $10,000 
a year. And we have enough applicants. We draw not from the un- 
employed, but from the employed. 

Mr. Keating. With maximum operation, how long would it take 
you to add 244 police to do the job you feel should bo done? 

Mr. GooDiN. About 2i/^ years. 

Mr. Keating. Fine. This also means you would have more ser- 
geants, more lieutenants, more supervisory teams? 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. And they are built into the 244. Those are all 
sworn personnel, all ranks. 

Mr. Keating. You would end up with two more assistant chiefs? 

Mr. GooDiN. They just go up through the rank of lieutenant. We 
would not increase the ranks above that of lieutenant. 

Mr. Keating. Is this because of the Com-Sec program or is this 
because of the combination of utilization of Com-Sec plus the difficulty 
of policing cities the size of Cincinnati with this mix ? 

Mr. GooDiN. The combination of policing a city the size of Cincin- 
nati with the problems that are unique to Cincinnati, hilly terrain, 
things of this nature. And the fact that we know for the first time we 
are able to say we need "«" number of man-hours to deliver the called- 
for services in Cincinnati. 

And that can be about a third less than that figure, just to meet the 
called-for services, and we can do it. But we feel the citizens of Cincin- 
nati in their cooperative spirit that seems to be unique to that area, for 
some reason, that we can do just about whatever we want in terms of, 



261 

lowering the crime rate, with that additional time for the oiRcer to meet 
with the citizen in a nonthreatening manner, to solicit his cooperation 
in crime control and crime prevention. 

Building those factors in, which are extremely important, the num- 
ber comes to 244. 

Mr. Keating. There is always some additional requirement. You 
need, say, 60 civilian personnel to help back it up, and you need an in- 
crease in sergeants and lieutenants. What about the mechanical equip- 
ment ? Will you need an increase in cars, et cetera. ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Radios, personalized radios ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Keating. I remember that radio situation very well. We got in 
on that. 

Then you feel we would be at the optimum level in the city of Cin- 
cinnati ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir ; I do. 

Mr. Keating. Do you have a figure that it cost to put a policeman 
in uniform with all of the backup personnel ? Is there a cost to the city 
that you can figure out ? Fully equipped, basic salary, after he has be- 
come a patrolman, after recruit training, what does it cost per patrol- 
man ? Do you have that figure ? 

Mr. Go'oDiN. About $17,000. That would include the first year's sal- 
ary. The first year is training. The entire year is considered a training 
program in our department, as a probationary period. 

Mr. Keating. Because you are really making a professional man. 
What kind of technical equipment do you feel that you might need to 
carry out the mission of the police department that is still on the mar- 
ket that you might not presently have ? 

Mr. GooDiN. The other members of my staff can feel free to comment. 
I mentioned the radios. We would like to experiment with some digital 
computers. We are in the process now of ordering equipment that is 
available and we have, through LEAA grants, a report system which 
is fully automated in that the policeman who takes the report to the 
citizen, if you report your car stolen, the policeman would write that 
data down and give it to some civilian at the station who would type 
it into a video data terminal and it would be sent out to all of the units 
in the city. At the same time that particular auto theft would be scored 
for uniform crime reporting, all done electronically through the com- 
puter system. 

We have a need for that. Our needs are a little greater than initially 
estimated with LEAA, Again, I might add, this is a first project of 
its kind, in that the uniform crime reporting procedures would be auto- 
matically done. 

Mr. Keating. Could you use the base system Mr. Atkinson has and 
build on that to develop your digital computer? 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir; this whole program is built on that. 

Mr. Keating. Just complements that ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Keating. When the radio system went in, it had the effect of 
increasing the number of patrolmen, by reason of communication, by 
about 100, 125 — I might be wrong on that, but it had the result of 
effectively increasing the number of patrolmen. If you had the sort of 
system that would reduce the paperwork and civilian backup would 
that increase the effective force of your department ? 



262 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir ; it will. I don't have the exact man-hours with 
me unless Carl might have them. But I do have this kind of figure. 
We spend the equivalent of 40 street policemen awaiting trials in 
the court. If we could do away with the delays of policemen waiting 
to testify we could effectively put about 40 more policemen on the 
street. 

Mr. Keating. This goes back to the old indication that so many 
people have given to me, that the policemen would not have to come 
in for a second court appearance. 

Mr. GooDiN. That is on that innovative kind of system. 

Mr. Keating. That has been something the police division has been 
wanting to do for some time. 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Keating. Is there any likelihood you can get this support from 
the prosecutor, the counsel, and the judiciary .to team develop that? 

Mr. GooDiN. We can see some road signs for real dramatic improve- 
ments in the courts in Hamilton County. Cooperative arrangements 
heretofore not even thought possible are being worked out. We have 
our police officers working on committees with judges and their staff 
to develop procedures to expedite the docketing of cases and hearing 
of cases. I think we are just around the corner for real dramatic 
improvements. 

The city council has taken a receptive ear toward this wasteful figure 
of 40 people and it could well be policemen will be paid for court ap- 
pearances, which I am sure will dramatically increase the effectiveness 
of the courts when money is outlayed. 

Mr. Keating. Compensatory time is really a disrupting influence, 
isn't it. 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. The 40 policemen are a composite increment 
of compensatory time. That is what it amounts to. 

Mr. Keating. Haven't two of the principal computer systems been 
approved by the county voters, plus the radio system ? All of this will 
lead to computerization of the entire court docket ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Keating. For one thing, and it just is a mechanization of our 
whole process, or our whole legal process. 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Keating. Mr. Chairman, I have consumed enough time. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief, I want to ask you a few questions. First, 
about the LEAA funds. How much do you get and what do you use 
those funds for ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Mr. Chairman, since the existence of LEAA, prior to 
that, OLEA, we have invested about a million dollars for the city of 
Cincinnati, That is a somewhat misleading figure because much of the 
moneys that have been spent in Cincinnati have been spent on a 
countywide basis, which is for regional crime laboratories, for scien- 
tific training at Xavier University, which is countywide in nature; 
things like this. 

Specifically, Cincinnati has used its LEAA funds for programs and 
sort of software kinds of things, and research. 

The program management bureau is partially funded for operations 
analysis. We have a regional law enforcement narcotics unit com- 
posed of officers from each of the departments all over the county. We 
have an organized crime unit which is funded by LEAA, 



263 

We have a police cadet program which is partially funded for young- 
sters through the ages of 17 to 21, who work as civilians in our depart- 
ment, and co-op at the University of Cincinnati. Upon graduation 
they receive an associate degree, have been trained during their quarter 
breaks and are promoted and go out in the street as policemen without 
any 20-week delay in training. 

We have a criminal prevention program which involves a person 
at each district, which has primary responsibility for developing 
crime prevention programs. 

Chairman Pepper. Do you think the use of LEAA funds is more 
effective in curbing crime than to put that money in employing more 
men to be in uniform on the streets ? 

Mr. GooDiN. I think it is ; yes, sir. I think the only criticism I would 
have of the administration of funds would be their guidelines are 
unduly restrictive. Quite frankly, it restricts a city like Cincinnati in 
that our own moneys, city budget dollars, were spent for training and 
programs. Being innovative and being funded by LEAA was pioneered 
in the Cincinnati Police Division by Chief Schrotel and others. 

LEAA funds police cadet programs all over the county. Cincinnati 
has had it since 1955. We would like to expand on it but are not able 
to do so because it is an expansion program. We feel each city, each 
community, should have the dollars to spend as the city administration 
sees best to spend them, based on the needs identified in their com- 
munity. 

Chairman Pepper. I agree with you on that. The difficult decision 
was to you, how best to use it and you used the money wisely. 

Suppose the Federal Government were to inaugurate a program to 
provide more police on the streets of the cities of this country ; suppose 
the Federal Government were to put up 25 percent of a certain sum 
for that purpose and your States were to put up 25 percent, and the 
cities would put up 50 percent. Would that be a helpful program, or 
should there be some other formula for the division of the money, in 
case such aid would be forthcoming ? 

Mr. GooDiN. I would have to answer that simply by saying I think 
it would be beneficial. I think the testimony that I have heard in the 
major cities is that most police departments are undermanned, under- 
staffed. I think that is disputable because they may be ineffectively 
deployed or allocated among the departments. But that certainly 
would be a way for the Federal Government to help. Subsidy for police 
salaries, for j^olice education, needs to be expanded. 

Chairman Pepper. You think that would be a proper function for 
the Federal Government to get into ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Peppper. Helpful in curbing crime ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. And if they want to do these other things, all 
right. 

Mr. GooDiN. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. But, after all, the greatest single factor in 
curbing crime is the availability of trained police to deal with the 
problem ; would you agree with that ? 

Mr. GooDiN. I would agree with that, Mr. Chairman. If we would 
isolate it to one single factor ; yes, sir. 

95-158 0—73 — pt. 1 18 



264 

Chairman Pepper. What about the cooperation between your police 
department and the prosecuting attorney's office? 

Mr. GooDiN. We have excellent cooperation within the Cincinnati 
Police Division and the local prosecutor and the county prosecutor. 
I might say, it might be a model to be looked at by other agencies. 

Chairman Pepper. And there is good will between the two depart- 
ments ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Absolutely. 

Chairman Pepper. What about between the police department and 
the courts ? 

Mr. GooDiN. We have excellent cooperation between the police 
departments and the courts. As I indicated earlier, the courts have 
gone out of the way to establish their committees to work with us on 
problems of police time. They have identified weaknesses in the testi- 
mony of officers, for which we have developed training programs, and 
given freely of their time and trained the police officers. 

Chairman Pepper. Wliat about the dispatch of cases in the court? 

Mr. GooDiN. We think the overloading of the criminal court dockets 
on both levels, common pleas level and municipal level, is atrocious. 

Chairman Pepper. How long does it take, ordinarily, between the 
time the charge is made against the defendant in Cincinnati and the 
actual trial ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Tt certainly depends on the nature of the crime and 
skillfulness of the defense attorney. I would say some cases run as 
long as a year. Some of them have not been finally adjudicated that 
are over a year old. 

Chairman Pepper. That is a great frustration to the police depart- 
ment. 

Mr. GooDiN. Absolutely. It is probably one of the greatest frustra- 
tions police suffer. 

Mr. Panno. I have only been on the force a short period of time, 5, 
going on 6 years, but I have had cases go from the time of arrest 
until a disiX)sition in common pleas court in 4 months, and other cases 
go as long as 13 to 15 months. It is disenchanting to spend a lot of 
time and a lot of technology to catch someone at a crime of stealth 
and have that man beat you back out on the sidewalk from the court 
room. 

Chairman Pepper. I know that is very frustrating to the police. 
Heretofore, we have had a lot of witnesses and it has come to the 
personal knowledge of many of us that there is little cooperation in 
respect to this matter between the courts and the police authority. 
Sometimes the courts think that is no business of the police authori- 
ties, it is their business. 

And in a great many instances the courts have not been subject 
to any kind of supervision. A judge sat when he wanted to, he left 
in the midafternoon if he wanted to, he tried as many cases as he 
thought he should. 

In Miami, where I live, we just set up a new system in the courts, 
so we only have in each county, two courts: county courts, which 
handle lesser offenses; and circuit courts of general jurisdiction. But 
either one can sit in the other court. Now, for the first time, a circuit 
judge, who is the supervisory judge, you might call him, a managing 
administrative judge of all of the judges in the circuit system, and 
another supervisory judge, managing judge for all of the judges in 



265 

fche circuit system, and another supervisory judge, managing judge 
for all the judges in the county system, can review the dockets. He 
can examine the length of time the judges put in; he can prod those 
judges to greater performance. If the system is not working he can 
check on it, and if necessary go to the Governor or to the legislature. 

So we are getting a much more efficient judicial administrative pro- 
gram than we were getting when each judge was a separate entity unto 
himself. 

Do you have anything like that in your area ? 

Mr. Keating. Mr. Chairman, can I make a comment and intercede ? 
We have a new Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the State of 
Ohio, C. William O'Neill, who was formerly Governor of the State. 
Justice O'Neill has, since his appointment as chief justice, been at- 
tempting to implement a speedier judicial disposition of civil and 
criminal cases in the State of Ohio. 

I think he has been very successful in accelerating the date of 
trial, but until you get to a point where a case is tried within 60 days, 
then we have not completed the job. But he has been a great force 
for this cause in our State and has been extremely effective. But when 
3^ou go from the position we were in before to the position you want 
to be, there is much left to be done. 

Chairman Pepper. In Florida, the State supreme court has prac- 
tically required a man to be tried within 60 days and if he is not, unless 
it is some justifiable reason for his not being tried, the case is to be 
dismissed. At the beginning of that program some cases were dis- 
missed. Now, the prosecuting attorneys diligently take care to see that 
the cases are brought to trial within 60 days. 

What about the correctional system in your area ? We generally say 
the police, prosecuting attorneys, the courts, and the correctional sys- 
tems, are the various essential elements of the system for the admin- 
istration of justice. In many areas, the correctional system is the first 
problem, also. How well have you come to deal with that problem in 
your area ? 

Mr. GooDiN. We have an opportimity for input into correctional 
matters, operations, design of systems, things of this nature, but not 
nearly as much as we do with the courts. 

To follow up on your comment about the courts, we have had an 
invitation by the chief justice extending an oppoi'tunity for our officers 
of Cincinnati to serve on committees, on the revision of the Ohio 
Criminal Code, the rules of criminal procedure, which has to be sort 
of unique in terms of criminal justice cooperation. We sort of walk 
through a lot of those procedures from what it would actually mean 
to the police and citizen on the street, which will make the rules 
much more effective for the people. 

In terms of correction, probation, and parole, and things of this 
nature, it is probably just like every place else : It is a miserable fail- 
ure. Their batting average is worse than that of the police. If we 
arrest less than 29 percent of the violators and they correct less than 
that, then it is a complete flop. 

Chairman Pepper. Have you, as most States generally have, one 
big State penal institution in Ohio ? 

Mr. GooDiN. We have an Ohio Penitentiary but there are other 
institutions spread through the State. 



266 

Chairman Pepper. Where is that located ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Columbus, Ohio. 

Chairman Pepper. Thank you very much, Chief, and all of the 
gentlemen associated with you, for coming here today and helping us. 
You are recognized as one of the most innovative chiefs in the country. 
You were first brought to my attention by Mr. Tamm, one of the out- 
standing chiefs of police in the country. You obviously have a very 
able group of associates here who are helping you to do a good job. 

I just want to ask you this last question. Despite the progress you 
have achieved in the past, you still have a lot of violent and serious 
crime. Wliat can you offer to the people of Cincinnati ; what can you 
do to cut down on the number of crimes you still have ; and what can 
be done, in your opinion, to reduce the number of crimes you still have 
in your city ? 

Mr. GooDiN. We feel all of the programs we w^ork on and that we 
develop and design have a goal of crime containment, reduce citizen 
victimization. We feel that a coordinated, well-planned effort with the 
proper analysis is the best kind of response to a problem. We, many 
times in law enforcement, are required to respond to the fear of crime, 
not of the incidence of the crime, itself. 

I will give you an example. In Cincinnati, we have sort of in the cen- 
ter of the city downtown area a town square which is visited by most 
people who come to Cincinnati and it is one of the finer points of the 
city. We have several strong-arm robberies and assaults over a week, 
four or five, involving youngsters and some adults. Most were closed 
by arrests. But an uninformed media portrayed that as practically a 
crime wave. There was no more of a crime problem there than any- 
where else. That is not a crime problem when you have kids assaulting 
other kids. They were doing that when I was a child. It was not a crime 
problem. 

But to maintain the confidence of the conmiunity, we assigned uni- 
formed officers there, highly visible officers on foot, with the K-9 unit 
walking across the fountain occasionally, to calm the public. After 10 
or 15 days of that kind of deployment, which was a total waste of man- 
power, people sort of assumed the downtown area really is safe — "look 
at all of those policemen." 

So many times we do respond to the fear of crime rather than the 
actual crime problem. A systematic approach to deal Avith that includes 
close liaison with the media and the criminal justice system, which is 
the best we can offer to the citizens of Cincinnati. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief, the Government tells the people there has 
been a reduction in crime and it is in the magazines and their media : 
There has been a reduction in serious crime for the first time in 17 years, 
a slight reduction, a few percent. But the media say, in effect, there 
is an increase in violent crime; small increase, but there is still an in- 
crease. And the people want to know : Do we have to live all of the rest 
of our lives, and our children and grandchildren live their lives, with 
the tragic amount of crime we have in the country today? 

These muggings, rapes, and robberies. Do we have to accept any- 
thing like the rate of crime we now have, today, as the inevitable ex- 
perience of the people of the country ? What can we hope for as a major 
breakthrough so there will be a real large meaningful diminution in 
the amount of crime in this country ? 



267 

Mr. GooDiN. I think the systems approach to the problem we have 
today, we have heard discussed thoroughly through the criminal jus- 
tice system, a sti-onger stand on a certain kind of violent crime, place 
a priority by tlie judicial system on crimes of violence, put it at the top 
of the docket. Tluit kind of practical approach to it will let the criminal 
know, tliose inclined to crime, that the citizens of this country and of 
Cincinnati, or whatever community, will not tolerate abuses of its 
people or violations of its laws. 

And when the citizen knows, as he did before the civil disturbance 
era of this country, that if he commits a crime he is likely to be caught 
and dealt with quickly and justly, then when we can achieve that and 
instill that in the mind of the citizenry, we can do something about 
crime. Until that, people inclined toward crime believe it to be the case, 
as it actually is, swift justice is a myth, we are not going to do much 
about it. 

Chairman Pepper. Would you put great emphasis also on juvenile 
crime ? 

Mr. GooDiN. Absolutely. A very integral part of our process. 

Chairman Pepper. Thank you. 

Mr. Keating. May I comment ? I don't want to embarrass the chief, 
but I would like to see the chief as the Director of the FBI. 

Chairman Pepper. He would be a good one. He has appeared to me 
as one of the top outstanding chiefs of police in the country. We in 
Miami have a good candidate in Rocky Pomerance of Miami Beach. 

Thank you very much, Chief. 

[Chief Goodin's prepared statement and a pamphlet on Com-Sec, 
previously mentioned, follows :] 

Prepared Statement of Col. Carl V. Goodin, Chief of Police, Cincinnati, Ohio 
TKAM policing : reorganization to me:et the challenges of the future 

The basic question to be addressed in this brief discussion is : How can a police 
agency organize itself to deal more effectively with its primary responsibilities in 
the coming years? A very common reply given in the United States today is "Team 
Policing." Among the many programs calling Team Policing, the common denomi- 
nator seems to be the assignment of a group of oflScers to patrol a given area. We 
need to go much l)eyond this simplistic statement in order to determine what 
there is in team policing which generates some ray of hope for the future of 
policing. Therefore, the focus of this paper will be to analyze the mechanism 
which are present in some team policing models which would enable a police 
agency to more effectively deal with criminal victimization. 

The objectives of police agencies are often described as being : 

(1) Prevention of crime : 

(2) Protection of life and property ; 

(3) Suppression of criminal activity ; 

(4) Apprehension and prosecution of offenders ; 

(5) Regulation of non-criminal conduct ; and 

(6) Preservation of the public peace. 

We have found that we are not unifonnly effective in attaining these objec- 
tives ; crime is still increasing despite our best efforts. The President's Commis- 
sion on Crime pointed this out and also indicated that we cannot attain these 
objectives so long as police agencies are expected to struggle with these problems 
in an atmosphere lacking the assistance of the greater community. 

The Commission also suggested a solution — team policing. Team policing does 
not aim toward new objectives and goals (it is not just a public relations pro- 
gram) — in fact, the goals and objectives of the police have stood the test of time. 
Team policing is designed to recognize that the attainment of these goals cannot 
be accomplished by the police agency alone. Instead of operating in a vacuum, the 



268 

community, social and other governmental agencies, and society itself, all play a 
role in carrying out the police function. 

The aspects of team policing which are crucial for reducing criminal victimiza- 
tion seem to be : 

(1) Consistent assignment, 

(2) Unification of control, responsibility, 

(3) Team decision-making power, 

(4) Development of the police officer as a generalist, and 

(5) Communications. 

The consistent assignment of an officer to the same area allows the officer to 
become familiar with that area and its people to a much greater extent than is 
possible under a system of rotating assignments. Consistent assignment tends to 
breed a proprietary interest in the community on the part of the police officer 
once the officer recognizes that present actions may cause problems for him in the 
future. 

By unifying the control, responsibility and supervision in an area, the actions 
taken by police officers can become more consistent. By developing a consistent, 
high level of service, a major roadblock to communication is removed. We all 
often find a high level of fear attached to situations with which we are unfamil- 
iar. Certainly citizens must experience great anxiety in their contacts with police 
officers considering the current practices of many police agencies. Many different 
units, each having its own specialized function and its own line of command may 
operate in the same small area in the same day. 

Coupling a simplified control structure with team decision-making power en- 
ables the police to develop plans on the basis of local level information which 
should be more in keeping with community needs. This approach allows the officer 
on the street more latitude in dealing with the problems he faces. The more con- 
sistent performance and greater commitment developed through such a system 
should create an environment in which police officers and community residents 
can, develop an effective alliance against crime. 

Another element of this plan is the development of a generalist officer. A gen- 
eralist should be capable of delivering the complete spectrum of police services, 
thus providing more effective follow-through concerning the delivery of those 
services. An officer who has had adequate training and experience should be able 
to carry out investigations of all types as well as provide the routine services 
expected of patrol officers. 

All of the above factors should also tend to improve communications both 
within the agency as well as between its representatives and the community. The 
current structure of police agencies is a great deterrent to the effective com- 
munication of information which is of importance to the agency. By simplifying 
the chain of command and responsibility, the major obstacle to internal commu- 
nication is removed. Furthermore, the police agency itself must take the first step 
in improving its relations with the community. The development of stable lines of 
communications is of great importance in encouraging mutual trust, understand- 
ing and aid among the police and the community. 

Providing an officer the opportunity to understand the community, allowing a 
group of officers to define their own problems, goals and policies, developing a 
generalist notion of policing and improving communications should improve the 
outlook of policing in the future. Perhaps none of this discussion is new to any of 
us, but we must begin to look for new methods of providing police services. The 
ever-increasing problems that face us serve as prima facie evidence that we have 
not yet obtained the ultimate goals of policing. The need to find new solutions is 
to become even more urgent as our society clamors ever more vociferously for 
better police service. Even if crime does not overwhelm us in the coming years, 
public sentiment will, unless viable methods of policing are developed. The reor- 
ganization which has been outlined in these pages is one method which hopes to 
achieve the vital alliance among the police and the community needed to promul- 
gate the more effective delivery of police services. 



269 




270 



COM-SEC 



EVERYBODY WANTS A SAFER 
COMMUNITY... COM SEC IS 
THE NEW WAY TO GET IT ... 



COM SEC (short for community sector) is a new 
style of policing that bases a highly responsive, 
mini-police department in your own community. 
This community police department is manned by 
team of permanently-assigned officers especi- 
ally trained to provide all your police services. 

WHERE WILL COM SEC OPERATE? 

In the beginning, COM SEC will operate in 
Cincinnati Police District One, which includes 
the downtown business section, Over-the-Rhine, 
West End, Mt. Adams, and the downtown River- 
front. In this area of less than four square miles 
will be six mini-police departments, one each 
of the six communities within the District. 

HOW IS COM SEC DIFFERENT? 

Until now, you may not have known your police- 
man (and perhaps you did not care). He did not 
know you because he worked in many different 
communities . Under COM SEC, the policeman 
will be permanently based in your community. He 
will have time to know you and understand your 
problems, just as you will get to know him and 
his problems. 



WHAT IS IN IT FOR YOU? 

COM SEC is not a "miracle cure" for all your 
community problems. By itself, it won't produce 
jobs, better education or lower prices, which 
certainly are prime concerns. But COM SEC 
should result in far less crime and a safer 
neighborhood for you to live in. And that's a 
good start toward solving community problems. 
Studies show that, over the years, safe communi- 
ties ultimately mean lower prices at the stores, 
they attract stable businesses, develop more 
jobs and better education opportunities for 
residents. 



271 



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273 





HOW CAN YOU GET INVOLVED? 

• Get to know your COM SEC policeman 

• Offer him your suggestions to improve police 
service 

• Participate in crime prevention activities 

• Take an active part in monthly COM SEC 
meetings 

• Get your friends to attend 

• Invite your policemen to attend other commun- 
ity organization meetings 

• Report crimes or community problems about 
which you may have information. 

GOOD POLICE SERVICE NEEDS THE WHOLE 
TEAM: YOUR POLICE OFFICER AND YOU! 



YOU ARE INVITED TO THE COM SEC MEET- 
INGS IN YOUR COMMUNITY. CALL 352-3505 
FOR TIME AND PLACE OF THE NEXT 

MEETING. 




innii -m 




274 

Chairman Pepper. We will adjourn until 10 a.m., tomorrow, when 
we will meet in room 1302, Longworth House Office Building. 

[Whereupon, at ,5 :30 p.m., the committee adjourned, to reconvene 
at 10 a.m., on Wednesday, April 11, 1973, in room 1302, Longworth 
House Office Building.] 



STREET CRIME IN AMERICA 
(The Police Response) 



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 11, 1973 

House of Representatives, 
Select Commtttee on Crlme, 

Washington^ B.C. 

Tlie committee met, pursuant to notice at 10 :10 a.m., in room 1302, 
Longworth House Office Building, the Honorable Claude Pepper 
(chairman) presiding. 

Present: Representatives Pepper, Murphy, Rangel, Winn, Sand- 
man, and Keating. Representative Ralph H. Metcalfe, of Illinois, was 
an invited guest and sat with the committee. 

Also present: Chris Nolde, chief comisel; Richard Lynch, deputy 
chief counsel ; and Leroy Bedell, hearings officer. 

Chairman Pepper. The committee will come to order, please. 

During the morning we will be hearing testimony about the Chicago 
Police Department's community service aid program. One of our dis- 
tinguished members is from the great city of Chicago. 

We also have the honor of having with us this morning another dis- 
tinguished Representative from the Chicago area, Hon. Ralph Met- 
calfe. Mr. Metcalfe has made a very distinguished record here in the 
House of Representatives. We are delighted to have him join us this 
momuig. 

Mr. Murphy, will you be kind enough to introduce our first witness 
this morning. 

Mr. Murphy. Thank you. Mr. Chairman and members of the com- 
mittee, I am pleased to introduce this morning the distinguished 
deputy superintendent of the Chicago Police Department, Mr. Samuel 
W. Nolan, Deputy Superintendent Nolan is in command of the depart- 
ment's bureau of community services and in that capacity has been in 
charge of the community services aide program. 

Superintendent Nolan is a veteran of 28 years of service in the 
Chicago Police Department. As most of you know, the Chicago Police 
Department is one of the Nation's largest law enforcement agencies. 
It has a present strength of more than 13,000 men and women. 

Superintendent Nolan has brought with him this morning four 
representatives of the department who have worked in the community 
service aide program and I will ask the superintendent to introduce 
them for the committee at this time. 

(275) 



276 

PANEL OF CHICAGO (ILL.) POLICE DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS: 
CHAMBERLAIN, JOHN D., SERGEANT; 
CROSBY, WAYNE, COMMUNITY SERVICE AIDE; 
JUNGHEIM, ANNETTE K., COMMUNITY SERVICE AIDE; 
NOLAN, SAMUEL W., DEPUTY SUPERINTENDENT ; AND 
ROTTMAN, HERBERT R., LIEUTENANT 

STATEMENT OF SAMUEL W. NOLAN 

Mr. Nolan. Thank you, Congressman. 

Mr. Chairman, I would like to say thank you very much for inviting 
the city of Chicago's police department representatives to appear be- 
fore your committee today. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Nolan, we are very much honored to have 
you here today. You know these hearings are for the purpose of 
presenting to the Congress and the country the most innovative, 
imaginative programs that are being carried on in the various parts 
of the country in the fields of the administration of the criminal justice 
system of this Nation. 

The police program is the first one ; then we will delve into proba- 
tion; prosecuting attorneys; courts, trial and appellate; and juvenile 
delinquency. 

Your great city has been chosen as one of the cities which has a very 
outstanding and innovative program. We are very much pleased to 
have you and your associates here today to tell us about it. 

Mr. Nolan. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

On my right is Lt. Herbert E. Rottman, commanding officer of 
the community service aide program since its inception on Chicago's 
West Side. To his right is Mrs. Annette K. Jungheim, a community 
service aide, who works in what we refer to as the "uptown area," 
the North Side of Chicago and she, too, has been a community service 
aide since the inception of the program. 

On my left I have Sgt. John D. Chamberlin. Sergeant Chamberlin 
has been acting commander of the Near South Community Service 
Center, also since its inception. And on his left is another community 
service aide, Mr. Wayne Crosby, a young man who has been an assist- 
ant squad leader in our program for the last 3 years. 

The Chicago Police Department Community Service Aides Project 
is administered by the superintendent of police through the deputy 
superintendent of the bureau of community services. The community 
service centers and their assigned personnel are under the direct 
supervision of a project director. This program was developed and 
brought into being after 2 years of target area study and prepara- 
tion, in conjunction with Model Cities representatives and area neigh- 
borhood councils and their members. 

In January 1970 the hiring of 422 community service aides began 
and simultaneously six community service centers in predesignated 
target areas were opened to fulfill a specific police purpose. 

To accomplish this purpose two immediate goals were set and con- 
sidered of paramount importance: (1) To assist in decreasing the 
incidence of crime and allowing the police patrol force to spend more 
time in the area of crime prevention and enforcement activities; and 



277 

(2) to assist in improving the quality of urban life in the designated 
target areas. 

The Model Cities target areas consist of 300,000 residents in ap- 
proximately 30 square miles. It is at high-density residency and gen- 
erally considered high crime rate areas. The complaints, fears, and 
general misunderstanding of the police functions, their responsibili- 
ties and duties, all provided an insight to develop programs ; and the 
lack of sufficient career opportunities and employment of target resi- 
dents also was of prime importance in planning for this project. 

The essence of the community service aide involvement is citizen 
participation, and the injection of more citizens directly into the law 
enforcement system. The unreported and unabated problems, espe- 
cially those of a criminal nature, that have gone unresolved and are 
a constant source of anxiety and frustration, are all a contributing fac- 
tor that leads to crime and antisocial behavior. 

At the start of the program, the superintendent of police issued 
department directives to all members of the force and a community 
service aide official procedure manual was prepared and officially 
issued to department heads as well as the aides. All units of depart- 
ments were directed to render assistance to this program including, 
but not limited to, the training division, the department psychologist 
in the personnel division, the medical section, and all other specialized 
units within the department whenever their services were needed. 

Units such as auto theft, burglary units, narcotics, and youth officers 
were constantly utilized to conduct seminars. 

Community service aides, after initial selection — age group of 17 
years to 35 years, both males and females, some even with past police 
records — began 455 hours of training, starting with 200 hours of 
preservice training, and 255 hours of inservice training. 

The single dominant criterion for employment was residency in 
target areas of employment. There are no exceptions to this require- 
ment. The preservice training helped determine quality, as the civil- 
ians participated in this new learning device, to learn Model Cities 
concepts and goals, administrative duties and discover their own 
abilities. 

This training was divided into three phases to develop the practical 
side of need for vital service responsibilities of coping with crisis 
areas — police community interactions — sociological dilemmas, and 
how best they be utilized in all duties permitted by law. 

Some of the courses taught were criminal law, department standards, 
field procedures, general and specific duties, investigation and report 
writing. Advanced inservice training dealt with specifics of the above 
and consisted of two phases. 

The backbone of the program is the patrolman. As supervisor, he is 
responsible for the output of the aides and assists in developing the 
leadership within the ranks of the aides. The basic work unit is team 
patrol, and the basic patrol philosophy is taught in training sessions. 

It was recognized that therein lies, for some, a difficult transition 
of lifestyle, as not usually seeing the policeman as a partner. A learn- 
ing experience begins for both the community service aide and the 
police officer. But the mere presence of the uniformed aides and the 
officer has in many instances been a deterrent factor in high-crime 
areas. 



278 

One project function is the education and counseling program which 
is offered in three tracks, and preliminary testing and counseling 
places all aides in one of these tracks. 

It is an important aspect in upgrading formal education of com- 
munity service aides at their own level. Chicago City College, Public 
Service Institute, under contractural agreement, has provided a basic 
education program, G.E.D. preparation program, and college-level 
programs. 

All of these opportunities, of which 97 percent of community service 
aides participated in at least one of the three levels, stated the goal of 
this effort was to help aides decide on realistic vocational goals. 

Each center, as an integral part of the program, has a full-time as- 
signed counselor. Not only for secondary school attendees, but for 
regular assistance in the Ijasic education programs, and to conduct 
those classes needed so that aides complete at least a high school level ; 
9 hours per week are allowed for educational courses, with pay. 

There is no guarantee of professional law enforcement officer em- 
ployment due to rigid civil service requirements. However, the train- 
ing and experience does prepare community service aides for advance- 
ment and entrance into the public safety agencies and other human 
services agencies and also the private sector of the economy. 

Aides have gone on to many diversified jobs: Police officer, stew- 
ardess, park employees, post office and other governmental jobs. 

By their knowledge and firsthand experiences in community prob- 
lems, new directions and added duties developed mainly designed to 
the steering of the young from a criminal involvement to a socially 
gainful environment, in the aides immediate recognition of the basic 
factors inherent to unlawful acts, which is the desire to perform a 
specific act and the afforded opportunity to go undetected. 

Community service aides have performed a myriad of service func- 
tions, normally handled by sworn personnel, designed to increase 
safety of persons and property. In accomplisliing some of their tasks, 
community service aides relieve police personnel of adult missing 
persons investigations, abandoned vehicles and recovery of stolen 
vehicles processing, rabies control, dog licensing program, and the 
bicycles registration program. 

Neighborhood burglaries are an important area of patrol and the 
new operation identification program is aimed at curtailing criminal 
activity in looting homes and businesses. The formation of community 
workshops at the neighborhood level block clubs, even in high rises, 
has been instrumental in better understanding of a need of citizen 
participation in crime prevention. 

Aides have assisted in the apprehension of offenders of criminal 
acts and their high visibility of team patrol in those pockets of crime- 
laden areas where schoolchildren extortion and physical attacks occur, 
and also those areas reporting purse snatching and auto thefts, auto 
parts, and those experiencing high incidence of arson difficulties. 

They are also involved in reporting building violations, assisting in 
crowd control, tutoring programs, "cultural involvement programs, 
senior citizens' activities, and many other needed services to their 
communities. 

The following is a statistical comparison of index crimes for a like 
6-month subsequent period as reported in the police community service 
centers comprising six designated target areas. 



279 

It is recognized from September of 1971 through Febniary of 1972 
that there has been a decrease in the amount of homicides to 35 from 
63. There has been in the area of rape a decrease, 129 from 267. Seri- 
ous assaults, unfoitunately, have risen over 200. Robbery has been re- 
duced to 1,859 from 2,640. Burglary has been reduced about one-third. 
Theft of autos has increased about one-third; and grand theft has 
increased, unfortunately, to 838 from 605. 

I think at this time, by permission of the chairman, we would talk 
just a moment about our funding. 

Chairman Pepper. We would be very glad to hear it. 

Mr. Murphy. Mr. Nolan, I would like to question you regarding 
your funding. Obviously your community service aides program has 
received Federal funds and we would like to know how much funding. 
AVliat effect will the proposed budget cuts liave on your funding'^ 

Mr. Nolan. Very good, sir. At the inception of the program this 
model cities aid project was funded entirely by our model cities ad- 
ministration in our city through Housing and Urban Development. 
Shortly thereafter, in July of 1970 the Illinois Law Enforcement 
Commission supplied us at the fiscal year with one-third, which was 
$1.3 million. Total funding of that program at that time was $3.2 
million. This went on for the first year and the second year. 

The contingency was through the Illinois Law Enforcement Com- 
mission that the department would apply for discretionary funds 
through the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. This was 
done, but denied in November of 1970 on the basis that the depart- 
ment's program did not fit into any category that they had under 
which they could fund our program. 

Mr. Murphy. I would like to pursue that, if I may. We are talking 
about LEAA funds? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Murphy. And the Chicago Police Department submitted a re- 
quest for those funds ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, we did. 

Mr. Murphy. And it was denied on what basis ? 

Mr. Nolan. On the basis that under the categories in which we ap- 
plied there was not sufficient funds direct from LEAA to supply us 
the amount of money we request namely; $1.3 million. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Murphy, if I may, t would like to know whether 
that denial was from the Illinois Law Enforcement Commission or 
the LEAA in Washington. 

Mr. Nolan. On request of the Illinois Law Enforcement Commis- 
sion we were told to apply direct to LEAA in Washington. 

Mr. Lynch. For discretionary grants ? 

Mr. Nolan. That is right. 

Mr. Murphy. That, too, was denied ? 

Mr. Nolan. That was denied. 

Mr. Murphy. On what grounds? That the particular program you 
had in mind was not contemplated by LEAA ? 

Mr. Nolan. The only reply we received was that in the category in 
which we applied — ^this was their words — there was not sufficient fund- 
ing for a program such as ours. 

Mr. Murphy. That was in community service programs? 

Mr. Nolan. The community service aide project. 



95-158 O— 73— pt. 1 19 



280 

Mr. Murphy. How were they funded prior to that ? 

Mr. Nolan. They funded it through the Illinois Law Enforcement 
Commission prior to that. That is where one-third funding had been 
received. 

Mr. Lynch. The Illinois Law Enforcement Commission is the State 
planning agency for the State of Illinois under LEAA ? 

Mr. Nolan. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Murphy. What would you have done with those funds had 
they been received? Would they have been used for walkie-talkies, 
radios, and other equipment ? 

Mr. Nolan. They could have been used for communication, but 
mainly they could have taken up that one-third needed funds and 
carried the program at its present level. 

Mr. Murphy. You just recited a number of reductions in auto thefts, 
burglaries, and other categories of crime as a result of this program ; 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, we have. 

Mr. Murphy. And yet the Federal Government denied these funds, 
stating that the category wasn't proper ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes ; they have been denied. But the program did not 
suffer (because the city of Chicago, through our own Model Cities 
Administration, found funds to carry it on until just March 31 of this 
year. 

Mr. Murphy. Will you be able to continue to carry that on ? 

Mr. Nolan. No, we will not ; because as of March 31 this year it was 
necessary for the superintendent of ipolice to direct me to close six of 
our centers and to lay off ibetter than two-thirds of our people, from 
422. We are down to 81. They closed all of our centers and these 81 
people are scattered in the six police district stations in the target 
areas. 

Mr. Murphy. Mr. Superintendent, do you know^ of any other major 
cities that have a program like this community service aides program ? 

Mr. Nolan. No ; there are none in the country. 

Mr. Lynch. If I may, Mr. Murphy, the Chicago Police Department 
community service aides program is the country's largest. I think 
there are other aide programs, but no city has invested as much man- 
power or money as has Chicago, concentrating in specific target areas. 

I wonder, Mr. Superintendent, if you could tell the committee how 
many centers you had and would you also describe what you mean by 
the term "center?" 

Mr. Nolan. The police community service center is located in the 
heart of the target area. It is usually la store-front building. It com- 
prises a number of aides that are 8 percent of the population of that 
particular area. 

For instance, our Grand Boulevard area, one of the areas of our 
city in which Congressman Metcalfe is the Representative, is one of 
the largest. It has 102 aides assigned there. But Grand Boulevard, 
just immediately east of there, is a smaller area because of some of the 
abandoned and vacant buildings, and we have 41 aides assigned at 
that particular center. 

We have two at the West Side. One has a complement of 78 aides, 
and one has a complement of 39 aides, and the one we have in the 
Woodlawn area has a comiplement of 78 aides. And we have one uip on 



281 

the far North Side, uptown, which has a complement of approximately 
78 aides, also. 

Mr. Lynch. You had a total of six centers ; is that right ? 

Mr. Nolan. A total of six. 

Mr. Lynch. And they have all been closed ? 

Mr. Nolan. They were closed. 

Mr. Lynch. And they could be characterized as store fronts, neigh- 
borhood walk-in centers ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes. 

Mr. Lynch. Did you, in fact, have people in the neighborhood other 
than aides or police })ersonnel employed in the program who used to 
come into those centers and, if so, what did they come there for? What 
service was rendered to them there ? 

Mr. Nolan. The centers were commanded and rim by police per- 
sonnel, lieutenant or police conunander, and sergeants charged with 
supervision, and patrolmen as squad leaders. But we also used the 
centers to indoctrinate the community residents that this was a satel- 
lite police station where they could come for services which could be 
explained very well by some of our aides here, of the type that was 
given; come in for services, come in to register complaints, come in to 
learn how to get better service than what they usually have in the 
community in which they live. 

The centers were also used to conduct programs, to bring young 
people into a gathering place, for senior citizens, to conduct tutoring 
classes, but mainly to let the citizens know that police community 
workshops, block club meetings, any type of community services that 
they desired within the realm of police personnel, could be conducted 
in those centers at any time of the day or evening. 

Mr. Lynch. You told Mr. Murphy that a discretionary grant appli- 
cation directed to LEAA here in Washington was denied on the basis 
that your program did not fit into LEAA's categorical grant format? 
You also indicated that you had been denied additional funding by 
the Illinois Law Enforcement Commission. 

What is the situation with Model Cities funding now ? Have they 
been reduced in the city of Chicago ? 

Mr. Nolan. They have been reduced. I mig^ht add one clarifying 
point, counsel, with respect to the Illinois Law Enforcement Commis- 
sion. One of the contingencies of the second-year funding was that 
the third-year funding would be reduced accordingly. The second-year 
fimding had an attached rider letter which required us to apply 
directly to the Washington LEAA program, and, in turn, we were 
turned down. 

Mr. Lynch. How much money had the ILEC given you? 

Mr. Nolan. They had funded us for 2 years. We are now waiting 
for third-year funding, Avhich is not forthcoming as yet. 

Mr. Lynch. This funding amounts to how much? 

Mr. Nolan. $1.3 million, or a reduced amount. 

Mr. Lynch. During the second year, was that money reduced ? 

Mr. Nolan. No, the same amount. 

Mr. Lynch. And what was the contingency for additional fimding? 

Mr. Nolan. The application into the LEAA and their reduced 
amount for the third year. 



282 

Mr. Lynch. Have you, in fact, reapplied to ILEC for additional 
money ? 

Mr. Nolan. We have applied. 

Mr. Lynch. When did you do that, sir ? 

Mr, Nolan. The 30th of January the mayor forwarded a letter to 
the chairman of the Illinois Law Enforcement Commission, stating 
the Chicago Police Department Police Community Service Aide Proj- 
ect was requesting at that time an honor of the commitment of the 
Illinois Law Enforcement Commission for third-year funding. 

Mr. Lynch. And the chairman is Mr. Bilek? 

Mr. Nolan. No. It is presently Mr. Donald Page Moore. 

Mr. Lynch. Did Mr. Moore respond to the mayor's letter? 

Mr. Nolan. He responded that the matter would be taken up at the 
standing committee meeting in February, which it was, which the 
superintendent was a member of the standing committee. I, myself, 
was present, and it was stated in their particular minutes at this par- 
ticular time, with the superintendent of police abstaining, that they 
would honor their commitment ; the full amount would not be given 
but a substantial amount would be as soon as funds were located. We 
are still waiting. 

Mr. Lynch. As soon as funds were located ? 

Mr. Nolan. We are still waiting for those funds. 

Mr. Lynch. Wiat does that mean ? 

Mr. Nolan. Frankly, I don't know. 

Mr. Lynch. Are you now receiving any moneys from the Chicago 
model cities program ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, we are. We are receiving, as of April 1, $1 million 
to conduct a program which we are putting into effect immediately, 
that will nm us through, budgetwise, June 30, 1974. 

Mr. Lynch. And that will enable you to function with 81 aides; 
is that correct ? 

Mr. Nolan. Eighty-one aides and nine police officers. 

Mr. Lynch. And that would be as compared with 422 aides prior 
thereto and some 71 police officers. 

Mr. Nol.\n. Yes. 

Mr. Murphy. Counsel, may I interject at this moment? 

Superintendent, what effect on crime statistics will reduction in 
aides and police officers have ? 

Mr. Nolan. Well, it would relieve us of the uniformed patrol of 
the aides into all aspects of the community and I am sure that some 
of the things that already have been brought to our attention, such 
as businessmen who felt a degree of safety from the very fact these 
satellite stations were located in the community; there were police 
persomiel around as well as community service aides. 

Again, the myriad of the services that have been offered by the aides 
over the last few years is certainly going to have a great deal of 
effect on what we would refer to as street crime. 

Mr. Murphy. In other words, you see street crime rising as a result 
of this cutback ? 

Mr. Nolan. In these particular areas where these centers were lo- 
cated, yes, I do. 

Mr. Murphy. And the purpose of the Federal LEAA program 
was to reduce your crime, was it not ? 

Mr. Nolan. It certainly is, sir; at least that is what we were told. 



283 

STATEMENT OF HON. RALPH H. METCALFE, A U.S. REPRESENTA- 
TIVE FROM THE STATE OF ILLINOIS 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Metcalfe, we will be glad to have you par- 
ticipate and ask any questions you desire. 

Mr. Metcalfe. I would like to simply say I am of the opinion that 
the relationship between the Chicago Police Department and the 
Federal Law Enforcement Assistance Administration is not very cor- 
dial, because the Chicago Police Department has not been very amen- 
able to the demands and wishes of LEAA. 

Recently they had an examination and they asked to come in and 
monitor the captain's examination and they were denied that op- 
portunity to come in. In March of this year they appointed three 
consultants to look into the question of police policies and hiring 
practices of blacks and other minorities. I think the record will show 
that the blacks constitute 33 percent of the Chicago population, and 
yet on the police force in excess of 13,000, the blacks constitute only 
17 percent. 

In the rank of captain we have only 1 percent black and above the 
rank of captain, the appointed office such as the distinguished office 
you have, only 7 out of 78, and 46 out of 2*26 youth officers are black. 

Aren't yon really receiving the bnmt of the problem with the Fed- 
eral Law Enforcement Assistance Administration because of your 
desire to cooperate with them and from the statements given by Super- 
intendent Conlisk after the report was mentioned by the Law En- 
forcement Study Group that it was discredited and was found not to 
be factual, when actually it was ? 

Aren't you suffering as a result of this in the program that is admin- 
istered by the community service program ? 

Mr. Nolan. Mr. Congressman, I would hope that the Law Enforce- 
ment Assistance Administration would not judge the worth of this 
program by the kind of survery made of the department a short while 
ago by its representatives. There are 13,000 police officers in our city 
and I agree with your other facts entirely. 

Yes, we, as minority members — and as I say, this is in a selfish way, 
sir — would certainly like to see more blacks, Latins, in command posi- 
tions within the department. 

Unfortunately, we only have 17 percent at this time and I am sure 
that you and the help you have given the department in finding the 
recruits are very well aware of the fact the department left no stone 
unturned in trying to get the young blacks, the young Latins to take 
the police exam. I think the turnout was very good. 

Unfortunately, the police department does not give the police exam. 
Also, as the Congressmen is aware, and the gentlemen are, it is given 
by the civil service commission. For those that have failed the exam, 
unfortunately, the greater number percentagewise has been black. 

Tutoring programs have been set up. We even conducted classes for 
patrolmen and policewomen in our centers. This is also the function of 
the centers, to find schoolteachers with the ability to volunteer to come 
into the center to help the blacks and help the Latins take the police 
exam. I think our problem is similar to other cities throughout our 
Nation. 

But again, sir, I would hate to think the LEAA would use that as 
a criterion to deny fimding for a i)rogram such as this, that I think 



284 

goes above that factor, inasmuch as they are serving the human needs 
of all people in the community in which they are now serving. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Can it not l3e the fact the police department is under 
the city administration and the civil service commission also is under 
the city administration, and therefore they felt the city administra- 
tion should take steps to eliminate the discriminatory practices that 
actually exist at the hiring levels, and that is the reason there are only 
17 percent blacks where they are turned down for the slightest excuse 
and many of them not based upon fact? 

At one time they were turned down because they said blacks have 
flat feet and it was proven that flat feet were not a deterrent to a 
policeman being an effective officer of the law. As a matter of fact, the 
police department is motorized and, therefore, that did not hold water. 

Recently, in the last few years they have turned blacks down and 
accused them of having heart murmurs when, in fact, they have not 
had heart murmurs. So as to cut down purposely on the number of 
blacks in the police department. 

Now, you cannot expect to have more black officers working in the 
community services or any other department as long as this particular 
practice exists. And it seems to me that you are in a vacuum here 
because you are in need of additional black police officers, and yet the 
civil service is not certifying them because of their discriminatory 
practices. 

Mr. Nolan. I would agree. Congressman, certainly the community 
feels there is a need for another look at civil service entrance exams 
for all people coming into the department today. They feel this is some- 
thing that is important, and we have found has been causing quite a 
few problems, especially among minority members. 

The flat feet conce])t, as you mentioned, as you know, since the first 
opposition to it had arisen a few years ago, has been taken out of their 
concept of physical exam. 

The heart murmur, whenever it occurs we certainly try to reach the 
young man and ask him to go to his doctor and reapply. We found 
many of our organizations in our city. Operation Push, Urban League, 
other places such as that, have all contributed, seen to it the young 
man was able to afford a medical examination and to attest to the fact 
he did or did not have a heart murmur. 

So I would agree with you. 

Mr. Metcalfe. And is most cases they found that person did not 
have a heart murmur, although the family physician for civil service 
said that he did. Then upon submission of a statement from a duly 
licensed cardiologist, they then admitted to him, w^hen they should have 
admitted him in the first place. 

Tlien, this situation got even worse, because then it became a matter 
of them bringing in a statement signed by a licensed physician, who 
was a heart specialist, and they said: "We say you have a heart 
murmur," and the expert says, "You do not have a heart murmur," 
and he is still rejected. 

Mr. Nolan. We certainly encourage all individuals who have been 
turned down for that facet of physical problems to reapply. And the 
matter you spoke of has certainly turned to the better for the man in 
question and in some instances it has turned against him. 

Mr. Metcalfe. You understand. Superintendent, of course, I am 
not directing my remarks to you, because this is something over which 



285 

neither you nor the police department have any control because of 
civil service. 

Mr. Nolan. I understand, sir; yes. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Superintendent, you indicated you would hope 
that LEAA would not evaluate this particular program on the basis of 
the evaluation that was done in the department by their consultants. 
In that regard, is it not the fact, sir, that on three separate occasions 
the Chicago Police Department's police community service aides pro- 
gram has been independently evaluated; once in 1970 by a private 
consulting hrm; sliortly thereafter by Loyola University of Chicago; 
and finally by the International Association of Chiefs of Police? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, it has. 

Mr. Lynch. In your judgment, what were the salient findings of 
those evaluations ? 

Mr. Nolan. Very good, sir. I will be happy to answer that. 

As you know, the Criminal Justice Educational Foundation that 
evaluated our program in 1970 had some very valid concerns and 
reconnnendations, and which have all been followed. 

Prof. Paul Mundy of the Loyola University undertook a study of 
the department, of which he commented on his phase I of the Illinois 
Enforcement Committee hearings in 1972, in which Professor Mundy 
stated that if this is how his taxes were spent, he wouldn't mind pay- 
ing taxes. This was a public statement made by Professor Mundy at 
this particular time. 

Professor Mundy is now in this second phase of his evaluation of our 
program. Also the Model Cities Administration is conducting their 
second-year evaluation. We have been evaluated, I should say, also 
by the Government Accounting Office, and I must say in all respect, 
with the recommendations, and that is the first year growth that every- 
one has. in such things as squad leadership, such things as sufficient 
quarters, such things as community response. 

We have found the evaluations — and we have copies here to be passed 
out if you would care to look at them — ^the evaluations have been ex- 
tremely favorable to a program of this nature. Naturally, no program 
can rest on laurels of last year, but we are very happy to say this 
I)rogram is continually evaluating itself. 

The superintendent requires this on a monthly basis and we cer- 
tainly attempt to direct it toward positive goals and accept recommen- 
dations as we are able to handle them. The only recommendation that 
was handed to us that we were not able to handle was to place aides 
in squad cars. We felt because aides do not have arrest powers, because 
the aides do not carry weapons, that placing them in squad cars in the 
target areas in which they live and work would be too much of a 
danger that we would not want to subject them to at that particular 
time. 

So they have not ridden in squad cars in the community in which 
they are assigned. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Superintendent, why is the police department so 
secretive about releasing reports? I made a request for the report of 
the International Association of Police Chiefs when they made their 
study. And our Library of Congress informs us that the only way we 
can get that report is for Superintendent A. P. Conlisk, Jr., to release 
it. He has refused to release it to the Library of Congress and there- 



286 

fore it has not been made to me, as the Congressman, and especially 
my district in Chicago. 

Why it is we cannot get that report ? 

Mr. Nolan. I am not aware of that, Congressman, but it would ap- 
pear to me, just talking off the top of my head at this particular time, 
that if a Congressman of the United States requests a report I am 
sure the superintendent of police, if this is a matter that has been 
brought to his attention, would certainly have answered at this par- 
ticular time. I imagine it has been some time. The report is 2 years old. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Normal channels is to go to the Library of Congress, 
because they are our source for information and they, in turn, will ask 
it and I am sure they asked for it in my name and indicated I was 
desirous of getting that report. 

Mr. Nolan. Could I take the liberty of following that up and get- 
ting back to you ? 

Mr. Metcalfe. I would appreciate it if you would do so. 

Mr. Nolan. I will take the liberty of following up. 

Mr, Lynch. Mr. Superintendent, it is your judgment that in a gen- 
eral sense all of these separate evaluations of this program — and they 
were field evaluations, I take it — were generally positive in nature? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes ; they were, sir, 

Mr. Lynch. I would like to read to you the introductory paragraph 
from one of the evaluations. It says : 

For the better part of the summer 

and this is referring to the summer of 1970 

The Criminal Justice Education Foundation with the assistance of the firm of 
Ernst & Ernst has been engaged in evaluating the Chicago Police Department's 
Police Community Service Aide Project. The summer has been a violent one. 
During the months of June, July, and August 105 murders have occurred within 
those police districts within which the community service aide project is op- 
erating. During the same months, five Chicago police officers were murdered, 
two of them in districts within which the project is operating. 

Your testimony is that subsequently, perhaps due to this program, 
the level of homicides in those districts dropped by almost 50 percent. 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes; 73 to 36. And I say this in this respect, sir: Our 
figures naturally are taken from the police reports. I cannot say, 
realistically, that every reduction in murder was due to an aide being 
part of that prevention of a crime. But I say through the statistical re- 
ports of the Chicago Police Department, m those particular areas — 
and I am talking about beat numbers of district— in which the com- 
munity service aide project operates there was this type of a reduction 
in a 6-month period from September 1971 until February of 1972, 

Mr, Lynch. Was the same reduction level, for instance a 50-percent 
reduction in homicide from 73, 1 think you said, down to 36, apparent 
in those police districts in which this program was not operatmg, or 
do you know? 

Mr. Nolan, We did not take a run of that type of statistics; no, 
we did not. 

Mr. Lynch. So there can be no question of prejudice, I suppose 
that the record ought to show I served as project director for one of 
these evaluations and had the pleasure of dealing with Superintendent 
Nolan. 



I 



287 

Superintendent, I wonder at this time if you could ask Lieutenant 
Rottman to describe to the members of the committee what function 
he serves in the department, what service center he conimanded. And 
I think we would all be interested in hearing some of his new experi- 
ences as a community service aide unit commander after a long period 
of service as a regular Chicago policeman involved in street-level 
enforcement. 

Mr. Nolan. I would be happy to. 

I would first like to say with respect to Lieutenant Rottman and 
also Sergeant Chamberlin, as you know, this is a departure from 
normal police procedure. A man working in this particular type 
function has to have desire and attitude. All of the 71 sworn person- 
nel who came into this program volunteered. I am happy to say this 
gentleman that will now testify was on furlough at the time of the 
selection, and on the very last day, came to work, heard about it, read 
up on what the requirements were, applied, and was accepted almost 
outright. 

Lt. Herbert Rottman. 

Mr. Lynch. Before you speak, Lieutenant Rottman, I would like 
to tell the committee that the last time I saw you you were showing 
me a shotgun blast through the front door of your center and took me 
upstairs to show me where a molotov cocktail had been thrown the 
night before. 

Statement of Herbert R. Rottman 

Mr. Rottman. That is true. 

Mr. Chairman, gentlemen, as the deputy mentioned, I came into 
the program at its very inception. I serve as the commanding officer 
of the center in the Lawndale District of Chicago. It is the Fillmore 
Police District, Lawndale Section. 

I am located — you Congressmen have perhaps been in Chicago — at 
Harrison and Sacramento. 

Mr. Lynch mentioned the fact he made a visit to our center and, 
unfortunately, the previous night or two nights to that, I had had an 
attack upon the center. Presumably it was a gang we were in disfavor 
with. But to prove a point, discussing the effectiveness of our program, 
I think it was brought home so dramatically at this time. 

I had conversation with residents who lived directly across the street 
from the center. I am in a two-story brick structure. It was formerly 
operated by a wire company. On the second floor level are offices and 
here we conduct our class rooms, our inservice training. This is where 
we hold our inspections and this is where we operate from. 

The first floor level was formerly used for storage and it is similar 
to a huge garage. The first floor level is now used mainly for the 
youngsters in the neighborhood who come in very frequently after 
school, but I don't want to digress. 

Getting back to Mr. Lynoh's visit. As I say, we had been attacked 
the night before and presumably it was a gang whom we weren't in too 
good favor with and they threw a few Molotov cocktails against the 
side of the building and one in my office. 

But, talking about the effectiveness of our program, I had people 
across the street come in to me personally, saying: "We see what is 



288 

going on over here. A group of boys came over and started to throw 
these gasoline containers against the building." 

But the surprising thing, gentlemen, around the corner came an- 
other group of kids and they drove them off. They protected our little 
center. It made me feel real good, the feeling that the residents wanted 
us, they needed us, and they protected our little property. They, in 
turn, are taking advantage of our center. 

Getting back to the many things we do, I want to emphasize the 
things that identify. We always do it in a team control concept, be it 
visiting shut-ins, be it a door-to-door canvass to identify children who 
may be victims of lead poisoning, sanitation irregularities, or lights out. 

We are open until 8 o'clock in the evening; the late evening hours 
the aides are out identifying reports on alley lights out or stredt lights 
out. It is always with the team patrol concept. 

We have uniforms like this young lady is wearing, green uniform 
identifying her as a member of the police department, always accom- 
panied by an officer. 

I wear my uniform very proudly to work every day. I don't say it 
as a cliche. I did. The sergeant here would appear in uniform. Also, we 
are performing functions that maybe you wouldn't generally consider 
a police officer should be performing. It was of necessity we did some 
of these things, because there was no other agency to fill the void. 

So, while we were out on surveys we were also out in a patrol concept 
and we were, I feel, preventing an incidence of crime by our presence 
on the street. 

Mr. Lynch. Lieutenant, I wonder if I could interrupt to ask you if 
you would tell the committee the service the organization performed in 
reference to abandoned automobiles, and explain for those who are 
not aware of the size of that problem in Chicago how bad it is, and 
why abandoned autos can constitute a threat to the safety of people. 

Mr. RoTTMAN. Surely. The number of cars abandoned on the streets 
of Chicago is horrendous. People abandon them for various reasons ; 
perhaps mechanically it just doesn't run any more and they can't af- 
ford to have it fixed; they can't afford the license, things of this na- 
ture; and they let them sit on the street. They park them and there 
they are. They can create a real hazard. 

No. 1, children are attracted to them; No. 2, they are a means of 
people, derelicts, sleeping in the car. After weeks they become rat in- 
fested. I think they contribute, I know they contribute, to the dete- 
rioration of the neighborhood. 

The responsibility of the aides when they went out on this patrol 
was to identify these cars, to report on them, to prepare little reports 
that were forwarded to the Fillmore district police who have "aban- 
doned" officers working in this capacity to see the cars are eventually 
towed. 

We would set up the mechanism and forward the reports to them. 
Normally this report is done by beat cops, police officers, so by 
relieving them of this responsibility, we would take the time — "we" 
meaning the aides — to identify these cars and prepare the reports and 
allow the beat officer on that particular beat more time to concentrate 
on the serious crimes. 

Then subsequently, the cars would be towed and we have a f ollowup 
program. They go back the next number of days to see that this work 
was being done. And if it wasn't, we would have another report we 



289 

would prepare or would call the district commander, personally — and 
we had a very good cooperation between the districts — and would 
bring it to his attention and the car would be towed. 

Mr. Lynch. You worked directly with the mayor's office of infor- 
mation and inquiry. Explain how that operates. 

Mr. RoTTMAX. Yes, sir. Right down the street from the center. 
These reports we prepare, regulatory reports, will be forwarded to 
the mayor's office and then they, in turn, would direct them to those 
agencies that have the responsibility to correct the conditions that 
we were reporting on : Broken sidewalks, abandoned cars, street lights 
out, sanitation, dangerous porches, refrigerators abandoned, and 
things of this nature. 

Mr. Lynch. Lieutenant, I wonder if you could describe the racial 
makeup of your aides and tell us how many aides were under your 
command while you still had your service operating. 

Mr. RoTTMAN. I had 39 aides, 5 patrolmen, 3 sergeants, and myself, 
operating that little center. About 60 percent were female and 40 
percent male. Toward the end of the program we were trying to cor- 
rect it and bring it up to a 50-50-percent level. 

Mr. Lynch. Is the neighborhood you were operating in predomi- 
nantly black? 

Mr. RoTTMAN. All black. 

Mr. Lynch. Were the aides predominantly black? 

Mr. RoTTMAN. All black. 

Mr. Lynch. How were they selected? 

Mr. RoTTMAN. Well, as the deputy mentioned, there was no criteria 
other than residence criteria. We are obliged to live in the target area. 

Mr. Lynch. What was the age range? 

Mr. RoTTMAN. From 18, roughly, to 35. They made some exceptions 
on the end of the 35. I know, in my instance I had a grandmother in 
my program who, I would say, would be close to 50 years of age ; very 
effective, though; very effective. This woman had an understanding 
and compassion that we needed, desperately needed. 

Mr. Lynch. The fact that there was no entrance examination, was, 
T take it, intentional, and the motive was to pick people who could 
communicate and who could understand the neighborhood in which 
they lived ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yet, it is. 

The major factor, as stated, the only criterion being, to be a resident 
of the neighborhood. We were seeking individuals, again, as I say, 
no matter if they had a nice background or police record. In this 
respect we had young men who had been involved in stealing cars and 
purse snatching ; a young woman who had been involved as a prosti- 
tute or arrested for shoplifting. 

It was our feeling these individuals deserved a second, and in many 
instances, a third chance. 

Back to our employment criteria: Residency, as we mentioned 
earlier, is tlie prominent one. Police record, if one has had problems 
with the police, we believe the second and third chance is necessary. 
There is a written examination given. The written examination has 
no effect whatsoever on the person being employed. It just gives to us 
a better idea of the need for an educational concentration. 



290 

The other criteria relating to height, weight, or anything else, is 
completely ignored. We tried to select people who want to get involved 
in work. 

We found many of your young ladies and men also, who had been on 
welfare, were very receptive to applying and reapplying and almost 
demanding we hire them. As Lieutenant Rottman has stated, we 
found we nad to relinquish the 17 to 33 age limit on men and 18 to 
35 age limit on women simply because wiere were these kinds of 
people that had the talent and desire and wanted to get into the 
program. We decided to use a few and scatter them around and see 
how well they would do and we found out they turned out to be some 
of our better workers. 

Mr. Lynch. Could you have Sergeant Chamberlin describe his 
service ? 

Mr. Nolan. We would be happy to. 

Sergeant Chamberlin, by your wishes, Mr, Chairman, has brought 
along a few slides. Unfortunately, they relate to his particular center. 
If the committee would care to review them, they would take but a 
few minutes. 

Mr, Rangel, Before we get into the slides, I was interested, Mr, 
Superintendent, in the fact that you seemed rather impressed with the 
type of aides that you have been able to recruit to work in this very 
exciting program. And yet earlier in your testimony you had indicated 
that many of them were precluded from joining the police department 
because of a civil service examination. 

My question is : Is this examination administered by the city or by 
the State? 

Mr, Nolan. It is administered by the city of Chicago, the civil 
service commission, a separate agency from the police department. 

Mr. Rangel. From reading the activities of the aides and listening 
to your testimony, I assume that after months or years of this type of 
experience, that these aides — that is those without criminal re-cords — 
have gained quite an expertise in many facets of police work. 

Mr, Nolan. Yes, they have, sir ; and many have also gone on to law 
enforcement activities other than the Chicago i)olice. One of the deter- 
rent factors has been, Mr. Congressman, the height and weight re- 
quirements of the civil service commission, and also the test Congress- 
man Metcalfe spoke of has been a deterring factor. It is a very rigid 
type test and, unfortunately, it has been a deterring factor for those 
aides who have met the height and weight requirement, even with the 
tutoring we have been able to give some of them in our particular 
classes. 

Here again, we find our civil service commission is not unique in this 
area. This is something that is done throughout the country. All police 
departments, and I think there is possibly something that is being 
tested now in court — and that is civil ser\'ice exams throughout the 
Nation. It is felt, due to the current level of young people that we 
have, those of them that are interested in law enforcement, there is 
going to have to be a need to look hard at civil service tests through- 
out the Nation. 

Mr. Rangel. I agree with you, Mr, Superintendent. I think this is 
especially true of the Spanish, who do have less than the average 
height requirement, but I am rather surprised that there is a difference 



291 

between the height and weight requirements as opposed to your age. 
Could you elaborate on that, because we have rather rigid physical 
requirements in New York, but our youngsters certainly can outrun 
many of the people that are on the police department. 

Mr. XoLAN. I am not surprised. Some of us in the department have 
a tendency to lose our physical condition immediately afterward. 

But in 1966, the Chicago Police Department at that time saw fit to 
lower the height requirement from 5-foot 9 inches to 5-foot 8 inches. 
And in 1966, because of our Latin citizens, it was necessary to lower 
those requirements to 5-foot 7 inches. 

In my communication with Puerto Rico it was determined that that 
is also the requirement for police personnel there; namely, 5-foot 7 
inches. So that is the height requirement as it stands now, and weight 
is in comparison to one's height. 

We recognize this problem could be further advanced as far as 
bringing women into the program. Again, along your line of thought 
it is found a woman 5-foot 2 inches is considered eligible for the police 
department and will soon be assigned to the same type job — almost 
same type job — as policemen are now handling. 

So the question I am sure will come about: Why isn't this true for 
men also ? 

We visualize many types of problems of this nature coming up. But 
again, I say these are the rigid requirements of our civil service com- 
mission and until they are changed by law, we have to obey them. 

Mr. Rangel. Am I to believe the physical requirements are the 
greatest impediment to men getting on the police force, other than the 
written examination ? 

Mr. NoLAX. Those are all components. Each has a weight value. 
The written test has a weight value, and the height. The physical re- 
quirements have another weight value and unless a man is able to bal- 
ance all of those into a passing grade, then he is summarily dismissed 
or unable to pass the exam. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Would you yield ? I think it ought to be also pointed 
out, in the written examination there is no designation as to race, 
wherein in the physical examination it is obvious what a person's race 
maye be, and that may be a deterrent factor in having a minority. 

Mr. Rangel. The direction of my question was whether or not the 
civil service commission might consider the experiments that the aides 
meet other requirements — other than the written requirements — might 
consider that a factor without violating the high standards of the 
municipal civil service in determining qualifications. 

Mr. Nolan. We have attempted in the past, sir, to ascertain if points 
of any type could be given to an aide taking a civil service exam. This 
was not considered for the very obvious reason it was not included in 
any of the civil service rulings, except a man or woman being a veteran 
of the service. Other than that, no points could be given. 

We were able to insert points in a civil service exam for aides who 
were brought into a new position opened by the Chicago Police Depart- 
ment, superintendent of police, of January 1, 1973, and that was 
senior public service aides. 

Now, of the 200 people who took that examination of which many 
were our conmiimity service aides, not only because of the points, we 
feel, but also because of their own aptitudes, out of the first 100, only 



292 

8 were not community service aides. All of the balance were community 
service aides. In fact, the first 40 that were called were all community 
service aides. 

Mr. Rangel. Do you have a Chicago police union or benevolent as- 
sociation ; that type of thing ? 

Mr. Nolan. We have many in our city ; yes, we do. We have a pa- 
trolmen's association, which amounts to five different ones, each rank 
has its own association : the lieutenants, the captains, and the sergeant-s. 

Mr. Rangel. What was their general attitude toward these proposals 
to incorporate aides into the police department? 

Mr. Nolan. They were not surveyed as to this. None of our police 
associations Avere surveyed. I think I misinterpreted your question. I 
think your question might have been, if I understand it correctly now, 
do we have in our city one union that speaks for the police department ? 

Mr. Rangel. No, sir. My experience is that our Police Benevolent 
Association, which is the major police association, really fights des- 
perately hard, political, to exclude any breakthroughs for minorities 
in joining the police department, even if it is a new category or new 
grade level being set up. I was concerned about the attitudes of the 
police unions in Chicago. 

Mr. Nolan. No ; we have one of our police associations that actually 
conducts classes to bring minority groups in. In fact, we have two. 
One is Latin American and the other is a black association. And Guard- 
ians — three associations — also conduct classes and recruit young men, 
minority groups, to teach them how to take the exam and come into 
the department. 

Mr. Rangel. Is there a residence requirement to become a regular 
member of the Chicago police force ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, there is. That has been changed on the last exam 
of December 4, 1971. Now a person must be at the time of the examina- 
tion a resident of the city. Previous to that it was within 6 months 
move into the city, if one was called into the service. But now one has 
to be a resident prior to taking the examination. 

Mr. Rangel. I am shocked by the progressive nature of police de- 
partments in Chicago compared to my home city of New York. Thank 
you. 

Mr. Nolan. I understand in some cities, for instance Washington, a 
man can live within x number of minutes away from his assignment, a 
suburban area or elsewhere, but due to the nature of large numbers 
of people, we have 33 percent black. We have a great many Latin 
citizens in our city and we felt it would be unfair to them to open the 
examination up to those who were not city residents. 

Mr. Murphy. Superintendent, are a lot of young people applying 
for a job as a policeman today? Is it a very competitive field? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, it is. The last exam I spoke of, December 4, 1971, we 
had 13,000 men on the job. The examinations that were received by the 
Civil Service Commission totaled in excess of 9,000 ; 8,300 men showed 
for the examination itself. Only 35 percent or 3,500 passed that ex- 
amination. So we have a tremendous amount of people that do apply. 

We have an excess amount of men that liave passed the exam. In 
fact, we are trying to pull an additional 500 into this particular posi- 
tion of patrolmen prior to June 30, 1973, because of the need. 

Mr. Murphy. What is the starting salary of patrolmen ? 



293 

Mr. Nolan. In excess of $10,000. And at the end of 4 years his salary 
increases to $14,000— $13,800. 

Mr. Murphy. In other words there is a lot of competitiveness for 

these jobs? 

Mr. Nolan. There is. It is a salary that is in comparison to the aver- 
age kind of salary. We reco^rnize, too, education plays a very big part, 
althoiigli a college degree does not enter into the picture of a man ap- 
plying^to the department. We recognize also in today's fair employ- 
ment practices that many industries and businesses also are searching 
for that minority citizen. We see him being pulled into other areas 
othei- than law enforcement. Naturally, we applaud that. 

Mr. Murphy. I yield to Congressman Metcalfe. 

Mr. ]\Ietcalfe. Superintendent, is it not true that the Chicago police 
patrolmen are the second highest paid in the United States? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes ; they are, sir. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Isn't it also true, now that they are the second high- 
est paid there are more whites who are now applying because the job 
is more appealing to them, and if the discriminatory practices were 
eliminated there would be far more blacks with the police department? 

Mr. Nolan. I would agree at this time only with the first part. 

Mr. Metcalfe. In the last three or four examinations for patrolmen, 
you have had an unusually large number of white applicants, have 
you not? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, because of the salary. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Thank you for yielding. 

Mr. Murphy. I have no more questions. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Mr. Chairman, may I ask Lieutenant Rottman some 
questions ? 

Chairman Pepper. Yes. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Lieutenant Rottman, I think you indicated that you 
have 39 aides, do you not ? 

Mr. Rottman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Metcalfe. And five sergeants ? 

Mr. Rottman. Three sergents, five patrolmen. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Five patrolmen? 

Mr. Rottman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Is each patrolman assigned a certain amount of aides? 

Mr. Rottman. Yes, sir; we have a regidar organizational chart. Our 
little center makes up a company, and the company is broken down 
into platoons, and platoons into squads. The platoon is commanded by 
a sergeant and the squads are headed by patrolmen. They have 8 or 10 
aides under their direction in the squad formation. 

Mr. Metcalfe. In hearing Superintendent Nolan's testimony, he 
took credit for the reduction of crime to some degree, but did not 
take full credit for it, and yet I find that much of your work is, as your 
title indicates, in community services. 

Lead poisoning, you indicated you conduct surveys, you work in 
sanitation, stolen automobiles. How much does that leave for actually 
the deterrent of crime ? 

Mr. Rottman. Their primary' requisite when they leave that center 
is crime. 

Mr. Metcalfe. How does sanitation relate itself to crime ? 



294 

Mr. RoTTMAN. In order to report on sanitation, they must be out and 
they are visible in the neighborhood. They do wear a uniform; they 
are accompanied by a police officer. So, sanitation would actually, in a 
crime incidence, be secondary, naturally, to reporting on a sanitation 
delinquency. 

Mr. Metcalfe. It is the same with making surveys on the poisoning? 

Mr. RoTTMAN. That is right. They are available to the people in the 
area. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Isn't that a duplication of effort? In the case of 
your CCO's in Chicago, your urban progress centei'S send out teams 
ito check on lead poisoning. Aren't you duplicating that effort? 

Mr. RoTTMAN. This is the amazing part. We have an urban progress 
center a few blocks from our center that actually does the lead poison- 
ing testing, but it is surprising how many of the families — firet of all, 
they are not aware of it for some reason. They do not comprehend all 
of the services that are available for them. 

Mr. Metcalfe. I submit to you this is one of their major projects, 
to send out their aides from these centers to do a door-to-door survey. 
It seems to me it is a duplication of effort that they are going to do. 
Maybe you are saying they are not doing the job if you have to come 
behind them and find these families to educate them on the serious 
effects of lead poisoning. 

Mr. Nolan. I would make the apology, Mr. Congressman, if the im- 
pression was given that our function alone is that of a contributing 
factor to the reduction of a degree of crime. As Lieutenant Rottman 
stated, certainly we recognize in all of the communities, confusion, 
attitudinal change, the acceptance of police responsibility, as that 
agency is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week when one needs 
service, this is the agency that they call. 

If it is something that is of a nonpolice nature and we find that it is 
necessary, we address ourselves to it. We do work in conjunction with 
the agencies you spoke of. Naturally, because there is expertise, we 
find it necessary that working with them helps our job as well as it 
helps ourselves. 

As being said by Lieutenant Rottman and myself, we feel that by 
providing service, or showing people how they can give service, it 
would take away the opportunity to rise up in frustration, to allow 
themselves to get just in a state of frustration about what goes on in 
the.community. 

One of the most disturbing factors I think we find among our low 
socioeconomic groups in our country is that there is no opportunity 
to make change and if people can get involved in ways of making 
change, such as a child being sick and where to take it; how to avoid 
the lead poisoning. We recognize in the black community that sickle 
cell anemia is one of the most disruptive types of diseases that occurs 
in our race, that these young people — as part of their duties — can 
direct families, even force families to submit their children to this 
type of examination in conjunction with the Chicago Health Depart- 
ment. 

We feel this service, although it is far removed from normal police 
procedure, is something that is a contributing factor to that commu- 
nity's welfare. 



295 

Mr. Metcalfe. I would like to ask Lieutenant Kottman a question 
and then I want to ask Mrs. Annette Jungheim a question along the 
same lines. 

You are a supervisor by virtue of your rank, so is Sergeant Chamber- 
lin. Would you give me a typical day for a patrolman. What does the 
patrolman do on a typical day ? I would like to know from you what 
does an aide do after he finishes. 

Mr. RoTTMAN. Working hours, we have two watches — a second 
watch and third watch. The first watch works from eight in the 
morning until 4 in the afternoon. The aide comes into our center, 
they sign in. They are required to sign in. Then we have roUcall. 
And it is conducted either by a sergeant, by a patrolman, or both. 
Generally, the patrolman is Involved with his sergeant in making 
his rollcall. 

We discuss matters pertinent to the neighborhood; we distribute 
daily bulletins — bulletins published by the police department — con- 
taining lists of stolen automobiles, licenses, persons wanted. The 
patrolman conducting this rollcall would refer to anything in this 
daily bulletin that may have occurred in our particular target area — 
perhaps persons wanted, missing persons primarily. We are very con- 
cerned about this, plus bringing to the aides' attention the fact that 
there are a number of licenses now published. "Please when you are out 
on the street, carry this daily bulletin and be aware of it." 

We have uniform inspection conducted by the sergeant in con- 
junction with the patrolman. We have inservice training of mostly a 
half hour — 45 minutes in the morning. A majority of our mornings 
are kind of rush because we are out on school patrol. The patrolman 
in the squad patrols our local schools because we have quite an 
incidence of older children attacking the younger children. 

The aides, their work responsibility in the morning is our school 
patrols. In fact, in conjunction with some of the directors of the 
different schools we have set up safe school routes where the children 
are advised to "Take this route; it will be controlled by community 
service aides along with this patrolman." The patrolman has a re- 
sponsibility of the activities of the aides on the street. He directs 
them; he guides them; and he is with them. 

The school patrol — we are there in the capacity, our attitude was 
and is: here we are; how can we help you? I repeat again, that is 
so important. The officers in uniform, the aides in uniform. 

Mr. Metcalfe. How do you coordinate that activity of patrolling 
a school along the safe routes, telling them how to avoid the turfs 
controlled by the street gangs, as related to the work of the youth 
division of the police department ? 

Mr. RoTTMAN. First of all, when the safety routes are designed, 
or are identified, then the children in an assembly are advised to 
take these particular routes. We also work very closely with local 
district youth officer and he is advised of these routes. These are 
identified to him, and all three of the schools in my area have an 
officer or school patrol officer right in the school; he stays in the 
school proper. 

We also keep in contact with the regular school patrols. We have 
X number of vehicles throughout the city manned by police officers 
who do emphasize their attention to the school areas. And we work, 



P 



95-158 O — 73 — pt. 1 20 



296 

all three are working in conjunction with each other regarding the 
safety of the kids, not only in the morning hours, but at noon recess. 

Recently we had what we called "closed campuses," they haven't 
been going home ; they find it better to keep the kids at school. Also 
in the evening, in the afternoon when the children leave the schools, 
the aides are there out on patrol. 

Mr. Metcalfe. That is a typical day for you ? 

Mr. RoTTMAN. Yes, sir. Then when they finish their school patrol 
they are assigned to beat areas. They carry a regular beat map that 
the officers in the district carry. They are assigned to particular areas. 
We may concentrate one day on one particular irregularity — "Let's 
be very observant for thefts." 

We may change from day to day, whatever they are emphasizing, 
they are looking for. But it is a case of walk and talk to the people 
in the area. 

Mr. Metcalfe. How many vehicles do you have in an area ? 

Mr. Rottman. I have two station wagons assigned to my center. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Mrs. Jungheim, would you tell me what a typical 
day is for an aide ? 

Statement of Annettee K. Jungheim 

Mrs. Jungheim. First of all, I would like to talk with regard to 
lead testing in our program. 

In our program, while you may say it was a duplicate of what 
community reps did, we used to view our job as kind of a duplica- 
tion, but we realized that if we worked together we would do more. 
So last year our program in Chicago was brought to Washington 
at the Mayor's Conference on Lead Testing and Poisoning and it is 
going to be used as a model throughout the Nation because we were 
highly successful. 

This was coordination of community service aides, community reps, 
mayor's office and I. I worked very closely with that program, coor- 
dinating it uptown and then to the Lakeview area. 

So I say, while we do duplicate it, we really extend the effort. The 
previous summer we had 250, last year 1,500. 

Mr. Metcalfe. May I interrupt your testimony to ask you: Are 
you in a supervisory capacity ? 

Mrs. Jungheim. No, sir. 

Mr. Metcalfe. You are a typical aide out in the community working ? 

Mrs. Jungheim. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Metcalfe. What else do you do ? 

Mrs. Jungheim. We have our school patrol like the lieutenant 
mentioned. Not only are we on the street to make our presence known, 
to guide the children, see they get home safely, we kind of like to 
rap with kids, see what kinds of problems they have. We organize 
trips, organize activities, realizing there is a lot of idle time. We 
organize the movie programs because the kids in our neighborhood 
don't have the money to go to the local shows and it gives them 
something to do. 

We talk to residents, let them know what is available. Part of the 
problem, the uptown has like 110 social service agencies. It was to get 
this inforaiation out to community residents, how best to use these 



297 

social service agencies available. So wc would pass out fliers informing 
the people what was available. 

I must have attended something like 200 workshops in people's 
homes and senior citizens' homes, telling them about our program, 
about the services the police department provides, how best to use 
these services, how to report crime efficiently, properly, who to call. 
There is a lot of misinformation about crime or how policemen do 
things. 

So we try to do this, in addition to being on the street and getting 
to know commimity residents. You had the cop on the corner; now 
you have the aide on the beat. And this is some of the things I have 
been involved in. 

I think Wayne has been involved in other sorts of things. I orga- 
nized a lot of programs. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Before we go to Mr. Crosby, you pointed out how to 
report crime. Have you had any success in actually reporting crime in 
the community ? 

Mrs. JuNGHEiM. Yes, sir; I think we increased the reporting of 
crime. Maybe they won't call the police sometimes, but they will walk 
into the center and say, "Hey, you know, something is going on on the 
corner,"' or "Yesterday I had my purse snatched. I would like to re- 
port it." So then we make the call. We have the beat car come and the 
report is made. 

Mr. Metcalfe. From my experience it has been just the opposite, 
that people are very reluctant to report crime. I imagine it is because 
they fear the criminal, they fear being intimidated by the criminal, 
and they lack confidence in the police department. That is the reason 
1 asked you whether or not you had any success. 

I tried, and so did an organization I headed up. They met with 
absolutely no success, even with 6,000 members who signed up for the 
Third Ward Committee on Crime Prevention. People were not report- 
ing it because of their evaluation of the policemen and of not having 
any confidence in them. That is the reason I wanted to know what suc- 
cess you have had in getting people. 

I agree, and I think you will agree with me, that they see crime, all 
of us see crime committed in the inner city. And especially in the 
Model Cities areas, but they don't report it for those reasons. 

Mrs. Jungheim. I will say one thing, Mr. Metcalfe, and that is if 
we go out in one of our local meetings and explain to folks how to 
report crime and they do report it and they don't get the kind of 
service they expect they should get, they will let us know about it. 
And by living in that community I have people come to me at the 
grocery store, at the stoplight, and say, "Hey, you told me how to do 
something and it didn't work." 

So we do a followup and see what went wrong and bring this to the 
attention of our supervisor, lieutenant, or district commander and 
work toward improving police response to a call for service. 

Mr. NoLAX. I might add just for a moment to the question asked — 
I think it is a very important one — and that is with respect to con- 
fidence our citizens have in police. 

I recognize that in the area the Congressman is speaking of it is 
a difficult matter. It was a difficult matter for many reasons and that 
is the citizens have the feeling in many instances, police service will 



298 

not be granted. I think this is the kind of thing we are talking about 
in programs of this nature. The confidence of the citizen and the need 
of cooperating with the police, their participation in law enforcement 
for at least controlling crime, which we recognize is a very, very 
difficult matter. 

Crime prevention and crime control are easier said than done. 

But what I think is important is there are 422 aides scattered in 
the city of Chicago that has something like 3.5 million people and I 
know a good third of those people need all of the help that is possible. 
And the fact of calling the police and the police don't respond, our 
superintendent has set up many safeguards where there is an avenue 
of complaint that should be answered. 

We recognize we are never going to satisfy all of our citizens, but 
I think it is important, as Mrs. Jungheim stated, that where there 
have been failures, and I agree with the Congressman saying it has 
to be brought to the police attention immediately, something has to 
be done. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Superintendent, at one time the Concerned Citizens 
for Police Reform, of which I am a member, had some negotiations 
cut off by the superintendent at the request of the mayor. We had 
policemen who were instructed by the superintendent to get out of 
their squad cars 1 hour a day and walk the streets. I found that to 
be very effective, but what has happened to that program ? They are 
not doing it now. 

Mr. Nolan. Unfortunately, at that particular time we were using 
mostly one-man cars and we used it with the one exception of beat 
patrol and the use of the hand-held radio. Unfortimately, because of 
"an increase of crime it was taken for a short period of time. But 
as the Congressman is most likely aware, just 2 weeks ago we trans- 
ferred over 250 men out of traffic. These men are now assigned to beat 
cars, partly on the day, but especially the afternoon watch, 4 to 12 
and the first watch, 12 at night to 8 in the morning. 

All cars, especially in 95 percent of our beats, are now manned by a 
two-man system and part of these people's function, especially in the 
neighborhood and business area from 4 to 12, is to park the car, for 
one man to get out of the car, to stay within sight, if you will, of that 
particular beat car, but to patrol on foot. 

We agree without a doubt that the essence of the police concept of 
removing men from the post on the foot patrol has not been a good 
factor in our mobility of trying to cover all of the beats in our city. 
We recognize it is a must that people get back on the street. Many 
of the men who came out of traffic were placed in our Loop area. Loops 
throughout the Nation, or shall I say the downtown area of our Nation, 
have suffered for lack of police patrols. 

In the city of Chicago the superintendent has issued as of April 1, 
a department order that policemen would patrol on foot in the Loop 
area all hours of day and night. This is being done for the sole pur- 
pose of curtailing crime and giving all of our citizens a feeling of 
safety in that particular area. 

Mr. Metcalfe. It is also because of the vast billions of dollars that 
are vested in the downtown area and that is protection for the busi- 
nessman's interest, but not in the community where the crime exists. I 
submit to you that this program is not in effect now and I would like 
to be proven wrong. I know it was in effect and it was very effective, 



299 

but I submit to you it is not in effect. These two-man squad cars are 
not getting out of their car and walking the streets as they did for a 
short period of time right after we conducted our hearings in Chicago, 
and brought so much attention to the poor police community relation- 
ships that exist in Chicago. 

Mr. Nolan. Approximately 1 year ago, in our 19 police districts in 
the matter now bein^ addressed by the Congressman, a pilot project 
of a police officer usmg the hand-held radio, patroling a designated 
post, was utilized by the superintendent and found to be fairly success- 
ful. This same program was, should I say, put aside for a short period 
of time for lack of personnel. Now these new men we are speaking of 
have been hired. Now the cars have gone into the two-man concept. 

I am very sorry to hear that in the area that has been addressed to 
by the Congressman it has not occurred, but I would like to say we 
certainly would like to have an opportunity to have it brought to the 
Congressman's attention as quickly as possible, that this type of patrol 
system is in effect, hopefully in effect with the cooperation and support 
of business, and as he stated earlier, resident people to have a feeling 
of safety. 

It is important that policemen patrol the inner city. It is important 
that policemen get out of their cars in the inner city because this is 
wliere the problem lies. If the lady does not feel safe in going to the 
store at 6 o'clock in the evening that is just a block from her home, then 
our cities are in trouble, and this is the kind of condition we are to 
alleviate. 

Mr. Metcalfe. Mr. Chairman, I appreciate your indulgence. You 
have been more than kind, but there is one question I would like to ask 
of you. 

Was Superintendent James Conlisk, Jr., invited to come before this 
committee and testify ? 

Chairman Pepper. I am informed the superintendent was invited. 

Mr. Metcalfe. May I, at this particular time, enter into the record 
some questions I would have asked the superintendent? One is: As a 
result of the LPLVA study of the Chicago police, that it found out the 
Chicago civilian death rate in the hands of law enforcement officers 
was almost li/4 times the rate of Philadelphia ; more than three times 
the rate of New York, Los Angeles, Detroit; and 75 percent of the 
civilians killed by police officers in the Chicago area are predominately 
blacks. 

I would have asked him about the charges of police brutality and 
why there is a lessening of confidence on the j^art of the people, which 
goes to the heart of the question I asked Mrs. Jungheim a moment 
ago — because of the lack of confidence in them. 

I would have asked him whether or not the efficiency rating system, 
the disciplinai'v system, and appointment of specialized duties systems, 
have been changed to eliminate discrimination in the city departments. 

I would have asked him also how is it that within the police depart- 
ment — this is not civil service — they have psychological examinations, 
and why it is that the policemen who have been found to be psycho- 
logically unfit are passed in the examination and then are assigned to 
high crime areas, which is in the inner city, during their first tour of 
duty, rather than to have them eliminated when it has been proven 
they are sadists or they are racists or they are inclined to be. 



300 

I would have asked him those questions, because my information 
comes from a former member of the police department. He was a civil- 
ian, Mr. Mendelson, who is a psychologist, and who made these exami- 
nations, gave his report to the police department, and still they hired 
them. 

And this has been a cause of it. 

I would have also pointed out to him that as a result of being a mem- 
ber of a commission that was appointed by Mayor Daley, known as the 
Austin Commission, which I sat on, it was found out that the basic 
cause of the riots on the West Side following the assassination of Dr. 
Martin Luther King came as a result of the pent-up feelings that people 
had in that particular community against the police. 

I would have pointed out to him that the other riot they had, again 
where a woman was killed by the lamp post that was knocked down 
by a firetruck, was the result of the pent-up feeling. And I say that 
you are working at a distinct disadvantage when you have to work 
under that cloud of a condition where the people if they do make a 
report they then become the defendant in the case and therefore you 
have not had many people to come forward. 

Those would have been some of the questions I would have asked 
the superintendent; but I do not ask the deputy superintendent, be- 
cause he is not in authority to make that determination. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. Nolan. I would like to make one exception here. The superin- 
tendent of police has been sick since the first of the week and that is one 
of the reasons why his presence is not here today, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. We will move along. We are running a little be- 
hind in our time schedule. 

Mr. Lynch, do you have other questions ? 

Mr. Lynch. Yes, I think it is important to point out that the police 
officers and the aides who are here with us today are involved in a 
program which is certainly attempting to alleviate some of the condi- 
tions which Congressman Metcalfe has discussed.  

I would like to clarify one point, getting back to the community 
service aides program. Is it not the case. Superintendent, that when 
aides perform street level duties involving school patrols, lead poison- 
ing surveys, abandoned auto surveys, housing code violations, and the 
like, that they are at the same time performing a very conspicuous 
patrol or quasi-patrol function ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, they are. Their mere uniform's presence being a 
deterring factor. As we all know, it is difficult to identify and to make 
statistics on what effect a patrolman in a squad car would have on the 
prevention of crime. And the same thing goes with an aide. 

I think it is fair and I think it certainly can be documented at this 
particular time, and we relate to you some of the incidents where these 
aides have assisted in the arrest or causing the arrest of individuals 
committing crimes. 

Mr. Lynch. I wonder if we might do that a few minutes later. Would 
it be fair to say, that while this may duplicate work other agencies are 
doing, it is work in which they are making police contacts with the 
citizens and pointing out that the police department provides services 
and help ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes. Very much so, Mr. Counselor. 



301 

Mr. Lynch. I wonder if you could now ask Mr. Chamberlin if he 
would be kind enough to show the committee the slides about the 
program. 

Mr. Sandman. Before you get into that may I ask the superintend- 
ent another question. 

I read over your objectives and I think they are good. The thing 
that concerns me a little bit here is that although almost all of your 
activity is directed to the streets, mainly young people, I don't see 
anything here — you may have covered this during my absence and if 
you have, I apologize — with what happens on the school grounds. 

This committee liad hearings around the country and we found that 
especially in the cities the drug trafficker was safer in a schoolyard 
than he was outside the schoolyard. And I am wondering why in your 
discussion of what you do there isn't more activity here on the super- 
vision within the school grounds. Has there been any activity in that 
line? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, there has. First, I would like to say that within the 
school ground itself, within the building, it is necessary for us to ob- 
tain permission. As Congressman Metcalfe stated we do have in our 
school grounds school patrol officers that work out of the youth divi- 
sion. We also have school visitation officers whose main job is to bring 
to the students within the school those concepts of things such as nar- 
cotics and drugs ; what the law is ; what their responsibility is. 

But as far as the aides themselves are concerned, we have found it 
necessary to go into the schools at the elementary level, at the sixth 
grade level, to give instructions, with the permission of the board of 
education, as to the evils of narcotics. This is done, not necessarily in 
all of its entirety by the aides themselves, in conjunction with another 
factor of this bureau, and that is the neighborhood relations sergeant 
and the school visitation officer. 

Charts are made up, examples of drugs that are not real, examples 
of drugs shown to young people in these grades. We felt they might 
have been too yoimg at one time, but through the board of education's 
decision we were allowed to come into the schools to start this. 

We recognized in too many instances the drug problem begins at 
that young level, especially the high school. 

Mr. Lynch. Superintendent, could you tell the Congressman 
whether or not aides, in their 455-hour training program, are given 
any training in drug addiction problems ? 

Mr. Nolan. PreserAdce and inservice ; yes, they are. 

Mr. Sandman. In our hearings we had in New York we were told 
stories that you just couldn't possibly believe, but they were true, 
about the trafficking. It was safer to pass any kind of drug inside the 
yard than it was outside the yard. 

We brought in the school board and we asked them what activities 
they were conducting to try to curtail this and they pointblank took 
the position that theirs was an obligation that pertained to the train- 
ing of the students and theirs was not an obligation pertaining to the 
enforcement of the law within the school. 

Have you run into that kind of difficulty? 

Mr. Nolan. On the first of April, the department issued a new 
organizational chart — and this is another reason why the superin- 
tendent isn't here — called bureau of investigative services. Within 
that bureau there is called a game crime unit whose specific responsi- 



302 

bilities will rely on young people, especially those around the school- 
yard peddling drugs. I am sorry, I was not aware the questioning 
would have gone into this area or I could have brought some of this 
premature evidence of their success in trying to stop drug traffic. 

This is one of the greatest problems that faces our Nation. The 
school systems do have a problem addressing themselves to that par- 
ticular point. 

Some citizens in our city, I don't know about other cities, took it 
upon themselves in June of 1971 to conduct classes for their own teach- 
ing staff to make them aware of the evils of drugs and how to detect 
the same being used in their classrooms. 

Mr. Sandman. Do you believe, Superintendent, that it is necessary 
to have police on the high school grounds in the big city area ? 

Mr. Nolan. I think in some of the schools in our city that it is not 
only necessary but it is almost compulsory we have police officers in 
some respect. I recognize this is not a good thing. I recognize this 
does not lend toward good education. But I think in order for the 
schools themselves to be conducted in an orderly fashion, law enforce- 
ment forces are there at auxiliary or assigned on a regular basis. 

I think it something some of our schools do need. 

Mr. Sandman. Do you have any kind of law in Chicago, or Illinois 
for that matter, that requires a schoolteacher, if she has reason to be- 
lieve the student has any kind of drugs or paraphernalia, must take 
it away? 

Mr. Nolan. In our school system we have a different system. The 
board of education provides auxiliary personnel who are off-duty 
policemen, hired by the board to work in the schools. They notify the 
office where the police officer is usually found and he immediately goes 
to the room and conducts whatever activity is necessary in this area. 

The schoolteachers themselves, we would prefer for them not to get 
involved unless of actual necessity. 

Mr. Murphy. Would the gentleman yield in that regard? 

The mayor and city council in Chicago passed an ordinance pro- 
hibiting loitering around grammar schools and high schools. Police 
intelligence indicated that cars driven by people obviously beyond the 
school age would attract clusters of kids for the purpose of selling pills 
and hard narcotics. That ordinance was struck down by the court as un- 
constitutional in that the city did not have the right to police the 
school grounds in that way. That was one of the handicaps we faced. 

Mr. Sandman. Out of curiosity, what court ? 

Mr. Murphy. The Federal court. 

Mr. Sandman. Under this system that you talk about in Chicago — 
let me give you this kind of hypothetical case : The schoolteacher has 
reasonable cause to believe a particular student has drugs in his desk 
drawer, his locker, or his jx>cket. As I understand what you say, she 
doesn^t have a responsibility to require him to give that to her, but she 
must notify someone in that school that does. Is that true? 

Mr. Noi^A.N. I think she has a responsibility, which all of us should 
undei-stand and follow, that when any activity of crime, believed to be 
crime, is within a person's scope that they should notify that person in 
authority, be it her opinion to notify the officer to get up there immedi- 
ately or to, if he has reasonable grounds to believe the individual has 



303 

contraband within his locker, within his desk, it would give the officer 
reason to believe this person should be searched, then this is done. 

Naturally, with the individual's rights in concern. 

Mr. Sandman. Under your law, does that individual, meaning the 
police or whoever it is who is called in, have the right to require the 
student to surrender the contraband ? 

Mr. Nolan. In our city, by State law, he does have that right. 

Mr. Sandman. Thank you. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Lynch, are you ready for the slides now ? 

Mr. Lynch. Yes, sir, I am. 

[At this point in the hearing slides were presented by Sgt. John 
Chamberlin.] 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Chairman, I wonder if I might proceed to ask Mr. 
Crosby several questions? 

Statement of Wayne Crosby 

Chairman Pepper. Yes, please do. 

Mr. Lynch. I wonder if you would t«ll us how long you have been 
a community ser\nce aide? 

Mr. Crosby. I have been a community service aide for almost 3 years. 

Mr. Lynch. How old are you ? 

Mr. Crosby. Twenty-four. 

Mr. Lynch. What kind of employment did you have prior to join- 
ing this program ? 

Mr, Crosby. I was a taxi driver. 

Mr. Lynch. Why did you join this program ? 

Mr. Crosby. Well, it gave me an opportunity to help out in the com- 
munity, plus further my education. 

Mr. Lynch. Further your education in what way ? 

Mr. Crosby. I was a dropout prior to coming into the program. 

Mr. Lynch. How has this program helped you in that regard ? 

Mr. Crosby. It has helped me obtain a G.E.D. diploma, plus college 
credits. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you attend classes at the program's expense? 

Mr. Crosby. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Lynch. And you are given time off for that ? 

Mr. Crosby. Well, as stated earlier, we are allowed 9 hours a week 
to attend school, G.E.D. training or college courses. 

Mr. Lynch. Is this a common thing among the aides? How many of 
your colleagues who are aides also attend school ? A large number ? 

Mr. Crosby. Yes. 

Mr. Lynch. Would you tell us what the normal course of a day's 
activities is — what do you do as a community ser\ace aide? 

Mr. Crosby. Well, I normally go out on foot patrol and school 
patrol, covering the schools, making sure that kids aren't harassed or 
abducted into abandoned buildings close by. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you regard yourself as performing at least quasi- 
law-enforcement functions? 

Mr. Crosby. Beg pardon ? 

Mr. Lynch. Do you perform law enforcement functions? 

Mr. Crosby. Well, no — yes, in a sense. 



304 

Mr. Lynch. In what sense ? 

Mr. Crosby. We write up violations to city ordinances. 

Mr. Lynch. On a typical day, how much time might you spend on 
actual foot patrol, walking through a neighborhood? 

Mr. Crosby. Seven hours. 

Mr. Lynch. And are other aides with you on that kind of patrol 
duty? 

Mr. Crosby. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Lynch. How many ? 

Mr. Crosby. Quite a few. There's about eight of us. 

Mr. Lynch. Are you accompanied by a regular Chicago policeman ? 

Mr. Crosby. Yes, we are. 

Mr. Lynch. How many ? 

Mr. Crosby. Well, one supervisor, and there is a sergeant up over 
him. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you attend community meetings with citizens in 
your community ? 

Mr. Crosby. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Lynch. What do you do at those meetings ? 

Mr. Crosby. We have various workshops such as you have seen in 
the film up there, but the tutoring programs we have for kids and 
various different things that we intend to have at later dates. 

Mr. Lynch. Based on your 8 years' experience, is it your feeling 
that you have in some way contributed to reducing crime in the 
neighborhood in which you serve ? 

Mr. Crosby. Yes, I feel we have. Just by our presence alone, you 
know. 

Mr. Lynch. Superintendent, I wonder if I could ask you whether 
or not it would be your judgment that this kind of program ought to 
be continued at its f onner level in your department ? 

Mr. Nolan. I believe it should be continued at the level that it was 
at. I daresay, and I would be the first to admit that there are a lot of 
kinds of things we were doing that we found in later months of con- 
tinuous operation that could be done a different way that would better 
the citizens. 

I think some of the programs that we initially started out on, we 
finally dropped to pick up better programs. Unfortunately, there was 
nothing we had throughout our Nation to model this type program 
after. So, consequently, as we see the variations of crime and how a 
paraprofessional can become involved that has no arrest power, that 
carries no weapons, but still can make a contributing factor toward 
the reduction of crime, and I think there are many kinds of improve- 
ments that could be made on programs of that nature. 

We would not stay in a staid position. I think it should be carried on. 

Mr. Lynch. In fact, you are implementing a program which was, in 
a sense, recommended by the President's Commission on Law Enforce- 
ment and Administration of Justice in 1967 ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, we are. 

Mr. Lynch. And probably constitutes the only department, cer- 
tainly to my knowledge, that is doing it on a large scale. Would it be 
your judgment that this is the kind of program which should receive 
Federal support on a priority basis? 

Mr. Nolan. I would say yes ; and I would think it would be a fine 
thing for our Government to recognize a program of this nature with 



305 

citizen participation as one way that the total Nation could be involved 
and benefit from reduction of crime, which is a major factor in our 
society today. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Nolan, as a policeman with many, many years of 
law enforcement experience, would it be your judgment that this kind 
of program should be adopted for use in most of our major urban 
centers ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes. I think certainly it would have to be patterned as 
to their particular needs, but I think all of our major cities could use 
a program of this nature and certainly of this size in comparison with 
their population, to help in this effort. 

Mr. Lynch. Superintendent, if you have not already done so, would 
it be possible for you to send us comparative crime data on the district 
in which your program has operated ? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes, we would, sir. And by permission of the chairman, 
we would like to ask permission to enter an item, various items of 
specialized efforts by this particular program as it relates to edicts 
from the department and also rules and regulations under w^hich they 
work. If it is permissible we would like to have it entered in the record 
at this time. 

Mr. Lynch. Mr. Chairman, the superintendent has given me a very 
good summary describing what this program is all about, and describ- 
ing its accomplishments. I would ask that this be entered in the 
record, with your permission. 

Chairman Pepper. Without objection, it will be admitted into the 
record. 

[See material received for the record at the end of Mr. Nolan's 
testimony.] 

Mr. Lynch. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Murphy. 

Mr. Murphy. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. I would 
just like to commend Superintendent Nolan for the fine job and the 
leadership that he has demonstrated on the Chicago police force. As a 
Congressman from the Chicago area, I know that Chicagoans are 
very proud of their police force and men such as Superintendent Nolan. 
I would also like to thank the fine group of associates Mr. Nolan has 
brought with him for their attendance and valuable comments. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Metcalfe, have you further questions? 

Mr. Metcalfe. I have no further questions. I would like to also ex- 
press my thanks to Superintendent Nolan and all of the very fine people 
who are here to demonstrate what this community service program is. 
Regretfully, I have to look upon it as being an oasis in the police de- 
partment. 

You are doing a good job and you are giving a good image to the 
police department. If all of the rest of these departments were con- 
tributing to society's needs, I think we would have a good police de- 
partment in the city of Chicago, which we do not have now. 

Mr. Nolan. Thank you. Congressman. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr. Nolan, I wish, on behalf of the committee, to 
thank you and your associates for coming here this morning and giving 
us the very interesting presentation you have made. The idea of the 
police department wishing to identify itself more closely with all of 
the different areas and the different people of the district it serves, I 
tliink, is a very conmiendable one. 



306 

Undoubtedly, the people can help the police enormously to reduce 
crime and make it possible to prosecute crime if they work in cordial 
cooperation with the police department. 

The folks must be made to feel that the police department is their 
protector, their friend ; not their enemy. It is to their advantage and 
to their interest that they work cooperatively with it, because as they 
help to protect somebody else, some other citizen, that same procedure 
may later protect them against crime. 

The purpose of these hearings is to bring out these innovative pro- 
grams in the country that various police departments are carrying on. 
We still have, despite all of the excellence of what is now being done 
in the country, a large volume of violent and serious crime. That is 
still a challenge that we have to meet some way or another. What would 
you suggest could be done ? 

Wliat could be done if you had the cooperation of Congress, the 
cooperation of the State legislature, the cooperation of your munici- 
pal authorities in addition to what is now being done to further reduce 
violent and serious crime in Chicago ? 

Mr. Nolan. Well, Mr. Chairman, I wish there was a simple answer 
to that, but I am sure that your committee and yourself are probably 
way ahead of us as law enforcement personnel. We recognize this 
as probably one of the biggest problems facing our nation. We recog- 
nize the problem of crime encompasses more than the violations of 
law and the breaking of the laws themselves. 

Our citizens have so many frustrations of the social economy, of the 
housing problem, of the unemployment. If our Federal Government 
would look kindly on finding ways to helping in this solution, the 
whole concept of impartially regarding all of our citizens in employ- 
ment and in housing, I think it would be a step, a long step, in the 
right direction. 

I think most of our crime, some of it of a petty nature that grows 
into a major nature, is born from frustration; is born from emotional 
impact from which there is no way out, that people are not considered 
equal citizens. 

I think that many of these things are necessary to bring to the atten- 
tion of the citizen that he has a responsibility, a serious responsi- 
bility, of obeying'the law. I think it is a responsibility that many of 
our citizens are not cognizant of or do not follow. 

I think with the cooperation of the Federal Government, of the 
Congress, these kinds of things certainly could be addressed. 

Chairman Pepper. Last Friday morning in Miami, which is my 
home, I participated in some hearings before the Education and 
Labor Subcommittee of the Congress. We talked about the inade- 
quacy of Federal aid in keeping young people in school from being 
dropouts. I asked, "What would be the significance of the student in 
school dropping out ?" 

And they answered that 'generally speaking they found their way 
into the juvenile courts. And we found out from juvenile judges who 
testified before our committee that about 50 percent of the boys and 
girls who are seriously involved before the juvenile courts go on into 
greater and more serious crime and wind up in our State penal 
institutions. 

Do you have a school dropout problem in Chicago ? 



307 

Mr. Nolan. A very serious one, sir. And it is very high among mi- 
nority groups, blacks and Latins. I think it is higher among the Latins 
than the blacks. 

Chairman Pepper. Do you find a relationship between school drop- 
out and j u venile crime ? 

Mr. Nolan. Without a doubt. Our crime statistics will show that 
a larger portion of our crime is committed by juveniles; and we find 
of those juveniles that are committing crimes a greater proportion 
of those young people are school dropouts. 

Chairman Pepper. So that if we could just adequately cope with 
that one problem 

Mr. NoLAX [continuing]. It would be very helpful. 

Chairman Pepper. We would reduce the commission of serious crime 
and violent crime by a high percentage, would we not? 

Mr. Nolan. Very much so, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. This committee had some hearings in Philadel- 
phia 2 or 3 years ago because they had gang warfare there. And the 
year before we were there, 31 young men were killed in that gang 
warfare that went on in the city of Philadelphia. 

I remember a businessman testified before the committee as to what 
the business community was trying to do to diminish that situation. 
I asked this gentleman, "With all respect for the sincerity of your 
efforts and the good work you have done, how many recreational areas 
are in the area where the gangs fight one anotlier?" He said "One." 

"How many coaches, how many playground supervisors are there?" 
"Just one at that particular place." I asked, "Did it ever occur to you, 
gentlemen, the good results you might get if you hire some playground 
supervisors and get some more playgrounds and bought some play- 
ground equipment for these young boys who just do nothing and roam 
around idly on the streets ? 

"If you could get them involved in athletic programs or some sort 
of wholesome activity, you would reduce their participation in violent 
crime." 

He said : "Well, maybe so, but it hadn't occurred to us that one way 
to reduce crime would be to divert the energy and activity of those 
boys into recreation or some sort of wholesome activity." 

Mr. NoLAX. We feel, all crime prevention programs should work 
at giving an individual an alternative, an alternative to participating 
in non-law-type activities. 

Chairman Pepper. We had hearings in Chicago and had very fine 
cooperation from your great distinguished mayor and your police 
officials and your TV stations. Educational TV had us on TV all 
day during our hearings and summarized our program for 2 or 3 
hours in the evening. 

I recall you had there a very serious drug problem, also. We had 
one instance of where money was given to a high school student and 
that young lady went out and came back within 2 or 3 hours with 
almost every kind of drug that one could use, that she had bought in 
her school. 

That is one of the things this committee is trying to do, frying to 
get the Federal Government to help with money that can be used in 
the schools, to employ drug counselors and to teach the teachers more 



308 

about drugs, to aid the parents in learning something more about 
drugs. 

Do you regard that as a serious problem in your area? 

Mr. Nolan. We certainly do and I would like to speak for the 
lf3,000 members of our department and certainly our superintendent 
and other staff. We compliment this particular committee in working 
in our behalf and all of the other cities' behalfs. Drugs are a very 
serious problem in our city and I can only speak for Chicago. Any 
kind of help that is given, giving youngsters alternative to let them 
know, recognize as we do, that drugs are not only being misused or 
have been misused by our minority citizens, but certainly by those 
in the wealthy areas in the Chicago metropolitan area; those people 
are suffering, also. 

So it is not a problem of minorities alone. We feel that money spent 
in this area by our Federal Government would certainly be returned 
twofold by better citizens. 

Chairman Pepper. Very good; one other question. Do you have 
any serious delay in the courts of Chicago in the trial of people that 
the police arrest and bring into the prosecution system? 

Mr. Nolan. Yes; we do have a backlog. This is being worked at 
steadily by our chief judges and other individuals of the criminal 
justice system. It is something that because of the inadequacy in the 
past that has been allowed to grow upon us in such a sense that some 
of our serious crimes have been addressed to rather late, but fortunate- 
ly there has been a move in another direction, where progress is seen, 
and we now feel in the city of Chicago our courts are catching up 
with the backlog of cases. 

Cliairman Pepper. I see. Tliank you again, Mr. Nolan, you and your 
associates, for coming here and helping us. 

Mr. Nolan. We thank you for inviting us. 

[The following material was received for the record :] 

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE CHICAGO POLICE DEPARTMENT TO THE POLICE 

BOARD, DECEMBER 14, 1972 

1. Personnel and training. — There were 444 Department recruits enrolled in the 
39-week Academy training program on November 30, 1972. Of this number, 146 
are scheduled to graduate on December 29. 

In addition, 48 recruits from nineteen suburban police departments and various 
county and state law enforcement agencies graduated on November 3 from a 
7-week Academy training program. On November 13, 25 more recruits from eleven 
suburban police departments as well as county and state law enforcement agencies 
started a new 7-week training program. 

Eighteen Department Policewomen recruits were enrolled in a 21-week pre- 
service training program. This class is scheduled to graduate on March 23, 1973. 

Other training programs conducted at the Department's Academy during 
November include : 

14 Sergeants completed a two-week pre-service training program for 
Lieutenants. 

61 Members completed a three-week pre-service training program for Sergeants. 

48 Members completed a four-week pre-service training program for Investi- 
gators. 

63 civilian employees of the City graduated on November 10 from a 6-week 
pre-service training program to qualify as Community Service Aides. 

29 civilian City employees started a 6-week pre-service training program on 
November 13 to qualify as Community Service Aides. This class is scheduled to 
graduate on December 22. 



309 

306 Members participated in various firearms range activities. In addition, 
376 men from five county and state law enforcement agencies took part in super- 
vised range activities. 

2. Awards and commendations. — Department Commendations for bravery in 
action were awarded to eight Members. Honorable Mentions for outstanding 
activity were awarded to 962 Members. During November a total of 201 OflScers 
were complimentetl for their oflieial actions in letters received from citizens. 

3. Model cities program. — There were 413 Community Service Aides on active 
duty on November 30, including those currently enrolled in pre-servioe training, as 
heretofore cited. 

Aides filed reports during the month relating to 3,684 service requests from the 
public. They also conducted 1,775 follow-up investigations relating to public 
complaints about services. 

Aides were instrumental in the recovery of sixteen stolen vehicles ; conducted 
investigations into animal bite complaints which involved 22 persons, and in- 
vestigated reports of four missing persons. 

The arrests of a man involved in a drugstore robbery attempt and a second 
man who was operating a stolen vehicle were made possible by alert reporting 
of the incidents by Aides. 

Aides also participated actively in conducting a program of field trips, educa- 
tional tours and recreational outings for residents, chiefly youngsters, in the 
six target areas. 

4. Complaints against members. — During the 11th period, from October 12 
through November 8, a total of 358 complaints were filed against members by 
citizens and Department personnel. 

In the same time frame, the investigation of 453 complaints was completed of 
which 85, or 18.7 per cent were sustained. 

It is pointed out that investigation of 38 additional complaints was terminated 
or held open because citizens declined to cooperate with Department investigators. 
In the 85 sustained cases 109 members were disciplined as follows: 
6 received oral reprimands 
20 received written reprimands 
50 were suspended for from 1 to 5 days 
9 were susi^ended for from 6 to 15 days 
24 were suspended for from 16 to 30 days 
In addition to the above, eight accused members resigned from the Department 
while subjects of investigations. 

5. Crime and traffic statistics. — During the 11th period, from October 12 
through November 8, there were 9,267 index crimes reported. This total repre- 
sents a decrease of 4.8 per cent in comparison to the same period in 1971 and a 
reduction of 5.7 per cent in comparison to the previous 10th period. 

On a cumulative basis, there were 102,968 serious crimes reported during the 
first eleven periods in 1972, a reduction of 2.9 per cent in comparison to the same 
eleven periods in 1971. 

Further, on a cumulative basis, four crime categories showed decreases and 
three showed increases in comparison to 1971 as follows : 

Homicide, 598, down 16 per cent ; robbery, 19,418, down 0.3 per cent ; burglary, 
30.869, down 3.7 per cent; auto theft, 27,742, down 6.4 per cent. 

Increases occurred in the category of : 

Serious assault, 9,651, up 0.8 per cent ; rape, 1,312, up 4.3 per cent ; theft ($50 & 
over) , 13,378, up 0.4 per cent. 

Traffic statistics for the month of November follow : 





November 
1972 




Cumulative to date 


1 ncrease 

or 

decrease 




1971 


1972 1971 


Fatalities... 

Personal injury accidents 

Property damage accidents 


28 

2,170 

12,239 


23 
1,788 
9,912 


261 256 

25, 450 24, 093 

131,738 111,617 


-1- 

+ 1,35 

+20, 12 



310 

As of the end of October, Chicago ranked lowest among cities of over a million 
population in the number of traffic fatalities per 10,000 registered vehicles : 

Rate per 10,000 Registered Vehicles ^ 

Chicago 2. 5 

Los Angeles 2. 8 

Philadelphia 2. 8 

Houston 3. 

Detroit 3. 7 

New York 4.3 

TOTAL FATALITIES JAN. 1 THROUGH OCT. 31 » 

Increase or 
1972 1971 decrease 

Chicago --- 

Los Angeles 

Philadelphia... 

Houston 

Detroit 

New York 

1 Source of the above comparative intercity figures is the National Safety Council. 



231 


233 


-2 


364 


366 


-2 


157 


172 


-15 


146 


153 


-7 


204 


186 


+18 


712 


758 


-46 



General Ordeii{ 
Subject: Community Service Aides Project 

I. PURPOSE 

This order : 

A. Continues in effect the Chicago Police Department's Community Service 
Aides Project within the Preventive Programs Division of the Bureau of Com- 
munity Services. 

B. Details the functions and responsibilities of Command and Supervisory per- 
sonnel with respect to the project. 

0. Outlines the functions and responsibility of the Community Service Aides. 

II. COMMUNITY SERVICE AIDES PROJECT 

The Community Service Aides Project is the Chicago Police Department's part 
in the Model Cities Program of the City of Chicago, which is operated under the 
component ; Law, Order, Justice and Corrections. The Community Service Aides 
Project has been designed to address two problems concurrently : 

(1) reduce crime in the Model Cities neighborhoods to a level at least 
comparable to non-model cities areas. 

(2) improve relations between members of the community in the Target 
Areas and the police who serve them. 

in. RESPONSIBILITT 

The Superintendent of Police will direct and administer the project. He will 
direct and control the combined and coordinated efforts of the Personnel, Re- 
search and Development, Training, Patrol, and Preventive Programs Divisions. 
The Director of the Preventive Programs Division, under the direction of the 
Deputy Superintendent, Bureau of Community Services, has been delegated the 
necessary authority to see that this project conforms to the goals of the Model 
Cities Program. 

The Community Service Centers and their assigned personnel are placed under 
the direct supervision of the Project Director, who will operate under the direc- 
tion and guidance of the Deputy Superintendent of the Bureau of Community 
Services, and the Director of the Preventive Programs Division. The Project 
Director will assign the various jobs and missions to the Community Service 
Aides, and assure the proper care, appearance, and efficiency of the service 
centers. 



311 

IV. ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS 

The Community Service Aides Project will operate from six Community Serv- 
ice Centers, and be administered and controlled from a Headquarters Oflice. 

A. Headquarters. — The Project Director will be assigned one sergeant as ad- 
ministrative assistant and one patrolman. He will also be assigned an accountant, 
a principal stenographer, a senior stenographer and two principal account clerks. 
These people comprise the administrative staff and will perform all the necessary 
accounting and reporting duties. 

B. Community Service Centers. — The community service centers are akin to 
satellite police stations, and also serve as a training center and headquarters for 
the Community Service Aides. The centers will be open 12 hours a day, operating 
on two eight-hour, overlapping shifts. To each center there is assigned a lieuten- 
ant, several sergeants and patrolmen. 

(1) Lieutenants. The lieutenant is a visible representative of police man- 
agement in the target areas. He will administer the center, coordinate the 
efforts of the sergeants, is responsible for the overall conduct and efficiency 
of the personnel assigned. 

(2) Sergeants. The sergeants will operate a station desk in each center. 
The desk will be staffed at all times when the center is open and be avail- 
able to members of the community to express complaints, seek protection, 
make inquiries, and request not only police service, but service from other 
concerned city agencies. The sergeants also act as training officers for the 
Community Service Aides. In addition, the sergeants supervise the patrol- 
men and are available as counselors. 

(3) Patrolmen. The patrolmen will work with and supervise the Commu- 
nity Service Aides in the field. He will be responsible for the output of the 
Aides assigned to him, assuring that they are on their assignments, check- 
ing attendance, and performing other duties of a line sui)ervisor. 

v. COMMUNITY SERVICE AIDES 

A. Recruitment. — The Personnel Division of the Chicago Police Department 
will have responsibility for recruitment and determining the eligibility and 
qualifications of applicants desiring to become Community Service Aides. Ap- 
plicants will be appointed at the direction of a selection board consisting of the 
Depiity Superintendent, Bureau of Community Services ; the Director of Per- 
sonnel ; and the Project Director of the Community Service Aides Project. 

B. Duties. — Community Service Aides will perform the following duties : 

(1) Foot Patrol. Aides will be assigned as a member of a Squad, super- 
vised by a Patrolman, to patrol a specific section of the Target Area on foot. 
While on patrol the Aides will observe and report on siich things as : Aban- 
doned Vehicles — In addition to reporting the abandoned vehicle, check the 
registration against current listing of vehicles reported stolen ; abandoned re- 
frigerators : abandoned buildings that constitute a hazard ; dead animals 
on the public way : dangerous holes or obstructions in street, sidewalk or 
curb : street or traffic signs that are missing, inoperative or obscured : lost 
children ; aged or infirm persons in need of assistance ; missing persons ; 
truants ; open fire hydrants ; unauthorized persons loitering around schools ; 
live wires down ; other hazardous conditions. 

(2) Crime Prevention. The Aides will be visibly deployed at all types of 
iniblic gatherings to minimize the opportunity for citizens to be victims of 
theft from person (pickpockets, pui-se snatchings). 

The Aides will be utilized to pass out literature such as pamphlets and 
brochures advising citizens on how they can protect themselves or mini- 
mize the likelihood of their becoming a victim of the crimes of burglarly, i-ob- 
bery. rape, etc. 

Aides will, by their many face to face contacts with citizens during their 
patrols and attendance at neighborhood meetings, be in a position to ex- 
plain the role of the citizen in combating crime and delinquencv. 

While on patrol in business districts be alert and call to the attention of 
the proprietor conditions that may make him vulnerable to such crimes as 
shoplifting, burglary, etc. 

(3) Clerical Duties. Aides will be assigned as Assistant Secretaries and 
Assistants to desk personnel in District Stations; assigned to assist the Re- 
view Officer in District Stations; assigned during early evening hours in 

95-158— 7."— pt. 1 21 



312 

Libraries, Schools, and Churches to assist in regulating the demeanor and 
decorum of school age children in these locations ; be utilized as tour guides 
in Police Stations, 

(4) Police-Community Relations. Aides will be assigned to assist the 
District Commander and the Neighborhood Relations Sergeant in promoting 
Police-Community Relations Workshops; assist in organizing Block Clubs 
and other neighborhood clubs, and assist in arranging for these clubs to meet 
mth police personnel on a regular basis ; take advantage of every opportunity 
to explain police procedures and practices to members of the community. 

(5) Miscdlaneous. Aides will be assigned to assist the Neighborhood Re- 
lations Sergeant with youth activities : patrol playgrounds and perimeter 
of school grounds, reporting undesirable conditions and/or conditions that 
may lead to crime ; provide special escort for children from school, such as 
a child that becomes ill during school hours, and is sent home. 

O. Disciplinary procedures. — Disciplinary procedures relative to complaints 
and/or disciplinary actions against Connnunity Service Aides are prescril)ed 
in Bureau of Community Services Special Order Number 70-6, dated 19 May 1070. 
Complaints against Community Service Aides are reported to Unit Commanders 
of the Community Services Aides Project, and NOT to the Internal Affairs 
Division. Com|plaints against sworn members of the Community Service Aides 
Project are processed in accordance with tlie provisions of General Order Num- 
ber 67-21 as amended. 



The Chicago Police Department Training Bulletin 
the communitl' service aide project 

Since February of 1970 the Chicago Police Department has sponsore<l a 
"Police Community Service Aides Project" under the auspices of the federally 
funded Model Cities Program. A total of 422 Community Service Aides have 
since been hired by the Chicago Police Departmient to work under the guidaufe 
and direction of 72 sworn members of the Department in an attempt to reduce 
crime and improve the quality of urban life. 

To insure a better xinderstanding of the Department's role in this innova- 
tive program, a brief description of the origin and operation of the total Model 
Cities Program will first be presented. This will be followed by a more detailed 
account of the Community Service Aides Project and the hiring, training and 
duties of the aides. 

"Improving the quality of urban life is the most critical domestic problem 
facing the United States" reads the opening statement of the congressional 
legislation which created Model Cities. This statement, plus the recognition by 
Congress that cities do not have adequate resources to deal effectively with the 
serious problems confronting them, was the basis for the creation of the 
Model Cities Program. 

On 1 December 1967 the City of Chicago was offered a planning grant by the 
Federal Government to develop programs in four Chicago communities — Lawn- 
dale, Woodlawn, Uptown and Grand Boulevai'd. These commimities have a com- 
bined area of about six square miles and a combined population of approximately 
327.000 persons. In May of 1969, after months of study, planning, review and 
revisions the Chicago Model Cities Program was submitted to the Federal Gov- 
ernment for review and, hopefully, funding. On 26 June 1969 the first year plan 
was approved. On 8 August 1969 Chicago received aiithority to spend $38,1.")9,- 
000.00 in supplementary funds to carry out the first year action program. 

Model Cities plans, funds, monitors and evaluates programs, although it does 
not operate them directly. Public and private agencies having extensive exper- 
ience in the target areas are contracted to administer projects which fall into 
ten major categories or classifications. They are Housing ; Health ; Education : 
Jjaw ; Order ; Justice and Corrections ; Child and Family Services ; Economic 
Development ; Environment ; Transportation ; Leisure Time ; and Manpower. 
The programs in each category were developed in response to problems that 
area residents and the City agreed should be given the highest priorities. 

LAW, ORDER, JUSTICE AND CORRECTIONS 

Of the ten areas of concern being funded in each target area, the one most 
important to the Chicago Police Department is that of Law, Order, Justice and 
Corrections. This category involves four projects. The largest of these is the 



313 

Chicago Police Department's Comnmnity Service Aides Project, which deals 
primarily with improving the quality of iirban life. The other three projects deal 
with the problem of youths in the correctional system. 

ORIGIN OF THE COMMUNITY SERVICE AIDES PROJECTS 

In 1967 the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Admini-stration 
of Justice recommended the creation of a Community Sen'ice Officer position for 
police departments operating in larger urban areas. According to the Commis- 
sion's Report, the Community Service Officer would work on the street in close 
cooperation with police officers. lie would not have full law enforcement powers 
or cari-y arms, neither would he perform only clerical duties. lie would be a uni- 
formed member of the working police who performs certain service and investi- 
gative duties on the street. He would maintain close contact with the juveniles 
in neighborhoods where he works. He might be available in a neighborhood 
store front, office or Community Service Center. He would perform the service 
duties that inner city residents )ieed so urgently and that law enforcement 
officers have so little time to perform. He would be an integral part of a police 
team. 

These suggestions offered by the President's Commission served as the basis 
for the creation of the Chicago Police Department's Community Service Aide 
I'roject. 

GOALS OF THE PROJECT 

The purposes and goals of this undertaking were set forth in the initial stages 
of the months of planning that preceded the opening of the first Community Serv- 
ice Center. As enumerated in the First Year's Action Program and as they remain 
to the present, the purposes of the project are : 

1. to prevent and reduce the incidence of criminal and anti-social behavior by 
saturating the areas with foot patrol teams. 

2. to improve police community relations by employing Police Community Aides 
to interpret the roles of the Police Department to the community and the com- 
munity to the Police Department. 

3. to enhance the utilization of sworn personnel in the areas of law enforce- 
ment and arrest by substitiiting civilian personnel to handle non-ai'rest functions. 

4. to develop community responsibility toward combating crime. 
The strategic objectives outlined for the project are to : 

1. rai.se resident income by employment of more than 400 Model Area residents 
as Police Community Service Aides. 

2. improve housing and environment by detecting and reporting conditions 
detrimental to the environment. 

3. enhance community responsibility by saturating the neighborhood with foot 
patrol teams of Community Service Aides to provide an immediate and accessible 
source of contact with law enforcement agencies. 

4. enlarge human opportunities by providing training to those who desire and 
are qualified to become sworn personnel. 

5. improve city capability to protect persons and property in target areas l)y 
relieving the sworn personnel from non-arrest and human service activities and 
allowing them to direct their efforts to crime prevention. 

THE COMMUNITY SERVICE CENTER 

In February of 1970 the first Community Service Center was opened in the 11th 
District at 294.5 AVest Harrison Street. Presently centers are open in each of the 
four (4) target areas: one center each in the 2nd, 3rd. 10th, 11th and 21st dis- 
tricts and one combined center in the 19th and 20th districts. The exact locations 
of these centers are as follows : 

2nd District— 542 East 47th Street 

3rd District— 871 East 63rd Street 

10th District— 1308 South Pulaski Road 

11th District— 2945 West Harrison Street 

20th District — 4.552 North Broadway 

21st District— 1040 East 47th Street 

The Chicago Police Department Community Service Aide Project Admin- 
istration is headquartered at 1029 South Wabash Avenue. 



314 

Each of the above listed centers can be likened to a satellite Police Station, 
serving also as a training center and headquarters for the Community Service 
Aides. The centers are opened to the public 12 hours a day from 0800 to 2000 
hours. 

A lieutenant and several sergeants and patrolmen are assigned to each center. 
The lieutenant, a visible representative of police management in the target 
areas, administers the center, coordinates the effort of his sergeants, and is re- 
sponsible for the overall conduct and efficiency of his command. The sergeants 
operate a station desk in each center. Members of the community use the centers 
to express complaints, seek protection, make inquiries and requests, not only for 
police service but for service from other concerned city agencies. The sergeants 
also are the training officers for the Community Service Aides. They primarily 
direct their training efforts toward efficient job perfonnance but emphasize the 
need for outside formal education. In addition the sergeants supervise the patrol- 
men and are available as counselors for the aides. The patrolman is the backbone 
of the operation. He works with and supervises the Community Sei-vice Aides in 
the field. He is responsible for the output of the Community Service Aides as- 
signed to him, assures that they are on their assignments, checks attendance and 
performs the other duties of a line supervisor. 

HIRING, TRAINING AND DUTIES OF AIDES 

At about the same time Model Cities Police personnel were iindergoing three 
weeks of training for the Community Service Aide Project, advertisements an- 
nouncing the hiring of Community Sei*vice Aides w-ere being placed in local 
newspapers and at the neighborhood State Employment offices. Qualifications for 
the position were prepared by the Chicago Police Department Personnel Division. 
They are: 

1. Males must be age 17 or over ; females age 18 or over. 

2. No height requirement but weight must be proportionate to height. 

3. Passing of a minimum physical examination. 

4. Taking a written examination. The exam serves to determine the edu- 
icational level of the applicants but is not a criterion for employment. This 
is most essential for designing the training program and in counseling the 
Community Service Aides as to their educational needs. 

y. United States citizenship. 

6. If any military service, a discharge paper and a medical history are 
required. 

7. Acceptable character background and driving record. 

8. Model Cities target area residence, (MANDATORY). 

The salary for the aides is $445.00 per month to start, $467.00 per month after 
3 months, $491.00 after 6 months, $515.00 after 9 months and $540.00 per month 
after one year. This salary does not include the Community Service Aides uni- 
f6rm allowance of $100.00 the first year. Hospitalization insurance is paid for 
by the city. 

Prior to assignment to field duties each aid is given approximately 4.55 hours 
of instruction by the center staff. These courses range from criminal law to 
physical education and from social sciences to Police Department policies. In 
addition to this classroom training, after four months of employment each Com- 
munity Service Aide is counseled about his educational background in an attempt 
to encourage the Community Service Aides to continue schooling. Basic and 
advanced G.E.D. courses have been established in each center for those aides 
who do not have high school diplomas. For those w^ho qualify for college, tuition 
is free and the student is reimbursed for books. In addition the aides are allowed 
9' hours a week away from normal duties to attend these classes. 

The team patrol is the basic work unit in the Community Service Aide Project. 
This patrol team consists of one patrolman and seven to twelve Community Serv- 
ice Aides. It is hoped that these team patrols will serve as a crime deterrent 
by their mere presence in the community. 

The Community Service Aides investigate abandoned autos, report sanita- 
tion violations, watch for pollution violations and refer building and zoning 
violations to the proper agencies. Since the aides perform other miscellaneous 
services that are usually performed by the police, the beat officer is freed from 
time-consuming service type calls and can concentrate on crime prevention. 

Community Service Aides also provide clerical help in the district station and 
in the Community Service Center. Aides have formed block clubs in the com- 
munity and floor clubs for some of the projects ; they have assisted police per- 



315 

ponnel at elementary, upper grade centers and high schools ; helped locate miss- 
ing children ; obtained Red Cross assistance for families displaced by fires ; dis- 
tributed food to the hungry and have organized and advertised Police Community 
Relation Workshops. 

In addition to the above duties, several Community Service Centers have in- 
stituted the following special projects : 

1. Community Service Centers have prepared tables of crime statistics, by 
beat, time of day and type of crime, and aid heretofore unavailable at the dis- 
trict level on a day-to-day basis. These tables are used to prepare team patrol 
assignments. 

2. Aides have been assigned to work with the courts in an effort designed to 
reduce the number of repeater "drunk and disorderly" cases coming before that 
court. Familiar with the full range of city services, the aides are able to make 
referrals to the proper agency offering opportunities for rehabilitation. 

3. During the summer of 1970, Aides of a Community Service Center chaperoned 
approximately 120 youngsters on four camping trips to Camp Malibu in Illinois. 
Several of the center's aides had worked long hours preparing the necessary pro- 
posals which had to be presented to the Department of Human Resoi;rces Leisure 
Time Committee. The preparation and presentation of the Camp Malibu proposal 
to this committee was necessary to obtain the funding for the trip. After funding 
was approved, neighborhood groups were contacted to provide names of deserving 
youngsters for the trips. These outings proved very successful, and it is hoped 
that funding can be allocated for similar trips in the future. 

4. Aides from another Community Service Center held "splash parties'' ou 
numerous blocks in the target area. This assignment involved having a team 
of aides turn on fire hydrants equipped with sprinkler attachments for several 
hours each day. The streets were blocked off at either end and the owners of auto- 
mobiles in close proximity to the hydrants were notified of the splash party. 
The aides remained at the hydrant to supervise the children's activity. This 
assignment was intended to decrease the number of hydrants being opened 
by unauthorized persons and then left to hamper traffic, overload sewers, and 
cause a police officer to leave more important duties and turn the hydrant off 
to the dismay of the neighborhood's yoimgsters. The 10th District program 
has alleviated these problems to some extent. 

o. Several of the aides were enrolled in a 10 week course on Consumer Fraud. 
The valuable lessons learned by the aides will then be presented to the general 
public at Community Workshops meetings organized by the Community 
Service Aides. 

6. Acting pursuant to an indicated need in one of the target areas, sworn per- 
sonnel and their aides have initiated a tutoring program for youngsters from 
7 to 14 years of age. Thus far, approximately 150 students have enrolled in the 
program which is designed to improve reading and writing skills. Aside from 
removing any fears of the police the children have prior to enrolling, the program 
hopes to decrease the number of slow-learning school age persons who con- 
ceivably may drop out when they reach the high school level. 

There are however some duties the Community Service Aides are not permitted 
to perform. The Community Service Aides do not : 

1. make arrests. 

2. work in detention facilities. 

3. take case reports on crimes. 

4. drive Department vehicles. 

5- work in building maintenance. 

SUPPORTIVE SERVICES 

The Police Department Model Cities budget provided for two sedans and 12 
station wagons to assist the police personnel in carrying out their duties. The 
station wagons are used to transport the Community Service Aides to their vari- 
ous assignments and are used by the team patrol officer as a means to widen his 
span of control. 

Preventive Programs Division Community Service Aides Project 

To: Ms. Junerous M. Cook, Director of Evaluation and Urban Studies, Model 
Cities/CCUO. 640 North La Salle Street, Chicago, 111. 

From : Captain John T. Kelly, Project Director. Community Service Aides Proj- 
ect, 1020 South Wabash Avenue, Room 201, Chicago, 111. 



316 

Subject: Project Evaluation — In compliance with contractual requirements, 
attached hereto is the Project Evaluation of Year Two, encompassing the 
dates of 1 June 1971 to 1 September 1972. 

John T. Kelley, 
Project Director, Community Service Aides Project. 
Approved : Samuel W. Nolan, Deputy Superintendent, Bureau of Community- 
Services. 

Project Evaluation 

1. program description 

The Community Sen-ice Aides Project was initiated to accomplish the task of : 

A. reducing the incidence of crime in the designated Model Cities Target Areas. 

B. improving police-community relations. 

C improving the quality of life in these areas, and 

D. allowing the police patrol force in the neighborhood to spend more time 
on crime prevention. 

The Administrative Headquarters for the Project is located at 1020 South 
Wabash Avenue. The administrative staff consists of: 1 captain, 1 sergeant, 1 
i:)atrolman, 5 civilian iwrsonnel. 

Six Community Service Centers are established and operating at the following 
locations : 

1327 East 6.3rd Street (Mid South Woodlawn) . 
542 East 47th Street (Near South Grand Boulevard). 
1038 East 47th Street (Near South Grand Boulevard). 
3150 AVest Ogden Avenue (West North Lawndale). 
2945 West Harrison (West North Lawndale). 
4552 North Broadway (I'ptown),. 

The Mid South Center was moved into the new location because of a fire at 
their prior location at 871 East 63rd Street. West North Lawndale Center facility 
was moved to its present location at 3150 West Ogden Avenue from 1309 South 
Pulaski because the building on Pulaski Road was sold. 

The Community Service Centers are staffed by the following police personnel : 
6 lieutenants, 22 sergeants, 40 patrolmen. 

All sworn Chicago Police Department personnel assigned to the project are 
volunteers with a minimum of 4 years experience and an overall average of 
15 years with the Police Department. All personnel, with the exception of the 
Director of the Preventive Programs Division, devote 100% of their time to 
the Project. 

The Community Service Aides Project was designed to produce employment 
for 422 residents of the target area communities. The average monthly employ- 
ment of aides during Year Two was 355. 

The Community Service Aides receive approximately 250 hours of In-Service 
Training yearly conducted by sworn police personnel assigned to the center 
from the Criminal Investigation Division, etc. In addition, they receive counsel- 
ling from professionals with emphasis placed on education who are assigned 
to the center. 

The project coordinated its activities with many public and private agencies. 
In resolving most non-police x'elated complaints and requests for service the 
project dealt closely with the Mayor's Office of Inquiry and Information. 

The Illinois State Employment Service provided valuable services in the re- 
cruitment and testing of aide applicants. The Public Service Institute and the 
Civil Service Commission provided professional services in the aide education 
program. The project headquarters maintained continuous liaison with a host 
of puVdic agencies. Project personnel have established rapport with numerous 
community and church sponsored organizations which operate in the areas 
serviced by the Community Service Centers. 

II. PROJECT OBJECTIVES AND METHODS FOR ACCOMPLISHMENT 

A. Enable police to increase preventive patrolling and enforcement activities. — 
The Community Service Aides accomplished this objective by locating 8.23S 
abandoned autos, submitting reports on 2.790 abandoned buildings, and reporting 
and following up street and sanitation conditions : thereby releasing the beat 
patrol officer from acting upon such conditions so that he could concentrate on 
effective preventive patrol and enforcement. 



317 

B. Provide the community loith increased access to Police Services. — The 
presence of the six centers in the coniuuinity enabled residents to maintain a 
closer and more personal relationship with the Police Department. To cite an 
example — arrest at 550-011 on 27 March 1972 wherein six Community Aides 
observed a strong arm robbery in progress involving three offenders and one 
victim. The aides ran to aid the victim. Two of the offenders were chased and 
caught by the aides who effected the arrest witli the assistance of an 11th Dis- 
trict Tactical Team. Many residents find it much easier to relate to i>ersons who 
are members of their community. Most aides know or have formed ac(iuaiutances 
with the residents, thus the problems of the residents were more readily under- 
stood by the aides. Coordinating the efforts of the aides with those of the Neigh- 
Iiorhood Relations Sergeant gave the residents greater access to services of the 
I'olice Department. 

C. Improve cooperation between the commnnitij and the police. — Community 
Aides were able to encourage the residents to attend Police-Community Work- 
shops and other related meetings. Through personal encounter and literature 
prepared at the centers and Police Headquarters, the aides made residents 
more aware of the police role in the community. This was evidenced by the in- 
creased attendance and participation in a number of community projects. 

D. Employment of local residents as Community Service Aides. — The Com- 
munity Sei'^'ice Aides Project produced and continues employment for residents 
of the target area communities thereby raising resident income and funnelling 
salaries into communities for people who would otherwise be unemployed. 

E. Improving housing and environment. — The Community Aide as part of his 
daily activity communicated with residents and landlords. He was instrumental 
in forming block clubs and encouraged landlords to maintain their properties. 
We have found that after a l>lock club is formed by a Community Aide that if 
we do not remain active within the club they cease to operate. He constantly 
observed, reported and followed up on the condition of streets, alleys, lighting, 
and attractive nui.sances that presented a deteriorating affect on the community. 

F. Provide training for .'i2i Model Cities Target Area residents. — Place em- 
phasis on potential careers with the Police Department and other public and 
private agencies. 

Fifty-nine (59) Commiuiity Aides completed requirements for GED certifica- 
tion. Most of these aides continued their education through enrollment in college 
l)rograms. Presently there are 120 aides enrolled in college level prgrams. Aides 
have been urged to take examinations for Civil Service positions. Classes wei'e 
held at all centers for aides and residents of the community for the Police- 
woman. Senior Public Safety Aide, and Patrolman examinations. Four (4) 
Community Service Aides passed the Patrolman examination. Eleven (11) Com- 
munity Service Aides passed the written portion of the Policewoman's examina- 
tion and out of the 340 persons passing the Public Safety Aide examination, 276 
were Community Service Aides. The fact that the first 123 persons on the list 
were Community Service Aides is a good indication of the value of training the 
aides received in this program. Numerous Community Service Aides have gone 
into career fields of employment, such as police ofiicers, airline stewardesses, 
ilerchant Marines, and self emi)loyment. 

Iir. COIIMUXITY SERVICE AIDES PROGRAMS CRIME RELATED 

In its objective to reduce the incidence of crime in the Model Cities Target 
Areas, the Community Service Aides Project pursued the following programs : 

A. Protect life and property in the Model Cities Neighhorhood. — The Com- 
munity Service Aides have been instrumental in the arrest of criminal offenders. 
Numerous examples of their diligent performances at fires and in administer- 
ing first aid have been cited. See exhibit 1. 

P.. Located and caused to he recovered .stolen vehicles. — Intensified ti'aining and 
execution of a program to detect and report stolen autos has been initiated. 
Training Bulletins, vehicle identification hand cards, and roll call visits by auto 
theft investigators were included. Training was on a professional level and in- 
cluded discussions on alley garage auto stripping operations, popped ignitions 
and slampullers. 

Project records indicate that community service aides recovered 21G reported 
stolen vehicles from 1 January to 1 September 1972. Total reported stolen vehi- 
cles recovered from 1 January through 31 December 1971 numbered S7. 

C. Located ahandoned vehicles and caused their removal. — Comnnmity Service 
Aides located and reported all abandoned vehicles observed in their patrol areas. 



318 

This information was forwarded to the District Abandoned Auto OflScer who has 
the responsibility to have the vehicle removed. Aides further followed these re- 
ports up to determine if or when action was taken. When the veliicle was re- 
moved, they closed our suspense file. Abandoned cars present a problem to dis- 
trict commanders. The action taken by CSAs in having abandoned cars remov^ed 
saves the commander from using a number of sworn personnel in eliminating this 
problem. 

D. The centers assign aides daily to regular foot patrol beats in the target 
areas. — Two or more aides under the supervision of a sworn supervisor comprise 
a patrol team. Seventy-seven (77) foot patrol beats are manned daily. 

IV. C'OMMUNITT SEEVICE AIDES PROGKAMS — POLICE SERVICE RELATED 

To enable the police to spend more time on crime prevention the Community 
Service Aides undertook the following : 

A. Conducted folloic-iip investigations of missing person cases. — Community 
Aides followed up on 13S missing persons investigations from 1 June 1971 through 
1 September 1972. Community Service Special Order 71-1 and Youth Division 
Special Order 71-12 were issued on 22 March 1971, implementing the Adult 
Missing Person Investigations Procedures. Effective 1 April 1971 the Com- 
munity Service Aides were authorized to conduct investigations of missing 
persons. These investigations were previously conducted by youth officers who 
now with the implementation of the aides are afforded more time with youth 
related incidents. 

B. Conduct a Bicycle Registration Program. — District centers established a 
Bicycle Registration Program. They obtained the cooperation of private and 
public agencies to encourage and urge youths of the community to register their 
bicycles. All Community Service Aides while (m patrol carry and have available 
at all times a supply of bicycle registration cards. The aides also distributed the 
little red booklet, "10 Little Bike Rides" which covers the rules and regulations 
of bicycle riding. 

C. Conducted a canvass to update emergency listings for businesses. — The 
Community Service Aides continued to canvass the target areas of businesses in 
the area to update the businesses listings and made note of complaints and/or 
suggestions the businessmen voiced. The centers maintained and furnished to 
the district stations a current file of addresses and phone numbers where mer- 
chants could be reached during emergencies, thus reducing police details at these 
locations. This service was formerly a police function. Current card files are used 
by district police to notify owners of fires in buildings, crimes, etc. Prompt 
response by property owners, release the assignment of beat cars stationed at the 
location, making them available for patrol duty. 

v. COMMUNITY SERVICE AIDES PROGRAMS — NON-ENFORCEMENT 

Board of Health 

Sickle Cell Anemia, and. Lead Testing Programs 

The Community Service Aides performed an excellent job in connection with 
this program. Tlie program was operated in schools in the Grand Boulevard Tar- 
get Area with the cooperation of the Board of Education and the Board of Health. 
Tests were conducted from January to May 30, 1972 in nine schools, and at Com- 
munity Service Aide Centers where 3,479 children were tested, and 282 were 
found to be positive. See exhibit 2. Tests were also conducted on street corners 
in the Uptown Target Area using mobile units. Since May 1972, a total of 15 
separate locations were used. A total of 748 children were tested, 647 for lead 
poisoning and 137 for Sickle Cell Anemia. See exhibit 3. 

In connection with the testing program, it was necessary to secure the con- 
sent of the parents who were required to sign consent forms. Aides did this work 
by visiting the children's homes in advance of the testing. When the children 
did not appear at the mobile unit for a test the aides went to their homes and; 
with the consent of the parents escorted the children to and from the mobile unit. 
We are again attempting to secure the mobile unit service citywide for 1973. 



319 

Raines Control Program 

Conducted initial and follow up surveys of animal owners to educate and en- 
courage compliance with lawful requirements for licensing dogs and admin- 
istering rabies inoculations. Community Aides have followed up on 557 dog bite 
investigations from 1 June 1971 through 1 September 1972. 

Bi partmeyit of Water and, Setvers 

Educational programs and supervision regarding the city wide use of open fire 
hydrant sprinkling was engaged in by Community Service Aides in coor)eration 
with the Department of Water and Sewers' Summertime Control Program. See 
exhibit 5. 

Department of Streets And Sanitation — ^Department of Buildings. The aides 
have reported 30,543 irregularities or service requests between 1 June 1971 and 
1 September 1972, which were registered by the residents or observed by the aides. 
Tliese service requests/irregularity reports include abandoned autos, abandoned 
buildings, holes in streets, uncollected garbage, rodent control, exix)sed wire, 
heating complaints, and etc. The performance of the aide in this phase of his 
.activity relieves police personnel to answer many more calls of a criminal nature. 
See exhibit 2. 

OOOPEEATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES 

Aides were deployed to schools where harassment of children was a problem ; 
to the Mayor's Reach Out Program as coaches and supervisors; to the milk 
center for distribution of milk; to neighborhood relations sergeants in district 
stations for their community related programs; to the Youth Foundation, the 
American Indian Center, and the Uptown Youth Correction Center as counselors. 

Exhibit No. 1 

(1) Community Aides Algernun Ballard, Willa Mae Emory, Dorothy Hunter, 
Marva Jaker, Willow Dean Jane and Charles Byrdo, while in the performance of 
routine patrol duty observed a strong arm robbery in progress involving three 
offenders and one victim. The Aides ran to the assistance of the victim. Two of 
the offenders were chased and caught by the Aides and were arrested by an 11th 
District Tactical Unit that was nearby. The 3rd offender escaped but was sub- 
sequently apprehended and identified. 

(2) On 7 June 1972, Community Service Aides Ramsey and Hendrick observed 
some youths in what they thought to be a stolen vehicle. After ascertaining the 
validity of the steal, they called for a Patrol Car. The Aides were able to furnish 
the responding Beat car, not only with a description, but the names and addresses 
of the offenders. The oflScers were able to effect an immediate arrest. 

(3) On 28 April, 1972, several Aides and a sworn member were in the Area of 
811 — 15 East 43rd Street, where they observed a fire. The Aides went into the 
burning building and notified residents of the fire. They came upon a 78 year 
old woman suffering with crippling arthritis. They removed her and transported 
her to Michael Reese Hospital. Aides aided in relocation of families. 

On 28 April 1972 at 1830 hours a 3-11 alarm fire occured at 4402 Greenwood. 
Several aides were dispatched to the scene and assisted in removing children and 
adults from the burning building. Further Aides aided in relocation of families. 

(4) On 29 June 1972, Community Service Aide Ford while engaged in patrol 
duties, observed a man lying on the street suffering from multiple stab wounds 
of the face and head. Community Service Aide Ford administered first aid to the 
victim until the arrival of the police and was able to supply the police with the 
name of the offender. 

(5) An imidentifled woman ran into the 502 Center and related that a man 
had another man down across the street robbing him. Sgt. Hawkin and Lt. 
Brown immediately ran to the aid of the victim and arrested the offender. The 
offender in turn had passed the gun to a passing friend, this was detected and 
Officer Bratton arrested this offender, robbery case pending in court. 



320 



SERVICE REQUEST IRREGULARITY REPORTS 









Center number 








Year 
to date 




502 


503 


510 


511 


520 


521 


Total 


Abandoned auto 

Broken water main 


93 


103 


139 


93 


159 


38 


625 


8,238 
108 


Dangerous and obstructed 
sidewalk 

Broken curb stone 


23 


33 


105 


9 


14 


60 
4 
4 

32 

27 

5 


244 

4 

18 

138 

197 

8 

12 


2,011 
287 


Broken parking meters 

Hole— street/alley 

Hydrant cap missing. 


2 
18 
10 


4 .... 
25 
16 

3 .... 

1 .... 


"'"46""'" 
117 


....... 

14 


8 

7 
13 

""ii". 


335 

978 

1,042 


Fallen street signs_-_ 


276 


Dead fallen tree . 




190 


Street light out 








140 


Traffic ligtit out.. 


3 
62 
14 
12 

4 

1 

186 


11 
12 

4 
41 
11 

1 

1 
74 

2 
13 

"'l' 
-"29 


6 
36 

3 
65 

45 
11 
30 

206 
3 

109 
20 
48 


5 

27 
1 

112 

21 

3 

8 

165 
5 
1 
9 
9 

"""20" 


9 
17 

3 

2 
19 

2 .... 
32 .... 
120 
13 
29 

5 
19 

8 

6 


19 

29 

7 

17 

24 

""205" 
10 
37 
32 
21 
1 
15 


53 
183 

32 
249 
124 

18 
257 
770 

33 
251 

67 

115 

9 

126 


138 


Street cleaning 


744 


Dead stray animal... 

Abandoned building 


282 
2, 790 


Dangerous building 

Fire hazard 

Uncollected garbage. 


893 

64 

2,247 


Bulk trash 


5,214 


Exposed wires 




262 


No lids, garbage cans 

Rodent control 


62 
1 .... 
11 

32 


1,474 
433 


Other health hazard 


564 


General assistance. 

Attractive nuisance.. . . .. 


466 
228 


No heat 


581 


Refuse vacant lot. . . . 


3 .... 











3 


6 


579 






Subtotal 


537 


391 


1,013 


512 


496 


590 


3,539 


30, 543 


Follow-up complaints. 


278 


522 


330 


178 


261 


118 


1,687 


7,294 


Total... 


815 


913 


1,343 


690 


757 


708 


5,226 


37, 837 


OPERATION HEALTHY CHILD-1972 


Date 


Site 








Lead 




Sickle 


Total 


May 24, 1972 

May 26, 1972 


.... 1200 West Winona 
.... 1200 West Winnem 
.... 1000 West Winona 
.... 1000 West Ainslie. 

Leiand and Hazel. 

.... 1000 West Leiand. 
.... 1200 West Leiand. 
.... 1400 West Leiand. 

Sunnyside and Bea 

Sunnyside and Rac 

Sunnyside and Haz 

Cullom and Hazel. 

Buena Park 

do 

Cuyler and Broadvi 


ac . 




45 

32 

43 

50 

55 

28 

38 

28 .. 

30 

80 . 

66 

25 . 

37 

39 

51 




9 
10 
32 

8 

4 
12 

3 

" "'§" 
...... 

"""22' 
9 

12 


54 
42 


May 31, 1972. 






75 


June 2, 1972... 

June 7, 1972 






58 
59 


June9,1972. 

June 14, 1972 

June 16, 1972 

June 21, 1972 


con. 




40 
41 
28 
39 


June 23, 1972 


ine 




80 


June 28, 1972 

June 30. 1972. . 


el 




73 
25 


Julys, 1972 

July 7, 1972 

July 12,1972 


fay.. 




59 
48 
6i 










Total 




647 




137 


784 















The following is a breakdown report of the people tested in the 2nd District 
Center and in School District #23 : 



321 



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O 

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to *- 

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o3 



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-C CL 



: 5 o 
00 






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CT> Ln in »— I 

U3 



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on •*- O I- o _ 
m v> *-- C 
^ <DT3 OJ^ 

cot; ^"S^*- 

S 0, S «'^ ^ 
"O > e j^ cj ._ 
(o 00 ® t« -i^ ^ 
»•— o -^ ,»_ i*_ ^ 
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^ ^. u. ^ ^ (_j 

<l> QJ QJ a) QJ 

J3.Q JDXJ JD-= 

E E E E E 2 
3 3 3 =3 :3 o 
c: c c c = '^ 

eo TO ro re 03 ^ -25 
O "o O O O "D 






322 

The following is a total of people tested from the 2nd District Center and in 
School District #23: Total number of students tested 3,497. Total number posi- 
tive to test 282. ,Total number who received oltrophoresis 150. Total number of 
S.C. Traits 70, and total number of S.C. disease 5. Total number of Educational 
Counseling, film strip, inservice, classroom and etc. : Faculty 212, children 800, 
Parents 102 and Auxiliary Staff 54. 

ANIMAL CONTROL PROGRAM 

The following procedures are designed to reduce the number of man-hours 
presently being spent by beat personnel in handling animal bite cases. The Com- 
munity Service Aides concentrate their activities in five basic areas of involve- 
ment in the Model Cities Target Areas : 

A. An educational program has been developed designed to acquaint citizens 
with their lawful responsibilities with respect to ownership of animals. A brochure 
explaining the various laws regarding animals has been prepared. This brochure 
is distributed to all animal owners along with a dog license application for their 
assistance in licensing their animals. Aides that encounter owners of unlicensed 
dogs make prompt notification so that a summons may be issued. Movies depicting 
the citizens role in a rabies control program are shown at workshops and vari- 
ous meetings in the neighborhoods to acquaint the citizens with the importance 
of rabies control program. 

B. In the event a person has been bitten by an animal and the Animal Care 
Section, or the beat officer, knows the name of the owner but has not been able 
to contact him. Aides are assigned to personally contact the owner. The Aide 
presents the owner with a Notice to Animal Owner form (CPD-11.1S6) which lists 
instructions and requirements. 

C. In the case of a person bitten by an animal and the ownership of the animal 
has been established, but only verbal contact via telephone has been accomplished, 
Aides are assigned to follow-up the verbal instructions by contacting the owner 
with written instructions. 

D. In the case of a person bitten by an animal and the animal has not been 
located or impounded. Aides are assigned to the general vicinity of the incident 
for the purpose of locating the animal. If the animal is located, the Aides do not 
attempt to catch the animal, but will keep it under surveillance and notify the 
Animal Care Section or beat vehicle. 

E. All Community Service Aides, while on routine patrol, are alert for stray 
dogs roaming the streets, particularly in the vicinity of schools and parks. These 
animals are reported to the Animal Care Section via telephone. 

OPEN FIRE HYDRANTS 

In an effort to assist the Police Department in combating the problem of un- 
authorized open fire hydrants, the following procedures have been implemented 
by the Community Sei-vice Aides Project : 

A. Each Community Service Center has been supplied with ten (10) sprinkler 
caps and wreiiches for affixing the caps to fire hydrants. 

B. On those days when the temperature is exceptionally high, Unit Com- 
manders will inspect, or cause to be inspected, their entire Target Area on a peri- 
odic basis. 

C. If this inspection reveals a fire hydrant that has been opened and children 
are playing in tlie water, a spray cap will be attached to this hydrant, and two 
Community Service Aides left in attendance. 

D. If this inspection reveals a fire hydrant that has been opened and children 
are NOT playing in the water, the hydrant will be turned off. 

E. In all instances where a spray cap has been attached, the spray cap will be 
taken off not later than the conclusion of the second watch (2000 hours) on the 
day that the spray cap was attache<l. At the conclusion of the second watch of 
each day, each Community Service Center should have ten (10) .spray caps in 
the Center. 

F. In all cases where a spi-ay cap is attached, great care and consideration 
should be given to vehicular traflSc. Spray caps should not be attached where 
there is danger of vehicular accidents being caused or danger of a child being 
struck by a vehicle. 

The foregoing procedures have been issued as guidelines governing the Project's 
initial plan of operation in this problem area. These procedures will be adjusted 
as experience dictates. 



323 

Cliairmaii Pepper. The committee will recess until 2 o'clock this af- 
ternoon when, in this room, we hear further witnesses. 

I believe Chief Wilson of the District of Columbia Police Depart- 
ment will be the first witness. 

Without objection, we will at this time receive for the record a state- 
ment from Hon. Tom Railsback of Illinois. 

[Whereupon, at 12 :25 p.m. the hearing was recessed until 2 p.m. this 
day.] 

Peepaeed Statement by Hon. Tom Railsback, a U.S. Representatpve From 

THE State of Illinois 

Mr. Chairman, Distinguished Members of the Committee, I commend you for 
holding hearings "Crime in tlae Streets", and thank you for providing me with 
the opportunity to discuss an aspect of crime which particularly concerns me^ 
the involvement of so many of our young people. 

If we are to substantially reduce the overall crime rate in our country, we 
must tirst solve the youth crime problem. We must distinguish the factors which 
could turn a young person to crime, and — before he actually commits his tirst 
criminal act — we must direct his energies toward a constructive life. For the 
individual who has already nm afoul of the law, we must successfully rehaliUtate 
him. I emphasize rehabilitate. As a result of touring numerous institutions as a 
member of the Judiciary subcommittee on prison reform, I am convinced we 
cannot simply put young people into institutions and assume that by some 
miracle they will become well-adjusted, law-abiding citizens at the end of their 
term. 

Let me break down the problem of juvenile crime as I see it. 

First, There has been a rapid rise in juvenile delinquency and crime. From 
1960 to 1970, the juvenile arrest rate of individuals under 18 increased almost 
seven times faster than the total adult arrest rate. Just as startling is the fact 
that during this same period, arrests of persons under IS for violent crime in- 
creased about three times as fast as the arrest rates for those over 18. And, even 
though drug arrests skyrocketed for all age groups in the 1960s, the increase 
exceeded 3,000% for juveniles under 18 years of age. 

In 1971, nationally, persons under 15 accounted for 10% of the total police ar- 
rests ; those under 18 accounted for 26% ; those under 21, 40% ; and those under 
age 25 were responsible for 54% of all police arrests. 

Second, Over half of the serious crimes in the United States are committed by 
young people. In 1970, 63% of all serious crimes were committed by persons under 
age 21. And, in both 1970 and 1971, at least 50% of the arrests for such crimes 
were of persons under the age of 18. 

Third, Youthful offenders have the highest recidivism rates. An FBI study 
conducted in 1905-1969 showed that of the offenders under 20 who were released 
in 1965, almost three-fourths of them were re-arrested by the end of the study. 

In 1971, over half of the offenders under 20 years of age who were arrested 
were repeat offenders. And the repeat offenders under 20 were rearrested more 
frequently than any other age group. 

It is clear that young people account for a disproportionate amount of all 
crimes^ — even serious crimes — and the younger the age at the time of the first 
arrest, the higher the recidivism rate. Further, and certainly as disturbing, when 
young people are rearrested it is more likely than not for an increasingly serious 
offense. Whatever we have done in the past to prevent delinquency and to re- 
habilitate juvenile offenders has just not worked ! 

In large part, I am convinced our failure can be attributed to insufficient train- 
ing of tliose who work most closely with young people — lack of any real in-depth 
research in the area of juvenile crime and delinquency — and little coordination 
and communication by the various agencies dealing with juvenile justice. It 
is for these reasons I have introduced legislation which would set up an inde- 
pendent Institute to provide training, conduct research, and disseminate infor- 
mation. The research function was developed after a great deal of assistance 
from the Chairman of this Committee. The bill, H.R. 45, was passed by the 
House last year, and I am optimistic it will be enacted in the 98rd Congress. 

We must initiate programs that are designed to cut down our crime rate 
by stamping out juvenile crime. For the sake of our youth and America's future, 
I encourage you to continue your deliberations and present some alternatives 



324 

for veclucing juvenile crime ad delinquency to the full House membership at 
the earliest possible date. 
Thank you, 

Afternoox Session 

Chairman Pepper, Tlie committee will come to order, please. 

Chief, I am sorry we are a little late. The other members are on 
the floor and there are several committee meetings aoing on, one of 
which is a meeting of the Rules Committee of which I am a member. 
We have an important bill on the floor, so I might be called any time 
to leave. We don't want to take any more of your time and, of course, 
your testimony will be recorded for the information of the other mem- 
bers of this conmiittee. 

We thank you very much for coming this afternoon. 

As you know, what we are doing is bringing here for presentation 
to the Congress and to the country the most innovative, imaginative, 
and ert'ective programs that we can find anywhere in the country in 
the police area in respect to the reduction of the occurrence of crime, 
particularly violent crime. 

We already have had a numl>er of outstanding programs presented 
to the committee of new techniques, new manners of police methods 
which have reduced crimes in various cities of the country. 

We are very pleased to have you here to tell what you have been 
able to do to bring about a significant reduction of violent crime in 
the District of Columbia, We would appreciate it ver}' much if you 
would give us that story. 

STATEMENT OF JERRY V. WILSON, CHIEF, METROPOLITAN POLICE 
DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, D.C., ACCOMPANIED BY GEOFFREY 
M. ALPRIN, GENERAL COUNSEL 

^Ir, WiLSOX. Thank you, ISLv. Chairman. 

It is a real pleasure to be here and I can certainly be here at the con- 
venience of you and your committee, so don't be concerned if you need 
to lea^'e. 

As I think you perhaps know from 3'our past interest, crime in the 
District of Columbia increased almost continuously from 1957 through 
1969. This increase was attributed to a variety of causes : Economic and 
social ills of society, and processes of urbanization, the erosion of police 
authority through court decisions, the increased complexity of crimi- 
nal trials, the backlogs which resulted in the courts and eventually, in 
tlie late 1960's, the increased use of hard narcotics. Crime in the Dis- 
trict in terms of crime index offenses doubled from 1962 to 1966, and 
doubled again from 1966 to 1969. 

In 1969, at the peak, there were 60,000 crime index offenses as com- 
pared with 15,000 in 1962. As I think you also know, in 1969 the Fed- 
eral Government, the Nixon administration, established a priority of 
reducing crime in the District of Columbia and indeed it was a cam- 
paign issue; and one of the first issues addressed in the District of 
Columbia was the establishment of the reduction of crime in the city 
as a primary, first priority of the government. 

And. of course, this was done in the face of recognized competing 
priorities and problems of housing and transportation and health care 



325 

and sanitation, and a ^•al•iety of otlicr items that face most of the urban 
aieas of America. 

But President Nixon unequivocably established the reduction of 
crime as the priority of the District government. This was approached 
in several ways in late 19G9. It was a major increase in tlio police force 
to 5,100 men and about a thousand civilians, which made it, of course, 
the largest per capita police agency in America. 

This, I would interject, had a side benefit in that the great increase 
in the police force improved our black recruiting and it allowed us also 
to use women in additional ways in the police force so that over a 
])eriod of the next couple of years we were able to soften the image of 
the police force as an occupation force of the city. 

A second program was in the U.S. Attorney's Office, which was in- 
creased in size, the prosecutor's staff was increased by 50 percent, and 
the clerical assistance to the prosecutor's staff was doubled. There was 
a coordinated effort instituted between the police department and the 
U.S. Attorney to give special attention to offenders committing major 
crimes. And major in the sense, meaning robberies and major 
burglaries. 

There also has been increased emphasis in both the police depart- 
ment and the prosecutor's office of computerization of data in order to 
make it available to police on the street and in order to make it possible 
for the prosecutor to assign priorities in criminal cases in scheduling. 

There was instituted in 1970 a major narcotics treatment program 
cmploj-ing primarily methadone maintenance, and also some absti- 
nence programs built in. 

There were several changes in narcotics enforcement by the police. 
We trained our street patrolmen, our uniformed officers, in the 3-day 
Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs course to deal with the 
street peddler. We increased the size of the headquarters narcotics 
unit by quadrupling it and shifting its emphasis to major violators 
and the conseqrience of this was narcotics arrests were increased from 
1,000 in 1968 to 6.000 in 1971. 

I would add that there has been a decline in 1972. primarily because 
the narcotics simply are not on tlie street for supply and arrest any 
longer. There was. of course, administrative priorities to the changes 
in law wliicli particularly effected results in the reorganization and 
expansion of the court svstem which was enacted by the Congress in 
1970. 

The last of the measurable major city programs was a major street 
lighting program. I would add one measurably major ingredient, these 
ouglit to be done primarily by the government, but a major ingredient 
of our success in reducing crime in Washington as well, has been real 
support for law enforcement, which has been, I think, seen both in 
the community and in government leaders since 1969. It has just been 
a long time since we have heard aiiv substantial comnuinitv leader 
aver that he did not sup})ort the police and support law enforcement 
or (lid not want the police in this community. 

The consequence of these major programs has been a great deal of 
success in reducing crime. Crime has been downward in just about 
every month since November 1969. We had a couple of seasonal up- 
turns but we have been succesful in reducing the crime index rate 
from a peak of 202 crime index offenses daily in November 1969 to an 



326 

average of 89 per day for tlie last quarter, for the quarter ending last 
month. 

Indeed, for March we had only 85 crime index offenses per day on 
the average, which was the lowest mark since 1966. 

There have been some other programs within the department that I 
think may be of interest. They are not as broad as those I have dis- 
cussed earlier, but there are programs such as the use of scooters to give 
mobility to foot patrolmen, a program which was begiui in the middle 
1960's under an LEAA grant, and has been since expanded to 360 
scooters. It gives us the ability of essentially having an officer on a 
sort of foot patrol but with much more mobility, giving him more effec- 
tiveness than the ordinary footman. 

We have instituted the neighborhood scout car program, which is 
aimed at trying to keep the scout car officer assigned continuously to 
the same area and getting him acquainted with the residents and the 
businessmen in the neighborhoods. 

We have instituted a program of requiring officers to report their 
business checks, requiring them to go into businesses and talk w^ith 
business owners, simply to insure that they get acquainted with busi- 
nessmen and the police presence is reemphasized. 

We have had some success with the auto interceptor units working 
on tlie problem of stolen automobiles and also with a special burglary 
alarm system which we use on a tactical basis in business places in 
order to cope with holdups. 

The helicopter program which is used in many cities, of course, was 
instituted under an LEAA grant and showed significant success. AVe 
had a lot of success, Mr. Chairman, with tactical units, both mobile 
uniformed patrol officers operating tactically and also with casual 
clothes personnel working in tactical units, although we are presently 
experimenting with phasing those out with an emphasis on getting 
them back into uniformed street patrol on assigned foot beats, which 
I think is something that we will be successful in. 

Tactical units have been used oft' and on in the United States since 
the middle 1950's and used here off and on since 1966. They were very 
successful but I think many programs tend to become a part of the 
bureaucracy and I presently see it as advantageous to move back to- 
ward more uniformed j^atrohnen assigned to beats permanently so 
they will know the residents. 

Three other programs that I think may be of interest to you are in 
terms of trying to appreliend criminals and make cases which will 
stand up in court, which is one of the great problems, I think, in many 
of the urban areas, at least the problem of apprehending criminals, 
closing cases, and presenting cases to court which are prosecutable. 

Tliere is a great loss between the arrest and the cases which even- 
tually get to court and result in a conviction. 

We have done three things in this area : One is the use of crime scene 
search officers. In 1968 we had 12 men assigned to fingerprinting, and 
searching, and evidence gathering at crime scenes. The consequence 
of that was we had great backlogs of persons who were burgalized 
or had other crimes committed who were unable to use the premises 
until we could get a search man in. 

We have increased that through training of men in the patrol dis- 
tricts who are normally on patrol, but are available for crime scene 



327 

search. We now liave 125 men assigned capable of that fimction and 
have increased the number of cases closed primarily through latent 
fingerprints from 146 in 1968 to 720 in 1972. 

We also last year, early last year, instituted a special case review 
section in coordination with the U.S. attorney's office in order to review 
the cases that are dropped by the prosecutor to ascertain the reasons 
for it, so we can train our men in making cases better and also bring 
to the, attention of the supervisors and the prosecutor's offices those 
cases which we felt should have gone forward. 

The third aspect of our investigative processes which I think had 
some effect is the devising of a modern lineup room and establishment 
of procedures which are in conformity with the 1968 court rules on 
lineups. 

And the fourth aspect I would mention is the increasing use of guide- 
lines, issuance of guidelines to the force, in order to strengthen the 
department in those cases which otherwise would be lost by the exclu- 
sionary rule. 

On these last four things, if I could, I Avould like to have Mr. Alprin, 
my general counsel, speak on that because he worked closely with these 
programs and could give you some insight into them. 

Chairman Pepper. We would be glad to have you. 

Mr. Alprin. Thank you, JNIr. Chairman. 

Mr. Chairman, I think the most important function of my particular 
job is to assure wherever I can that arrests that members of the de- 
partment make, where possible, result in successful court prosecutions. 

As Chief Wilson pointed out, there is a great lag and there always 
has been between arrests we make and convictions at the other end of 
the whole process. 

In 1968, as you know, the Supreme Court decided three cases in- 
volving lineups. The result of that — irrespective of whether the de- 
cisions were right or wrong — was a very high priority being placed 
on the lineup process. We came to find out over a period of a few years 
that many witnesses who liad made identifications from photographs in 
robbery cases, for example, were failing to identify the offenders, the 
defendants, in actual lineup proceedings because of the fear factor. 

They were there in the same room with a group of men, one of which 
presumably was the defendant, and they were, in many cases, quite 
afraid that the defendant who was presumably, out on bond at that 
time or personal recognizance, would retaliate in some way. 

So in August of 1971 Ave instituted a new lineup room. The major 
feature of the room was the installation of one-way glass. So that all 
defendants or all persons standing in the line, standing on one side of 
the line, would not be able to see through that glass, although the wit- 
ness on the other side would, of course, be able to see through the glass. 

Also, one other feature was that tlie place where the defendants or 
the people in the lineup would stand would be soundproof. 

We kept statistics for 1971 and 1972 and we have noted a 12-percent 
increase in the number of positive identifications that have been made 
since installation in August of 1971 of the one-way glass. 

In addition, I might point out that all of our lineups in the court 
order are counseled ; lawyers appear for defendants in all of them. All 
of them are tape recorded, photographs of all of the lineups are made 
and presented to the court at the appropriate time. 

95-158— 73— pt. 1—22 



328 

In almost all of the cases that I liaA'e knowledge of our lineup proce- 
dures have been sustained since the middle of 1971. 

If I may move on to the case review section : We instituted that in 
April of 1972 because we knew a lot of the arrests Tve were making were 
resulting in these being dropped by the prosecutor the first day they 
were brought to the court. 

In other words, we would make an arrest and we would bring the 
case to the court the next morning and the prosecutor would drop the 
case or no paper, which is our own peculiar term of art for dropping a 
case in the District of Columbia. 

We decided that it was time we took a look at all of those cases. So 
far as we knew at that time, perhaps at this time, no other police de- 
partment in the country and no one in the country, on a systematic 
basis was looking at that wliole category of cases that was dropped ini- 
tially by the prosecutor. 

So, under orders of Chief Wilson, the case review section w^as in- 
stituted in April of 1972. One of its purposes was that we knew that 
there had to be some areas in which our own performance, police pei'- 
formance, could be improved to perhaps save some cases. We required 
that wherever we found a case in which a police officer had made an 
error of some kind that his prosecution report after the case had been 
dropped would be returned to his commanding officer, who then would 
be required to reinstruct him or to have him reinstructed and coun- 
seled in Avhat he did wrong; hopefully, so that the same kind of 
problem would not occur again and result in another case being 
dropped at a later time. 

When we first started maintaining the unit in April, for the first 3 
months; April, May, and June of 1972, we found that approximately 
30 percent of all cases that we presented to the U.S. attorney in the 
superior court were dropped immediately on the first day. This struck 
us as a high figure, but my own judgment, from talking with various 
administrators around the country it is no higher, and perhaps even 
lower, than a lot of major cities which have a serious crime situation 
and backlogged courts. 

In any case, through the reinstruction process and also through put- 
ting pressure and discussing matters with the I'^.S. attorney, and with 
the court, in many areas that don't involve police performance at all 
but result in no papered cases, we have succeeded in lowering the rate 
approximately 7 percentage points so that the average rate for all of 
the months since 1972 until the present is approximately 23.5 percent. 

Now, that still, in my judgment, is not nearly as good as it should be 
and it is still approximately one out of four cases we make being 
dropped which is not a good thing and we hope we will be able to loAver 
the rates even further. 

Chairman Pepper. Excuse me. Does the prosecuting attorney give. 
you the reason, in writing, why the cases were droi^ped ? 

Mr. Alprin. He certainly cloes. The unit couldn't work without 
that, Mr. Chairman. Since itbegan, the experiment has been conducted 
with the cooperation of the U.S. attorney, who makes available to us 
his prosecutors' jackets in each of the no-pai:)ered cases, and the rea- 
sons which we catalog and keep statistics of are his reasons most of 

the time. 

I would point out that we have found that for the last 10 or 11 
months of the survey, only approximately 10 percent of all of the cases 



329 

tliat are no papered result from a police, what we call a police, prob- 
lem — a police misperformance or nonperformance of some kind. 

Almost everything else results from systemic problems within the 
sj'stem. For example: witness problems and inti-a family assaults, of 
which we have many in the District of Columbia and which account 
perliaps for 5-0 to 60 percent of all no-papered cases. 

With regard to intraf amily or iiitrapersonal assaults, normally there 
is no desire on anyone's part to prosecute. 

Chairman Pepper. Excuse me. In most of those cases, what was 
the reason given? 

Mr. Alppjx. In most of the cases, the reason that was given was 
the complaining witness did not want to prosecute tlie defendant. 
Tlie complaining witness in many cases woidd be the wife, the girl 
friend, the boy friend, a friend of some other kind, who was assaulted 
in some way, perhaps injured, perhaps taken to the hospital, and an 
arrest was made. 

Tlie case went down to the U.S. attorney the next morning and, 
by tliat time, everybody was calm again and the complaining witness 
did not Avant to prosecute so the U.S. attorney dropped those cases. 

But certainly tliere is no police nonperformance or fault involved 
in tliose cases, and that is a great number of cases. 

Also, we have a lot of cases in which in other kinds of situations 
witnesses do not a])i:)ear the next morning; complaining witnesses or 
other identifying witnesses. They just don't ap])ear and can't be found 
and if they don't appear and can't be found the case can't be made 
and those cases are dropped. 

The point I am making is although the rate is high and although 
it ]ias come down since we have been running this experiment, most 
of it — perhaps 80 to 90 percent of it — results from factors wliich 
really don't have anytliing to do with police performance. 

Ciiairman Pepper. Justice Tom Clark was telling me a few days 
ago about a practice by a certain ]:)rosecuting attorney who, ratlier than 
waiting until the case was called for trial, would take a look at what 
the evidence was. He would, at the xcvy time of the arraignment of 
the defendant get his lawyer, or the court-ap]^ointed lawyer, to meet 
witli liim and he would run down the list of the defenses tliis man 
M'ould make that would indicate what tlie defense was going to be. 

In the case the Justice put, he was in a certain place at a certain 
time and could prove it bv a certain v:itness. "Do you thinlc that is 
o-oiiiir to l)e vour defense?'' "Yes, sir; that is going to be my defense." 
"Well, let's check up on that." 

.\nd he would have tliat checked out and if it did appear that he 
really did have a valid alibi that he could probably adapt then the 
l)ro^ocuting attorney might dismiss the case without holding him in 
jail, having him make bond, or waiting until they were set and ready. 

Does the prosecuting attorney here follow any procedure like that 
at all? 

]\Ir. Alprix. Do you jnean, ^Mr. Chairr.ian, Avitli defense counsel? 
Chairman Pepper. Yes. 

]\rr. At.prix. Yes. I think the local prosecutor would like to do that 
in as many cases as he could. But my own experience as a prosecutor 
for ?> years has been to the effect that defense counsel won't tell you 
what their defense is, or might be, at the time of trial. I can recall 



330 

many cases in which I said to defense counsel, when I was an assistant 
U.S. attorney, "Here's my file, you can have it, read it all, all of it, 
if I can look at yours and read all of it," and not one of them ever 
took me up on this. 

Chairman Pepper. That is one thing we are going into. The 
courts ought to have authority to have something akin to what we call 
a pretrial conference in civil cases. And you know, attorneys are re- 
quired to come before the court before a case is brought to trial. 

I think the court could require a defendant at a reasonable time 
after his arrest and arraignment, as soon as he can get a lawyer, a rea- 
sonable time at least after he gets a lawyer, to be required to disclose 
what his defense is going to be. There is no reason to wait imtil he gets 
right up to the trial and has the police there and witnesses all there, 
the delay, the expense, and everything. The public has some interest,, 
too, in the expedition of this trial. 

Mr. Alprin. I think so, definitely. I would like to see that happen. 
There is in the local district court, a notice of alibi rule which does,, 
upon proper motion by the prosecutor, require the defense counsel 
to notify the prosecutor if he is going to use the alibi defense, and that 
does occur at the present time. 

Chairman Pepper. I think we will have the prosecuting attorney 
and maybe one of the more senior judges to testify here and we wilt 
go into that to see whether or not something like that could be done. 

Mr. Alprin. One other important area I think tliat we have been in- 
volved in for the last several years is the promulgation of written 
guidelines for police officers in legally connected areas, in the form of 
orders, general orders of the department, rather than training bulletins 
to which the men are not necessarily held accountable. We have done 
this at the present time in two areas : In the area of eyewitness identi- 
fication, and also in the area of automobile searches. We have promul- 
gated strict rules the policemen must follow in connection with 
returning suspects to the scene for identification purposes about which 
the Supreme Court and other courts have written, and with regard 
to that order which came out a]iproximately 2 years ago, it has been 
noted with approval by the local U.S. Court of Appeals on a number 
of occasions. 

We are planning for this year to promulgate orders in the area of 
"stop and frisk" authority, and searches of persons and places with- 
out warrants. 

I think that it is very important to the man on the street, the police- 
man on the street, to know what you as an administrator expect of 
him rather than leaving everything to his discretion and judgment. 
You have to tell him what you want him to do and if he doesn't do it 
then there is a reason to be unhappy with his performance. 

That really concludes about what I have to say, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief, do you have a further statement to make ? 

Mr. Wilson-. No, Mr. Chairman. That was essentially what I had 
as an opening statement. 

Chairman Pepper. Mr, Lynch, would you like to inquire ? 

Mr. Lynch. Yes, sir ; thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Chief Wilson, would it be fair to say your Department has been 
substantially reorganized since 1966 ? 



331 

Mr. WiLSOx. The Department was totally reorganized in 1967, 
January 1967, and there hav^o been some refinements in that orga- 
nization. But it is essentially the organization of 1967. 

Mr. Lynch. Could you very briefly describe what the major ele- 
ments of that reorganization were, sir ? 

Mr. "WiLsox. A\''ell, inasmuch as it grew out of the lACP survey 
wliich had 531 recommendations, it is liard to pick out any prijicipal 
ojies. It was essentially a complete reorganization. Prior to 1967 there 
were about, I think by varying counts, 25 to 30 different divisions 
reporting directly to the chief or his executive officer. These have 
been consolidatecl into four bureaus, plus the General Council's Office, 
wliich report directly to the chief of police. Beyond that, we have con- 
solidated the 14 precincts in the city into seven police districts. There 
was a complete reorganization of the Detective Operation which, in- 
cidentally, Ave tried and did not like and we reverted to a system some- 
wi>at like the one we had prior to 1967. 

There was establislnnent of several new bureaus, a planning and 
development division, a field inspection division. At the time of the 
reorganization, we were in the process of instituting a data processing 
division. So it was a complete overhaul of the Department of 1967. 

Mr. Lyxch. Would your judgment be that the reorganization has 
at least indirectly, aided the Department insofar as the efficiency of 
its operations and therefore, indirectly as a crime reducing agent. 

Mr. WiLSox. Wei], I don't want to talk down the reorganization be- 
cause I think the I'eorganization was good, but the reorganization took 
place in 1967, and the crime almost doubled between then and 1969. So 
you can't really come up with a cause and effect. But, of course, I realize 
that future benefits often are purchased after problems. 

For example, we had a great deal of difficulty with the consolida- 
tion of the precincts into districts, primarily, because we were in 
a state of crime crisis at the time we did it. I was chief when we did 
it and I thought we should go ahead and do it. And in the long run, 
I am not sure I wouldn't rather have done it in more stable times. My 
answer is, I think the reorganization was good for the Department, but 
I don't laiow that the reorganization is fundamental to achieving re- 
ductions in crime. I think the Department can achieve reductions in 
crimes without massive reorganization. 

Mr. Lyxch. The LACP survey you mentioned was, in fact, com- 
missioned by the President's Commission on Crime in the District 
of Columbia. 

Mr. WiLsox. That is light. 

'Mr. Lyxch. That Commission was promulgated by the Johnson 
administration ; is that correct ? 

Mr. WiLsox. Eight. 

Mr. Lyxch. Since 1968 or 1969. I believe, the size of your Depart- 
ment has approximately doubled. I think it is 78 percent. 

]\Ir. WiLSox. Not reallv doubled. The Department, as I recall, was 
at about 3,000 men in 1966, 3,000 police plus 700-odd civilians. The 
force was increased to 4,100, I believe, in 1968, 1969, and then the 
authorization Avas increased to 5,100. So, it has not doubled but it has 
increased substantially. 

Mr. Lyxch. The FBI UCR Section has advised us that you have 
.approximately 7.6 police employees, including civilians, per thousand 



332 

population. I think, however, that is a metropolitan figure and not one 
confined to the geographic limits of the District. Do yon Icnow, approx- 
imately, what your police-citizen ratio is per thousand? 

Mr. Wilson. It is a little less than that now because they are taking^ 
it at the peak of 5,100 and, of course, because of budget limitation we 
are down to 4,950 as an operating strength now ; so that is a little high. 
It is probably in the neighborhood of seven per thousand population. 

Mr. Lynch. Yesterday afternoon Chief Winston Churchill of the 
Indianapolis Department testified before this committee. He has a po- 
lice-citizen ratio of 1.7, which, incidentally, is the lowest of all of the 
12 cities which are presenting information before this committee. 

He has i-educed crime by 26 percent or thereabouts, which is approxi- 
mately the same as your 1971-72 reduction, I believe. I think it is 2G.9 
or 29.6. It is in the same ballpark. He gave an unequivocable '"no"" to a 
question as to whether or not he needed more policemen. I realize it is 
difficult to make comparisons, but how would you explain how a chief 
of police, with no increase in personnel and with an incredibly low 
ratio of ]Dolice to citizens, could achieve that kind of reduction ? 

Mr. Wilson. I think it is possible. Of course, one of the problems of 
comparing the District of Columbia with Indianapolis is you have to 
recognize that the District of Columbia is the core city of a metro- 
politan area of some 3.5 million people and has a population of its 
own of 736,000, more or less. But it is the core city and it is the core 
which houses most of the problems of the area. And it is at the 
center of a major metropolitan area; whereas Indianapolis, on the 
other hand, which has a population of about the same, is the entire 
metropolitan area. Which means somewhere within that 750,000 they 
have a much smaller core than the District of Columbia. 

Mr. Lynch. Excuse me. That is not quite accurate. He is at the core 
of a metropolitan area of 1.123 million people, according to 1971 data. 

Mr. Wilson. Okaj^. 

Mr. Lynch. But his population is much less than yours. 

Mr. Wilson. The fact is he is substantially the metropolitan area, 
whereas we are not. 

Mr. Lynch. Right. 

Mr. Wilson. And, of course, beyond that, I admit we have a heavy 
])olice force in the District of Columbia. There is no point in deny- 
ing it. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you need more ? 

Mr. Wilson. No. 

Mr. Lynch. In addition, Chief, to the 5,000 members of your own 
Department, this city also has the advantage, it seems to me, of having 
a number of other police agencies who are performing some kind of 
street level enforcement duties. Are you familiar with those figures? 
Could you give us a rundown? We have for instance, the Capitol 
Police 

Mr, Wilson. Of course, the Capitol Police — on the order of a thou- 
sand policemen — are confined to the Canitol Grounds only and do no 
service within the city. The Executive Protective Service does some 
service in the streets in terms of Embassies. The Park Police has 
some — frankly, I don't know the numbers they have that actually 
are working on the streets. 

Mr. Lynch. Do they materially, in your judgment, add to your 
capabilities as the chief of police here ? 



333 

Mr. Wilson. Tlie Executive Protective Service certainly has been 
of assistance in reducing crime because they are a patrol force on the 
sti-eets of the city. The Park Police are on the streets but they arc a 
relatively small force in comparison and, of course, the Capitol Police^ 
quite frankly, are confined only to the Capitol grounds and are 
not that substantially a part of the city, itself. 

Mr. Lynch, So at least to an undetorminod extent the 7.6 figure 
or thereabouts ])er capita could be slightly increased by adding those 
people Avho, while they don't perform full-time enforcement function 
on the streets, do contribute. 

Mr. WiLSOX. That is possible. Of course, that is typical in many 
cities where there are special park authoiity police or transit police 
or industrial police. There are other industrial-type police here, in 
terms of the General Services Administration police. 

Mr. Lyxcit. As I recall. Chief Wilson, the motor scooter patrol 
which you have used for a number of years was initially the result of 
an Office of Law Enforcement Assistance grant. 

Mr. WiLSOx. That is correct. 

Mr. Lyxck. I believe in 1066. 

IVIr. WiLSox. About that time, j-es. 

Mr. Lyxch. Could you tell us approximately how much LEAA 
funding j^our Department has received since that legislation was 
enacted in June of 1968? ^ 

Mr. WiLSOX. No, I could not. 1, frankl}-, do not have the figure off 
the top of my head. 

Mr. Lynch. Could you give us an idea as to what programs a sub- 
stantial amount of LEAA funds were used? 

]Mr. Wn.soN. We obtained a substantial amount of LEAA funds. 
The biggest part of the funds that came to us since 1968, Avould have 
been in 1969-70, with regard to bolsters of the uniformed patrol 
force. It was a substantial grant at that time. There have been other 
grants, which are not all that substantial, in terms of money for im- 
proved training and for technological assistance. 

iNIr. Lynch. Are you indicating that at least a substantial portion 
of LEAA funding went to pay salaries of policemen in this 
jurisdiction? 

]Mr. AViLSox. It went to the support of the increased police force 
in this jurisdiction in 1970: that is correct. A substantial part of the 
money that came to the ^Metropolitan Police Department, not the 
District of Columbia funds, as a total. 

Mr. Lyn^ch. I understand that. They went to the Metropolitan 
Police Department. And there is, is there not, a general LEAA guide- 
line regarding the amount of sui:)port that the LEAA is supposed 
to give any city, or any municipality, or any kind of law enforcement 
agenc}^ that is supposed to go to salaries? 

Mr. Wilson. I am quite sure our grants were in accordance with 
the law. 

[For the information requested above concerning LEAA funds and 
programs, see letter received for the record, dated May 3, 1973, at the 
end of ]Mr. Wilson's testimony.] 

Mr. Lynch. You have. I believe, worked closely with the Narcotics 
Administration liere. Is it your judgment that that agency has mate- 
riallv contributed to your success in reducing the rate of crime in this 
city? 



334 

Mr. WiLSOK. I would judge tliat it probably lias. Now, it is difficult 
to say. The reduction in crime began in November 1969, the agency 
l^ecame effective in June, but I think that as well as a lot of other 
things contributed as well ; for examjjle, the revitalized court system 
find street lighting. I would say, yes, it was an indispensable part of 
the program which President Nixon initiated to deal with the crime 
here. 

Mr. Lynch. As the chief police administrator in your jurisdiction, 
how do you view the present narcotics and dangerous drugs situa- 
tions ? Is it gettmg better or is it getting worse ? 

Mr. Wilson. It is substantially improved. 

The problem of narcotics, of course, is that unlike other crime — even 
with other crimes there are problems with the statistical data avail- 
able, but in narcotics there is practically no data that is solid, so we 
often don't know we have a problem until it almost is a crisis. But, on 
the basis of what we have been able to tell in the last year, or perhaps 
in the last 6 months, it would be more accurate, there has been a sig- 
nificant improvement in the problem of heroin, at least. The use of 
lieroin seems to have dropped off substantially and the traffic in heroin 
seems to have dropped off substantially. 

It is difficult to ascertain exactly why this is. It is possibly a com- 
bination of enforcement efforts. It may be the reduction of troop 
strength in Vietnam. It may be the political impact in overseas coun- 
tries which were producing heroin. But, in any event, there is a notable 
]'eduction in the heroin traffic in this city, beginning last summer, and 
an apparent reduction in the general use of heroin. 

In terms of marihuana usage, it seems to be up. In terms of other 
drags, it is much more difficult to tell. None of them are serious enough 
to be the crisis which heroin use was. 

Mr. Lynch. Have your narcotic squad officers indicated in any way 
to you whether there has been a marked increase in barbiturate and 
amphetamine use ? 

Mr. Wilson. There has been but not to the point I would charac- 
terize it as a crisis. And, of course, as a side benefit, the use in bar- 
biturates and amphetamines does not have the broader law enforce- 
ment implications heroin does inasmuch as that usage usually does 
not require the user to commit crimes to support their habits. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, it is my understanding, at least, for a certain 
percentage of all persons arrested for serious crime in the District, 
there is now a program administered at the jail requiring, or asking, 
those people to submit to your urinalysis examination. And if that 
examination shows positively they are taking heroin and/or other 
dangerous narcotics or drugs, they are then referred to an NTA coun- 
selor. Do you participate in that program? 

Mr. Wilson. We do not. That is after they have been arraigned and 
are in the custody of the court and correctional authorities. 

Mr. Lynch. Have you acted in cooperation with that program? 
How do you regard it ? Is it a good thing ? 

Mr. Wilson. I think it is a good thing. We are not actively involved 
in it. The liaison between my agency and the Narcotic Treatment 
Administration is through my narcotics division and we do keep 
in close contact with them, but we are not actively involved in this 
treatment program. 



335 

Mr. Lyxcii. Chief Wilson, of the 5,000 or so policemen — is that 
an accurate figure, 5,000? 

Mr. WiLsox. No. We presently are about 4,900. 

Mr. Lynch. Of those 4,900 policemen, I wonder if you could tell 
the committee how many you might have on the streets performing 
street-level enforcement functions at any given time, especially during 
the high-crime period of the day ? 

Mr. Wilson. I didn't bring statistics with me. I will be glad to 
furnish them, but I don't have any offhand statistics with me. In a 
general time, I would judge at a peak crime period in terms of patrol, 
about 600. But that varies from day to day and from time to time, 
depending on what other acti\dties are going on in the city in terms 
of demonstrations or other details. 

[For the information requested above, see letter dated May 3, 1973, 
at the end of Mr. Wilson's testimony.] 

Mr. Lynch. Let's use that figure of 600 a day. If you would be 
kind enough to supply us with that data it would be most helpful. 
Of that approximate number of 600, how many would be in motorized 
patrol 'I 

Mr. Wilson. I would have to pro^dde the data. I, f ranklj', couldn't 
off the top of my head. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you have a substantial number of uniformed officers 
who perform foot patrol in the District? 

Mr. Wilson. We have a substantial combination of foot patroU 
scooter patrol, and tactical patrol. Our emphasis during the last year 
lias been on tactical use. 

Mr. Lynch. What Avould that be ? 

Mr. Wilson. Scooter patrol men in casual clothes. Or in essence,, 
nondescript clothing, and now we are shifting to one of men on foot 
patrol, which I would also characterize as a combination of foot- 
scooter patrol. 

Mr. Lynch. Tactical men would be used on a saturation basis ? 

Mr. Wilson. Saturation basis rather than assigned to a peiTnanent 
area within a permanent beat of their own. 

j\Ir. Lynch. They would be designed to respond to a particular crime 
problem in a particular area? 

Mr. Wilson. Right. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, as you know, in 1066 the President's Commis- 
sion on Crime in the District of Columbia indicated in a rather pro- 
tracted statistical analysis that an overwhelming percentage of crime 
in this jurisdiction was committed by young males, and because of 
the particular racial balance in this community it happened to be 
young black males. Is that still the case ? 

_Mr. Wilson. That is still the case. It is substantially the case. I tliink 
with some variations, depending upon the proportion of blacks in the 
total population, that seems to be the case across the country that most 
crime is committed by males between 15 and 24 years of age. 

Mr. Lynch. You have a juvenile division in the Department ? "\Miat 
does that division do ; how large is it ? 

^ Mr. Wilson. The juvenile division in our Department has two func- 
tions: One is essentially a liaison with the juvenile court in terms of 
processing through individuals who are arrested into the juvenile 
court and providing liaison service to the court. We do not any longer 



336 

liold specific disposition, make disposition of cases ourselves, at least, 
in serious cases. 

The juvenile division also encompasses our Police Boys Club, which 
is a unit of about .60 men who are engaged in running athletic pro- 
grams for police rapport with youth in the age range from 6 to 18. 
About 25,000 is the current membersliip of youngsters. 

Mr. Lynch. Do you have a crime prevention bureau, Chief? 

Mr. WiLSox. We do not. 

Mr. Lyxch. Have you considered establishing one ? 

Mr. Wilson. I have considered and rejected it. 

Mr. Lyxcii. What is your objection about those bureaus? 

Mr. Wilson. I considered it and decided in terms of the general use. 
We do some of the functions through other units of tlie Department 
tind through the Boys Club, through the comnumity relations divi- 
sion which engages in programs such as identification, operation identi- 
fication, and in terms of advising citizens on locks. But, in terms of a 
crime prevention bui-eau, no. I have decided not to organize one. 

Mr. Lynch. Could you describe what you referred to as "operation 
identification.'' 

Mr. Wilson. It is a fairly common practice in the Ignited States now 
of the police department, or some other agency, sponsored in conjunc- 
tion with the police department providing electric etching tools and 
encouraging citizens to mark their television sets, hi-fi's, other things 
susceptible to burglary and theft, with their social security number so 
they are identifiable in the event they are stolen. 

Mr. Lynch. Is there any way to ju<lge whether that has an impact ? 

]\Ir. Wilson. There is i-eally not. Our judgment is that it probably 
does have an impact. A part of the program is stickers are issued by 
individuals to place on their windows, indicating their material within 
the household has been so identified, and we do not have any solid 
statistical information that would indicate whether or not it is success- 
ful. Burglaries are declining, so is crime, generally, so whether it helps 
or not it is difficult to say. It is a fairly inexpensive program in terms 
of investment so it is worth undertaking on the assumption it may be 
helpful. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief Wilson, j'ou have the highest number of 
police per thousand population of any citv in the country ? 

:Mr. Wilson. We do." 

Chairman Pepper. And you have had a reorganization of the De- 
partment, which is commendable: and you have had an increase in 
personnel in the area of prosecution. Definite progress has been made. 

Mr. Wilson. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. And you had an increase in the number of judges, 
and attention has been paid to speeding up disposition of cases in the 
courts. 

Mr. Wilson. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Pepper. And you had an increase in the drug treatment 
and rehabilitation program and the number of addicts that are being 
treated in that program. All of those things have been contributing 
factors to the reduction of crime in the District of Columbia, I am sure. 

Mr. Wilson. Yes, sir ; certainly. 

Chairman Pepper. All of which are desirable. Anything which 
would make an effort to reduce crime is significant. 



337 

May I ask you about juvenile delinquency. Have you liad any 
improvement in that area? 

Mr. WiLSOX. The improvement that we have had, Mr. Chairman, 
ai)pears to be a part of the general downward trend in crime. The an- 
swer is ''Yes."' There is. I would judge, a significant miprovement in the 
l^roblem of juveniles. "We do not see any longer, as we did 3 years ago, 
A'ery young ju\'cniles committing on a frequent basis. AVe had a number 
of holdupmen who were 13 and 14 years of age. AVe had a serious prob- 
lem with juveniles in 1969. We had some serious problems in the school 
system in 1969. All of which, while they arc not completely eradicated, 
are certainly ameliorated by now. 

And there is some improvement. 

Chairman Pepper. Do you have more juvenile judges appointed? 

Mr. WiLSOx. Yes, sir; as a part of the court reorganization the 
juvenile court was reorganized into the superior court system. Addi- 
tionally, provision was made for juveniles of the age of 16 and 17 who 
are charged with crimes such as robbery to be triecl as adults, if in the 
judgment of the U.S. attorney they should be. So there have been 
some changes. 

Chairman Pepper. Do you offhand recall the figures as to participa- 
tion of }■ oung people in commission of serious crime ? 

Mr, WiLSOX. I couldn't give you a specific, Mr. Chairman, but my 
recollection is that in terms of crime index offenses, \oungsters, at the 
l)eak, were running on the order of 35- to iO-pereent of serious crimes. 
Juveniles were on the order of 35- to 40-percent of serious crimes, in- 
cluding robbery. 

Chairman Pepper. I believe, if I recall correctly, in a conversation 
with you one time that you mentioned something to the effect that 
about two-thirds of the serious crimes were committed by males under 
28 years of age. 

Mr. "WiLSox. That is absolutely correct, Mr. Chairman; yes, sir. 

Cliairman Pepper. So you regard the process by which we deal with 
juveniles or young adults who commit crimes, as a very critical area 
in the crime process ? 

]\Ir. "WiLSOx. ]Mr. Chairman, if we could solve the problems of juve- 
niles and young adults who commit serious crimes we could stand what 
the rest of the people do. 

Chairman Pepper. In other words, that is the input into the criminal 
system ? 

Mr. WiLSox. That is tlie input into the criminal system — and much 
of the criminal system. 

Cliairman Pepper. And that is one of the subjects we are particularly 
going into during these hearings. We ai'e going to try to get the best 
thought and wisdom in the country with respect to how best to deal 
with juvenile crime. We share your view that is one of the critical areas 
in dealing with the crime problem. 

Chief, as much as we commend you for all that you have done — and 
it is very noteworthy — nevertheless, one of our distinguished Senators 
was shot down on the street in front of his home. We read in the paper 
every day about the commission of violent crime, and I believe if the 
figures I have before me are correct, that there has been an increase in 
the District of Columbia in homicides and rapes in the relatively recent 
past. The other categories have gone down except for grand larcenj'. 



338 I 

But I believe, according to an article I liave here from the New York 
Times quoting figures about the District, there has been some increase 
in homicide and rape. 

Mr. Wilson. Well, every category of crime, ]Mr. Chairman, in 1972 
was down from its peak period. Homicide in 1972 was down from 287 
in 1969 to 245 in 1972. Eape was down from 776 in 1969, to 714 in 1972. 
The problem with offenses, particularly offenses such as homicide and 
rape which are not affected all that greatly by police activity and which 
constitute a small number of offenses, is, it depends on where you take 
your measure from. There is no category of crime I know of in the Dis- 
trict that is not down from its peak. jMaybe a temporary u^DSurge. 

Chairman Pepper. This was for 1 month, I am advised. 

Chief Wilson. Yes, sir ; those things do occur and that, of course, is 
one of the problems with measuring on a monthly basis. There is reason 
to be concerned in both of those categories, I would hasten to add. 

Chairman Pepper. The last question I want to ask you is this : In spite 
of all that has been done, the people of the District of Columbia, I 
think, still do not feel that they have secured safety on the streets and 
in their homes and in their places of business, and many violent crimes 
against a person are committed every day in the District. 

If you didn't have to concern yourself with money, what could you do 
if the President of the United States called you and said : 

I ain proud of what yon have done but we very simply have got to make the 
streets and homes and working places, recreation places of the people who fre- 
quent the District of Columbia, relatively safer. What more can we do than we 
are now doing? 

Mr. Wilson. Mr. Chainnan, the President of the United States has 
done just that. And let me make the point that neither I, nor the 
mayor, nor the President is happy with the crime in the District of 
Columbia. While we have substantially cut ci-ime a little bit more than 
half since 1969 ; we are still at the level of 1966, you know. You have 
to recognize that crime did double from 1966 to 1969. We are now at 
the level of 1966, which was twice the level of 1962. And in 1965 crime 
was so serious the President, at that time, felt it necessary to appoint 
a crime commission to find ways to deal with the problem. 

So there is certainly ample reason for us to consider the fact that 
citizens still are concerned. 

INIr. Lynch. Chief, I wonder if I could interrupt for a moment on 
that. I have some statistics — and with your indulgence, Mr. Chair- 
man — which show that in 1966 there were 7.7 homicides in the Wash- 
ington SMSA, as compared with 12.3 in 1971. In 1966, there were 13.5 
rapes as opposed to 36.5 in 1971. In 1966 the robbery rate was 189.4 as 
opposed to 510 in 1971. In 1966, aggravated assault was 198.5 as op- 
posed to 237.1 in 1971. 

Mr. Wilson. I am not talking about 1971, Mr. Lynch, I am talk- 
ing about 1972: and there was a 27-percent decrease in crime from 
1971 to 1972. I think you cut into all of those categories of crime. 

Chairman Pepper. Excuse me just a minute, Chief, and Counsel. The 
bell has rung and I will have to go. Wliat I wanted to ask you is this r 
Are the people of this country and this District, this city, going to have 
to accept the fact that we have got to live with the volume of crime 
we now have? Can't we do more to bring about a significant reduc- 



339 

tion ill the amount, at least of violent crime, we have in the country 
today ; and, if so, Iioav can we do it ? 

Mr. Wilson. Mr. Chairman, they are not going to have to, and I 
don't think they are going to be satisfied with crime in this Nation. 
The January Gallup poll showed crime is viewed by most Americans 
as being the primary urban problem. I think in the District of Colum- 
bia we have demonstrated that crime, as a very serious situation, can 
be substantially reduced. I think we are on the road in terms of doing 
more here. I think we liave to continue doing some of these things we 
are doing now. We still have to maintain a very large police force; we 
have to continue with the court rcoi'ganization. I think these things 
are going to ha\e to reduce crime to the point we can reduce the police 
force. I think in other cities much the same is going to have to be done, 
although there is reason for optimism in that 32 of the 50 larger cities 
had reductions in crime last year and, as I recall, there were 10 cities 
in the Xation 

Chainnan Pepper. Excuse me just a minute. I didn't ask 3'ou about 
the correctional system. 

Mr. Wilson. We had some substantial problems with that over the 
last few years, although I have the belief that has been improved in 
the last year. But it does need close attention, certainly. 

Cliairman Pepper. The basic reason we are holding these hearings 
is not only to bring before the Congress and the country the best 
things beino- done in all of the critical areas that deal with crime, but 
to try to tackle the problem with the best brains we have m the comi- 
try, and discover wliat more can we do than we are now doing? 

Mr. Lynch. Chief AVilson, is there any question in your mind thcit a 
very substantial proportion of serious crime is committed by 
recidivists ? 

Mr. Wilson. It is hazardous, Mr. Lynch, to talk in terms of per- 
centages, in terms of what is serious crime. One of the problems that is 
inherent in crime statistics is — if you take an}- category such as bur- 
glar}-, for example, and say burglary is a serious crime — an awful lot 
of burglaries are sort of trashy little cases you can't characterize as 
serious crime. If vou take serious burglaries, a lot are recidivists. If 
you characterize robbery as a serious crime and assume that purse 
snatching or pickpocketing is robbeiy, you have one thing. But if you 
take holdups, there is no question holdups are committed mainlj^ by 
recidivists. Our indication is that upward of 70 percent of holdups are 
committed by individuals who are rearrested indeed for that crime. 
So there is a heavy problem in terms of particularly holdups and 
sometimes burglaries and rapes, as an example, with repeat offenders. 

^Ir. Lynch. Taking for a moment, holdups or armed robbery, 
Chief, you did indicate that is a crime committed at least in some 
heavy proportion by people who have done the same thing in the past. 

'yiv. Wilson, That is correct. 

]\Ir. Lynch. Are there a significant number of robberies committed 
in this jurisdiction by people who are out on bail or who are otherwise 
pending adjudication for a prior, similar charge ? 

]SIr. Wilson. There are. Figures vary from month to month, but it 
runs on the order of 60 to TO percent of individuals who are either on 
bail, probation, or parole; with bail being, I would say, the greatest 
proportion of those. 



340 

Mr. Lynch. What in your judgment can the criminal justice sys- 
tem, as a system, do to remedy that problem ? 

Mr. Wilson. I believe that we need to do a lot more work and are 
doing work on it. I think we are coming closer to the solution. You 
have to recognize the superior court reorganization only assumed re- 
sponsibility for holdups last August, and now have the full responsi-; 
bility for that. I think the continued reduction in types of crime, plus 
the identification of major offenders by the U.S. attorneys, Avhich is 
now being done through LEAA financed computerization of offender 
records, will serve to assist with the problem. 

I have given up any hope of a workable change in the bail law, quite 
frankly. I think that is what is needed, but the last attempt at a 
change did not work out and I have given up much hope we are going 
to achieve a change in the bail law which will have a substantial effect. 

Mr. Lyxcii. You say you have given up hope on the bail law ? Would 
your judgment be that speedy trial legislation would be at least half 
a loaf? 

Mr. Wilson. I have some concern that speedy trial legislation may 
become a tool for the defense rather than for the Government, so I 
have some reservaitions about that. I don't know if it is really going 
to solve the problem. It may if properly constructed to place sufficient 
constraints on defense to go to trial. 

Mr. Lynch. Chief, the recent March 28, 1973, preliminary crime 
data released by the FBI — and I am sure you have more current data 
for your own jurisdiction — indicated all major categories of crime, with 
the exception of rape, were down in the District of Columbia. Ag- 
gravated assault was down a pittance, homicide was down somewhat 
substantially, robbery was down by a very substantial amount, rape 
was slightly up. That is the 1971-72 dalta. You probably have more 
recent data. On a nationwide basis that same information indicated 
that index crime was down. 

However, violent crime across the Nation was up, and after one 
analyzed the data it was apparent that it was up from 2 to 13 percent 
in all suburban, all rural, and all urban areas of 500,000 or less popu- 
lation. Usually, the index crimes, as you know, are regarded by the 
FBI and by law enforcement experts as a good index of hovr much 
crime we have. How would you account for the general reduction in 
property crimes but a general increase in crimes of violence? 

Mr. Wilson. Well, first, I would dispute there was a general increase 
in the crimes of violence nationwide. My recollection is there was a 1- 
percent decrease in violent crime, if you took your urban areas. 

Mr. Lynch. Excuse me. The FBI indicated there was a l-i^ercent 
increase in violent crime. 

Mr. Wilson. I be^ your pardon. During the last 3 months of the 
year, my understanding is, the index was down by 8 percent and violent 
crime down by 3 percent, wliich is one of the problems with annual 
data. Changes" frequently occur in the middle of the year and trends 
are concealed by the annual data. 

I think that our own experience here has be«n that it is far easier 
to cut into property crime than violent crime, simply because tilings 
such as auto theft, for example, have been cut by the auto lock, for one 
thing, and also it is fairly easy cut into by aggressive police intercept 
I)atrol and by computerization, for example, which cuts into auto theft 



341 

simpljr because it makes it possible for the man out on tlie street to 
know when a car is stolen or not, whereas he could not in the past. The 
same is true with regard to burglary. These are crimes which are gen- 
erally much easier to cut into than even the crime of robbery. 

The crime of rape and murder, of coui-se, are very difficult for the 
jjolice to cut into, since f re^quently they most often occur off the street, 
out of police patrol, and it is something that has to be cut in through 
apprehension and effective dealing with the individual through the 
rest of the system. 

But I think much of the statement was our experience in the District 
of Columbia; we were able, first, to cut into property crime and it has 
only been in the firet year. 1970, for example, when we achieved our 
first reductions in crime. JNIy recollection is we did poorly in terms of 
robbei-y reduction. Robbery was the later offense to move down. 

I see a lot of room for optimism in the national crime statistics. I 
think that the decrease, although it was not all that substantial during 
1*,>T2, indicates a turning. I think the turning was indicated even earlier 
than that — in 1971 — by the fact there was a leveling off' in crime. And 
we showed about the same effect here. When 3'ou look at the annual 
data you get a leveling effect instead of a decrease. I can't say specif- 
ically why violent crime doesn't move as rapidly. I think it is largely 
that propeity crime is just more susceptible to police control. Aggra- 
vated assault, for example, is almost an entirely off-the-street offense. 

Mr. Keatixg. Chief, may I ask a couple of questions, please ? 

I would like to bo specific on one particular topic, and that is. the 
rape that occurred, or the assault that occurred, at George Washing- 
ton University campus. Two girls were involved. My first question is: 
Inmiediately after the acquittal, was there any increase or decrease in 
reported rapes to your department ? 

]Mr. Wilson. I frankly don't know, Mr. Keating. Rape is such a 
small, relatively small number, that if j'ou take it on a montlily basis 
1 doubt you could make a statistical inference. I will be glad to see 
what it showed, but I, frankly, don't know. 

Mr. Keatixg. Rape has increased across the Nation. We talked to 
some of the other police departments and there is some indication they 
are concerned about the element of proof necessary, and the difficulty 
if a girl submits to a boy's violence upon her, then there seems to be a 
])resumption that she submitted voluntarily and, therefore, there is no 
crime committed. 

Are there any efforts being made by your department to change that 
at all to make it easier for a conviction or, at least, to protect the 
women more in our society today ? 

Mr. WiLSox'. The city council is presently engaging in, or arranging 
hearings to ascertain what changes in the law can be made. That prob- 
lem is recognized primarily as an outgrowth of the George Washing- 
ton University incident. There is no question the law is grossly unfair 
to women and, of course, it is not reflected only in rape, but I guess that 
probably is the worst example of all of the crimes. And. of course, a lot 
of concern, more concern from the police point of view for persons 
probably guilty than for victims. I think rape is probably the one ex- 
ample which needs the attention most. 

Mr. Keatixg. That case has caused quite a bit of controversy around 
here locally, as I understand it. 



342 

Mr. Wilson. Yes, sir ; very much. 

Mr. Keating. Because of the role played, or allegedly played, by dif- 
ferent people involved. But it is not unique to this area to have a lot 
of acquittals and I am wondering if you feel that people who have 
been assaulted in this manner are reporting as often as they should 
in the light of the difficulty of obtaining a conviction ; what they have 
to go through. 

Mr. Wilson. My feeling is they are not. There is a theory which 
probably has some basis in fact that part of the increasing crime in 
recent years has been the increasing willingness of women to talk 
about sex offenses than was true in the past. It has long been known 
that many rapes come to police attention on the basis of confessions 
of rapists : that rape is a grossly underreported crime in terms of the 
reports made by victims. It is confessions of rapists. We have known 
many unreported rapes that have occurred. 

So there is no question it is underreported and there is no question 
a lot of it goes, first, out of the embarrassment of the incident to the 
victim and, also, by the knowledge that the victim may essentially 
end up on trial if the case does go to court. 

Mr. Keating. I only heard j^our previous comment that you felt 
speedy trial legislation might develop another advantage for the 
defense. I would submit that the way the system is now, there is an 
advantage for the defense in the long delays that are occasioned by 
the lawyers, not necessarily for the defendant himself because he 
might be languishing in jail. But isn't it to the advantage of law 
enforcement generally to have a quick, speedy trial and obtain either a 
con\'iction or acquittal ? 

Mr. Wilson. There is no question of that. I think that the improved 
situation with regard to trial in the District of Columbia has had a 
lot to do with the success that has been achieved in reducing crime. 
There is no question that quick trial and quick disposition of the case 
is far to the benefit of law enforcement. 

Mr. Keating. One of the difficulties in achieving a speedy trial is 
what kind of teeth in enforcement are you going to have getting it 
tried within 60 days, which would be the optimum. About the only 
thing can be dismissal of the charges, and my comment on that is that 
if a prosecutor permits that to happen, or a judge permits that to 
happen in his court, and it is a pretty violent crime, he is not going 
to be on that court very long or not going to be prosecuting very long. 
You are going to give the incentives for the judge who is presiding 
in the criminal court to say, "OK, fellows, you are going to trial in 
a week." Do that and enforce it. But some way we have to put some 
teeth into getting this job done. 

Mr. Lynch. My. Keating, I wonder if we could ask Mr. Alprin if, 
in his judgment as general counsel of the Department, whether that 
defect might not possibly be cured by the institution of a major 
offender bureau ? Would that assist ? 

Mr. Alprin. Something like that, Mr. Lynch. 

You see, Congressman, that 60 days would be the optimum. I think 
it could be substantially less than that for certain categories of 
offenses. Substantially, less than that. 



343 

The problem with the dismissal after 60 days is that it creates an 
assimiption that it is the prosecutor — at least here, which is the system 
I know about — who is causing the delay most of the time. I don't be- 
lieve that is true. The delays are caused 'by a lot of factors, many of 
which the prosecutor has really no control over. 

I would like to see teeth — maybe that would be one possible alterna- 
tive — to enforce speedy trial for certain categories of offenses. But 
teeth also directed at defense counsel, absconding defendants, or ^vhat 
have you, any of the many factors which cause delays in the system. 

Mr. Keating. Let's explore that for the moment. "N'Vliat teeth can 
you put in it ? We can continue as we are with delays and so on, and 
there is a lot of human element involved in consenting to another 
continuance for one more time. 

Mr. Alprin. I have done it myself. 

Mr. Kf^vting. And the judge really has a primary responsibility 
to control it. But what other alternative do you really have? You 
can't say that if we don't try within 60 days, and if the defendant 
doesn't come in, he can be convicted. There is no way under our system 
of laws you can do that. 

Mr. Alprin. No, you can't. But if the defendant can't be found, if 
the trial is delayed for a long time and 

Mr. Keating. I am not suggesting it can be dismissed if he skipped 
town or if he has forfeited his bond. I am suggesting that if he is 
sitting in the jurisdiction and he is not physically incapable, nor are 
the witnesses, that is whether he is a victim or not, there is no reason 
he shouldn't be tried in 60 days. 

]Mr. Alprin. If I w^ere thejudge, I would order him, the prosecutor, 
and defense counsel, to go to trial in 30 days and if they didn't I 
would hold whoever was at fault in contempt. 

jNIr. Keating. The judges are doing that and I am suggesting that 
might be one way. The jurist faces the public wrath because you know, 
justice delayed — that old adage — is justice denied for everybody. Not 
only for the defendant, the victim, the witnesses who have to constantly 
appear, the policeman who made the arrest because he may have to 
come back six times which takes time away from that policeman being 
on the beat or wherever he is supposed to be, but justice is denied for 
everybody. And I submit that, and very strongly that one of the 
greatest deterrents to crime we could have is bringing the defendant 
or accused to the bar of justice at the earliest possible date and dispose 
of that either by criminal conviction at the earliest possible date — and 
then the punishment to follow shortly thereafter so that he knows he 
is being punished for that crime, not 2 or 3 years dowm the road — or 
acquittal. It is fresh in the minds of everyone. 

Mr. Alprin. But you understand we put 1,200 cases through the 
superior court every month. And while I agree with every word you 
said, sir, and it is obviously true, tliere have to be priorities. O'bviously, 
a robI)ery is more important than petty larceny or grand larceny which 
is a felony. I think the whole system ought to put priorities on the 
kinds of crimes w'e are concerned with and require those to go to 
trial very quickly. 

Mr. Keating. But you are also saying that the misdemeanant might 
have to sit in jail for a longer period of time because he didn't commit 
a more serious offense. 

95-158 — 73— pt. 1 23 



344 

Mr. Alprin. Almost every alleged misdemeanant in the District of 
Columbia is released on his personal recognizance or released under cer- 
tain conditions, at the present time. So, I don't really think that is a 
problem most of the time. There are exceptions. 

Mr. Keating. Well, it seems to me that if my experience is correct, 
and it is at least in my jurisdiction, there are many days the court- 
room is vacant and some days when you have a lot of trials and can't 
get enough juroi'S together. I imagine a lot of these things would come 
into most otlier jurisdictions. There must be some way, through a mod- 
ernized computer system, of putting all of the people together so de- 
fense counsel can't come in with the excuse, 'T have to be in Federal 
court or be in superior court or city court and, therefore, I need a 
continuance." There has to be a great deal of pressure to get each 
case tried and I think possibly the defense counsel is no more orderly 
about continuances in this whole equation. That still doesn't make it 
right. We have got to get these matters to trial because it is going to 
help the citizen. 

Mr. Alprin. We have come a long way in the court reorganization. 
The last statistics I saw a month or two ago showed between the in- 
dictment and trial for felonies the average delay now in the superior 
court is 72 days ; 2 years ago it was a year oi- a year and a half in the 
district court. 

Mr. Keatixo. I guess while I am pressing so hard, I should also 
take the time to connnend you l)ecause the District has done a good 
job. They do an increasingly good job. I am saying also we can't be 
satisfied until we have tried in a nnich shorter period of time. You 
have done a tremendous job and the ci-ime rate here has been decreas- 
ing, generally, and we have used those statistics often. So I think you 
are certainly to be commended. But I have this thing about si:)eedy 
trials because it is extremely important to all concerned and I am 
searching for a way to put more teeth into it. 

I recognize the peril of the dismissal of the charge, but I have yet 
to be able to find another way of doing it that will put pressure on 
those involved. If vou liave a sugo'estion. I would love to hear it. other 
than the dismissal within that period of time, 

Mr. Lynch. If I mav, Mr. Keating:? 

Mr. Alprin, from the police point of view, it is your judgment 
that there, at least, is not enough priority attention presently being- 
given to serious and/or major criminals. 

Mr. Alprin. That is my belief, sir, 

Mr. Lynch. Thank you. 

Mr. Keattxo. I see there are some othei- members present. I will 
yield back, Mr. Chairman, so others may ask some questions. 

Mr. Rangel. Chief, recently there was an article in the Washington 
Post which talked about a 15-block area which had the highest crime 
rate in the District and perhaps in the general area. Could you elabo- 
rate on the facts and circumstances surrounding that story ? 

Mr. Wilson. Not with regard to that specific story, Mr. Rangel. I 
read the stor}- but I didn't follow tlirouffh on that. We have the Carney 
block system in the District of Columbia defining areas in which we 
measure our crime, and at the time this story was written I believed 
that happened to be the highest. It is in the general area of what is es- 
sentially the third district which has been consistently our high crime 
area over a period of many years, actually. That particular one is in 



345 

tlie lower part of the fourth district but the general area haa been a 
high crime area over a period of many years. 

It is reducino-. I don't believe there is any Carney block in the city 
that hasn't had a reduction in the last couple of years. But it is in the 
very center of the city, it is a problem area, an area of some problem. 
Although I would elaborate by saying a coui)le of citizen leaders in the 
area called my community relations division and complained they 
Averen't nearly as afraid as the reporter would have led people to 
believe. 

Mr. Rangel. I suppose no one likes his neighborhood being the sub- 
ject of such open criticism, but the story did say it was a high crime 
area. 

Mr. Wilson. It is that. 

Mr. Rangel. We are all really trying to find out how we can apply 
the progress that is made in the Disti'ict to similar type metropolitan 
areas throughout the country. I sit on this connnittee. I sit on the House 
Judiciary Committee, and I sit on the District of Columbia Commit- 
tee, on its Subcommittee on the Judiciary. What I am trying to find ouf 
exactly is how you have been able to get a decline in crime while most 
major cities have been on the uprise. Have any specific studies been 
made as to the causes of crimes in an area such as described bv the 
Post? 

Mr. WiLsox, I would say yes. as a generalization. The causes of crime 
in that particular area and, indeed, in the generalized area sur- 
rounding that are prett}- self-evident. It is the core of the city, it is a. 
congested area, it is an area of high poverty, it is along one of the 1968 
riot coriidors. It is an aiea where there are a lot of vacant buildings, 
a lot of poor people living in the area. It is an area that suffers from 
the worst of the social ills of the city. 

Mr. Rangel. I thought your testimony said that you do find some 
decreases ? 

Ml". Wilson. There were decreases indeed in the early years ; our best 
decreases were in the high crime areas because it was in the high crime 
areas, and still is, where we concentrate most of our manpower. And 
since there is a great deal of crime thei-e, it is much easier to reduce 
where you have a great deal of crime than in some Carney block. 

Mr. Rangel. Coukl you tell us what manner or what method you 
have used? To what do you attribute the decrease? Was it because of 
something difl'erent that the police department was doing? 

Ml-. Wilson. I don't know that it was anything all that different. 
Ml*. Rangel. It was largely traditional things. The vastly increased 
jmlice force here, as was discussed earlier, tlie largest pei' capita police 
force in tlie counti-y. We increased the recruitment of blacks, we have 
increased tlie iise of scooters, which get foot patrolmen eilectively out 
and in the community. We have increased the street lighting, particu- 
larly in that ai'ca along the 14tli Street corridor. We have concentrated 
high-intensity lighting in that area and throughout the city, there has 
been a major impact on narcotic drug use which was a particular 
j)rol)lem in that ai'ea. 

Mr. Ranc;kl. Most of us on the District of Columbia Connnittee 
i-eallv don't believe that we have the answers to the problems that 
tlie District faces, but we are hopeful that since this is the Nation's 
Capital })erhaps we could institute jjrograms that vrould sei-ve as a 
model for the rest of the country and we could gain from all the expei'i- 



346 ' 

ences here, not only in the area of antisocial behavior but in meeting all 
major city problems. 

I assume the President of the United States has expressed a like 
concern as to the N ation's Capital being what most of us would want 
it to be. Has the President had tlie opportunity to discuss crime in 
the area with you ? 

Mr. Wilson. In the District of Columbia ? 

3Ir. Eangel. Right. 

JSIr. Wilson. Yes, sir. On several occasions, as discussed earlier. 
T^eginning in late 1969, there was no question the President had, as 
I testified earlier this afternoon, established the reduction of crime in 
the District of Columbia as really the first priority of the city govern- 
ment for a couple of yeai's and still maintains it as a high priority and 
still is very dissatisfied with the fact we have far more crime than we 
should liave. 

While we have been successful in substantially reducing the crime 
rates since 1969, as I indicated earlier, we are still double the 1962 
rate, and certainly that is a goal which I think Ave all would strive 
to achieve. When M^e get to the 1962 level, we may be at a point where 
we will have to sit back, I think, and question the priority then with 
regard to ciiiuc. But at tlie point we are now, we are certainly not 
at the ]ioint anyone can sit back and say the job is done. 

But there is no question the President is interested in further reduc- 
tions in crime and is going to insist the city government achieve further 
reductions in crime before he will be satisfied with this situation. As 
I judge his mood and the rest of the Nation, he sees crime as does 
most of the citizenry of America, as a major urban problem that needs 
to be dealt with. And while naturally there were some improvements 
last year, certainl}' tlie Pi-esident sees that as just the slight improve- 
ment on the top of a peak of crime which has to be reduced to a 
level wliere people feel free ajrain. 

I am very much concerned as I go around the city and see taxicabs 
here and, of course it is true in other cities, you can't get change for 
your money and you can't get on a bus without change and you ride 
arouud Canitol Hill and see all sorts of homes with grilles on the 
windoAvs. There is no question that we still — in this city and many 
other American cities — have people living in fear and really have a 
lo*^ of people imprisoned in their OAvn Avay. 

Mr. IvANGEL. In describing not only this lo-block area we talked 
■about, T Avould suppose it Avas your testimony in these general high- 
crime areas, that you described them as being of high-density popula- 
tio'.i. a high-POverty IcA-el. and ]n-obably unemployment. T assume that 
if these conditions were alleviafed that it certainly might make your 
job a lot better. 

Mt-. Wtlson. Oh. there is no question that if it Avere possible to 
alleviate the social causes of crime it would make the police problem a 
irreat deal better. I am ahvays hesitant about saying that because, AA'hile 
T believe it, I sometimes Avonder if — I don't Ava'nt to make the problem 
so lar.q-e, that nothing gets done about anything and I think you can do 
something about crime without saying that we have to deal Avith social 
problems, first. Although I think it Avould be desirable to do that. I 
think Ave need to do both. 

]Mr. Rangel. But you do believe these factors are contributing 
f actoi-s ? 



347 

Mr. Wilson. There is no question of it. You just absolutely cannot 
deny they are contributing, and heavily contributing, factors. 

Mr. Eangel. Does the President share your belief that these are 
the factors that contribute heavily to crime? 

Mr. Wilson. I frankly could not say. I don't know. I would assume 
so but I, frankly, could not say that. I have not sat down with him and 
discussed that with him, so I could not say that. 

Mr. Eangel. In your conversations with the President — and believe 
me, when privilege starts, you can let go — I am concerned 

Mr. Wilson. I will liave to call the Attorney General on that. 

Mr. Rangel. Call aiwbody else but him. 

But I am concerned, recognizing the President's concern not only" 
aljout the crime in the District of Colmnbia, but in all other major 
cities, that when he deals with you it necessarily has to be as a pro- 
fessional and he has to tell you what tools will be made available to you 
if he expects appreciable change in terms of crime in the District. Ho 
does ask you what are your problems and what tools do you need to deal 
with them, for probably you have the same budgetary problems as 
most ]Dolice chiefs in major cities. So my question is, if you believe that 
your highest areas of crime are caused by certain social factors, re- 
gardless of what they are, the tourist trade, demonstrators, whatever 
it is, I assume the President would be concerned with that, too? 

Mr. Wilson. I would assume so, Mr. Rangel. Although I think I 
have to repeat, perhaps more emphatically, what I said before. While I 
don't have any doubt in my mind that root social causes are what lead 
to crime I am not one who believes that I would recommend we attack 
root social causes as a way of eliminating crime because I, frankly, 
think that root social causes are perhaps too complex a problem. 

Mr. Rangel. Let's not talk about eliminating crime, because I am 
convinced wealth certainly does not preclude one from committing 
crime. 

Mr. Wilson. I guess what we are really talking about is reducing 
crime to a tolerable level, and I think we all recognize, even when we 
talk about crime index offenses, that we are only talking about a very 
small proportion of total crime, if you think of what crime is. 

Mr. Rangel. If. in this political subdivision, there are certain fac- 
tors which in your expert opinion contribute toward crime, certainly 
your Department would be concerned about alleviating those condi- 
tions and starting to attack the root causes of the crime ? 

Mr. Wilson. I have not seen attacks on root causes whicli have had 
substantial impact on crime. I am sure it is possible, but I, frankly, do 
not see that. I do not feel we should — as has been suggested in the past — 
do nothing about crime until we deal with the root causes. I don't 
think so. 

Mr. Rangel. I am sure I agree. I think you could say one way to 
eliminate crime is to eliminate people, but we wouldn't suggest that. 

Mr. Wilson. There is very little crime in the desert of Arizoiia. 

Mr. Rangel. But, certainly, with j'our background and experience, 
you recognize there are many things outside of the control of the police 
department, directly, that certainly could make our job a heck of a 
lot easier if other agencies were just as concerned about the things 
they are supposed to do. If we are talking about any given demonstra- 
tion day, certainly you have nothing to do about the buses that come 



348 

into the District of Columbia and yet tliat certainly makes your prob- 
lems more difficult. 

Mr. Wilson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Kangel. So you wouldn't have to really ban buses to say you 
are doing your job, but you would consider this a factor and you 
"would deal with it; you would do whatever you do in terms of assign- 
ment of your men to deal with that problem. And recognizing that this 
is the Nation's Capital and recognizing that you can find certain areas 
which are measurably high-crime areas — in other words, I am willing 
to do with you what I know New York City is not willing to tackle, 
because we don't have the President as the mayor. If he wants to 
eliminate, alleviate or reduce crime in the area, and you are able to 
look at your crime charts — I assume you have charts measuring crimes 
of violence and crimes against property by neighborhoods ? 

Mr. Wilson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rangel. You probably know o^•er the years just where you 
have most of your major ])roblems. Now. the reasons that you have 
given foi- these real i-ough areas have been poverty, unemployment, and 
deprivation. I am not asking you to assume the responsibilities of the 
Human Resources Administration, but I would just like to believe 
that if the Chief Executive tells you to make this the type of city that 
all Americans can be proud of, the factors that create crime are also 
discussed. 

Ml'. Wilson. Well, he didn't ask me to be the mayor; he only asked 
me to be the chief of police. And I think from my point of view that 
ci'ime can be reduced. In fact. I agree we have demonstrated crime can 
be reduced with what has been done. T am not sui'e these other problems 
are not being dealt with to some extent ; they certainly have not been 
dealt with totally successfully. I don't think, insofar as I am aAvare of 
the history of America, they have been dealt with successfully. That is, 
in tei-ms of elimination of root causes. 

Those are the things that need to be dealt with, l)ut I don't consider 
them things that are priority items, from my point of view, to achieve 
reduction in crime. I think crime can be reduced with or without elim- 
ination of root causes. I think from a humanitarian point of view I 
would perfer to see the root causes eliminated as well. 

Mr. Rangel. I think if we do understand each other, your testimony 
has been a little different from the police chiefs that we have heard 
testify from New York City, from Indianapolis, from Chicago, 
Avhere more and more they concei'n tb.emselves. not just with the man- 
power and patrollijig the streets, but in dealing with the root causes 
of criminal activity. Some of the ideas they had were absolutely amaz- 
ing to me because of my biases against cities like Chicago, coming from 
New York. All of their testimony this morning was not humanitarian 
but in dealing witli high crime areas, they were talking about employ- 
;'ing the person with the pi'opensity for crime, to have them involved 
Avith law enforcement and other social services. They were talking 
about people who looked like policemen being involved in lead poison- 
ing and showing people where services are available so they could im- 
prove the quality of their lives, so the frustrations they had would not 
be taken, out against their fellow citizens or against the person wearing 
the uniform. 

I am certain they didn't hold themselves up to be the mayors of the 



349 

towns, but it just seems to me tliat they felt in communities such as this 
15-block area in the District of Columbia, thej^ had to deal with peo- 
ple and their problems in order to l^e effective in reducing the crime 
rate. They were pretty proud of themselves when they achieved a 
decrease. 

Mr. Wilson. That is an interesting viewpoint. I don't really think 
I share that, though. 

Mr. Rangel. I don't suppose you are prepared to say the President 
shares your professional opinion about this. I really ho])e he doesn't. 

Mr. Wilson. I testified earlier I haven't discussed that with him so 
I, frankly, can't say what his view is. 

]Mr. Eangel. I don't want to prolong it because I don't really be- 
lieve you have to be — you are not hired as — a humanitarian, but let's 
assunie you are concerned about people, and certainly your record as 
police chief would indicate that you have a concern. It just seems to 
me that if you are in love with this city as much as most people 
are, that in order for you to be effective in your professional area of 
law enforcement, this would not be playing the mayor, you would 
involve the unemployed or concern yourself with the problems 
of the deprived and the poor. 

Mr. Wilson. I don't think I said I was unconcerned about the 
problems of the poor. I said I do not really see that as a viable ap- 
l)roach from the ])oint of view of the chief of police to reduce crime. 
I said those are things the city needs to do. but I did not say I need 
to be doing it. 

Mr. Rangel. These things would not be agreeable to you ? If some 
program Avere developed in this area, so dense and so unemployed 
and so poverty stricken, to have these people help themselves and 
show they have the can-do spirit and they do become employed, would 
you professionally f orsee a decrease in crime in this area ? 

Mr. Wilson. I think so. I would have to see the program. As a 
hypothetical answer, yes, certainly. I have testified that social im- 
provement of the area undoubtedly would improve crime. 

'Sir. Rangel. Wouldn't that be considered as good law enforce- 
ment to suggest programs that would put people in a position 
where they would not have this propensity to commit crimes, without 
converting you into a social worker ? That would not detract from your 
office as police chief ? 

Mr. Wilson. I simply don't see that as my function in the orga- 
nization of the government, Mr. Rangel. 

]\Ir. Rangel. Even though it is a contributing factor to crime? 

Mr. Wilson. Even though it is a contributing factor to crime. I 
see education as a problem to crime, but I don't see taking over the 
educational system as my function as chief of police. There are a 
lot of contributing factors to crime, which 

Mr. Rangel. I don't know. Chief. I assume the District of Columbia 
still lias its narcotic addiction problem? 

Mr. Wilson. It has substantially improved in recent times, and 
it does have still a narcotic addiction problem. But it has substantial- 
ly improved. 

]\Ir. Rangel- And I would like to believe there must be a lot of 
testimony given by you, on or otT-the-record, that educating cliildren 
against the dangers of narcotics has been considered a part of your 
official responsibility ? 



350 

Mr. Wilson. That is correct. No, I have not considered it as part 
of my official responsibility, but I have certainly supported the nar- 
cotic treatment agency and, to some, we have done some lecturing 
in terms of narcotics. 

Mr. Rangel. In your official capacity, I assume you support the 
Narcotics Treatment Administration ? 

Mr. Wilson. That is right. 

Mr. R ANGEL. How do you jibe that as being within your official re- 
sponsibility and not being able to concern yourself with 

Mr. Wilson. I think you are misstating what I said. I did not say 
I was not concerned with the problems. 

Mr. Rangel. I mean officially. 

Mr. Wilson. I said officially. I do not see it as my responsibility to 
go up and talk with the President about employment in the high- 
crime area as something I should do. 

Mr. Rangel. I didn't mean to include the Presidency in all of my 
questions to you. 

Mr. Wilson. I am sorry ; that is the way they were coming to me. 

Mr, Rangel. Then perhaps it was because I inisframed the ques- 
tion. Then you do discuss the social ills of the community and the high- 
crime rate with the Mayor ? 

Mr. Wilson. Yes. Absolutely. 

Mr. Rangel. And you are involved with programs to alleviate the 
conditions that cause crime ? 

Mr. Wilson. Involved, yes. I am not running programs to alleviate 
conditions, aside from my police force. 

Mr. Rangel. I assume in your conferences, as the police chief, you 
would have to have some input, even though it had nothing to do 
with patrol? 

Mr. Wilson. Absolutely. I am sorry. I thought you were asking me 
whether I had discussed it with the President. 

Mr. Rangel. Now, let me go back to that. 

Mr. Wilson. I am not going to, either. 

Mr. Rangel. You have officially discussed the social ills of • 

Mr. Wilson. I have discussed the social ills of that specific area 
with the Mayor. 

Mr. Rangel. In an official capacity ? 

Mr. Wilson. Absolutely. 

Mr. Rangel. As a measure of crime and lack of crime? 

Mr. Wilson. And as it relates to the general area we were referring 
to, as a matter of fact. 

Mr. Rangel. This would be especially true in narcotic rehabilita- 
tion, and seeing crime as it relates to the increase of narcotic addic- 
tion you might be in a better position than a doctor or social worker 
to give some advice regarding where clinics should be located or, cer- 
tainly, where those who need the clinics are ? 

Mr. Wilson. With regard to the general program, yes. I have not 
discussed these m.atters with the President. 

Mr. Rangel. Wlien he gives his mandate to you to decrease crime^ 
it seems to me he should have given it to the Mayor. 

_Mr. Wilson. I am sure he has discussed crime reduction in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia with the Mayor as well as with me. I, perhaps, 



351 

misled you. He has discussed it with the Mayor individually, with me 
individually, and discussed it with both of us together. 

Mr. Kangel. But he doesn't go to the causes of it. He just talks 
about how he wants to see conditions improved 'i 

]Mr. Wilson. Pie has not discussed the causes of crime with me. 
That is what I have to say. 

Mr. Rangel. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief, following somewhat the line of question- 
ing of Mr. Rangel, I Imow Mayor Washington is a man of com- 
passion and concern for his fellowmen. He would like to see a lot of 
conditions in the District of Columbia improved. I happened to own 
some property in an area which has become a high crime area and that 
property has very greatly decreased in value, and I suspect that same 
thing has happened to a lot of other property owners all over the 
District. I suspect the reason ISIayor Washington has not been able 
to get improvement in this high crime area, of which Mr. Rangel was 
speaking, is because he hasn't had the money to do it. And in these 
hearings I am anxious to find out just where the responsibility really 
lies. 

If it lies on the failure of Congress to appropriate enough money 
to clean up the ghettos, to put the people in decent housing, to try to 
provide better schooling so the children will not be school dropouts, to 
provide jobs, then the fault is not Chief Wilson's and his police depart- 
ment, but the Congress or whoever it is who is responsible for provid- 
ing revenue in that area. 

I suspect that, basically, that is the problem all over the country. 
Other chiefs of police would like very well to be able to have the high 
ratio of police you have. A little revenue, I suppose, comes from the 
Federal Government. ]Most of these other chiefs don't have that 
strong source of revenue. And I suspect that, basically, the Con- 
gress and the State legislatures, the municipal authorities, and the 
people generally, have not yet owned up to being willing to pay the 
piice of really bringing crime down to a minimum level, what you 
miifht call a tolerable level. 

To me, if we really determine to do it: this country is powerful 
enough and rich enough and does have the know-how about it to 
reduce crime down to a minimum level so that there will be relative 
safety all over the country. 

Would you care to make any comment on that ? 

]Mr. Wilson. I think that is certainly true, Mr. Chairman. I think 
crime can be reduced. While I agree with Congressman Rangel that 
social problems need to be dealt with. I, frankly, just do not see that 
priority on social problems as the way to reduce crime. I think that 
crime can be reduced bv putting emphasis 

Chairman Pepper. Not the only way ? 

Mr. Wilson. I am not even sure it is a practical way. T think it 
is probably a too-lonsr-term solution to he achievable in the situation 
in which we currently find ourselves, where citizens across America 
are very much afraid, and rightfully so, of crime and much more so 
than they were 10 years ago. I think that crime can be reduced through 
priorities to direct law enforcement programs, on increased police, 
on r-ourt svstems. and there, of course, is a groat problem, as T gather, 
in most of your urban areas, although I certainly don't have direct 



352 

knowledge of other urban areas, but I have the impression that many 
urban areas have much the same problems we had in the District of 
Columbia before court reorganization with diffuse court systems, 
with badly backlogged court systems, with not bringing individuals 
to trial, with so great a fallout of persons arrested that the law en- 
forcement process is just practically unworkable. I think these sort 
of things need to be dealt with on a priority basis. I think they can be. 

'Now, concurrently, I think that it is certainly desirable from the 
standpoint of achieving in America^ — we would all like to see problems 
of poverty overcome. But we have had poverty for many years, for 
centuries, and we did not have as much crime for centuries as we have 
had in the last few years in this comitry. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief, I think we all agree poverty is no excuse 
or justification for the commission of crime. And, yet, if you walk 
through the prisons of this country, as nearly all of us have done, you 
will generally see something that I was told by one of the staff of this 
committee, in the early days of this committee, that was gleaned from 
some of the Presidential Commission reports, as to the type of person 
in those prisons. And this is what that man said. He said that the 
typical inmate of our penal institution is a white male, about 24 years 
of age, a school dropout, unemployed, who previously had be«n in 
prison. 

Now, if that is even substantially true, that tells a lot about the 
environment from which that man comes. 

Now, I know it to be considerably true on your part, and no doubt 
many would want to refute you for doing it, but if you were to go 
before the school board or school authorities of the District, and say, 
"Ladies and gentlemen, I hope you will not consider me an intruder 
here in your council today, but the people of this area want crime 
reduced. And one of the serious causes of crime in this area is seliool 
dropouts. I could give you the figures, the figures that would sustain 
that statement. I am not telling you how to run the school. I am just 
telling you that I, as chief of police, have to deal with the problem of 
these dro]^outs. They want things that others of their age and general 
characteristics have ; they can't earn enough money ordinarily to buy 
them; they dropped out of school way back in the Tth, Sth, 9th, lOtli 
grade, along there somewhere. They don't have any skills, they are 
headed to the juvenile court, and the juvenile judges have told us that 
about half of those who get in juvenile court for a serious crime wind 
up eventually in penal institutions." 

I think you would be justified in making an appeal, as chief of police 
not as an intruder to that school board. And if you went before the 
chamber of commerce and said : 

Gentlemen, I appreciate the confidence yon all extend to me. the encoiu'nge- 
ment that you have given me. but as chief of police trying to do a job for you. 
to save you and your family from harm in the District of Columbia, I want to 
tell you some problems that might well need your attention, some social prob- 
lems in our area. 

As I said, probably a lot of them will say : 

Chief Wilson better attend to his own business. We are running these things. 

And yet you would be entirely justified as chief of police, trying to 
help the people of the District to be safer. You would be entirely justi- 
fied to try and encourage these people to do a lot of things that would 
remove a lot of these factors from the environment. 



353 

Mr. WiLSOx. The problem is much more complex than that. While 
it is iindoubt(Mily true— I accept it is true I cloivt know, but it is prob- 
ably true— that a high proportion of persons in prison are school 
dropouts, there are still an awful lot of school dropouts m America 
who are not in prison and never commit a crime. 

I think we have the unfortunate tendency of takhig an identihca- 
tion stigma, if you will, of a person and saying that person is likely 
to be a criminal because he is a school dropout or because he is black. 
The Crime Commission pointed out in the District that most of the 
persons arrested for crime were black. But, on the other hand, when 
you start comparing, it is only about 2 percent of the population ar- 
rested anyhow. 

So it is a problem, I think, when you start saying being poor or be- 
ing a school dropout or being deprived is a contributor to crime. Maybe 
it is and maybe it isn't. It may come out the same personality that 
makes the criminal has made the person drop out of school or has made 
him poor in the first place. I am not sure, and sociologists have been 
trying for about 165 years to define Avliat makes crime and have been 
trying through all sorts of statistical processes to say these conditions 
create crime, and they really have not been able to do it. 

I think we know there are areas in the centers of cities, and the 
cities generally, where most of the poor, most of these school dropouts, 
and most of the social ills are, but there are a lot of people living in 
these areas who never commit crimes and never become involved in 
crimes; and. by far. that is the majority of those indi\dduals. 

That is why I am afraid of going to root causes as a way of reduc- 
ing crime. 

It is much the same problem we had when we had a real epidemic 
of narcotics in 1969. We found something on the order of 35 percent 
of persons arrested for crime index oft'enses had used narcotics, on 
the basis of some urine sampling we did in the central cellblock. That 
tells us something but it doesn't tell us that to eliminate heroin is going 
to eliminate that 35 percent, because it is a safe guess 25 percent of 
those would have committed crimes whether using heroin or not. We 
don't really know the percentage. 

But tlie problem of attaching crime to root causes, in my judgment, 
is tliat all of the persons wlio are suffering from root causes are not 
committing crimes. I think it is a great mistake for us to say if we cure 
po\'erty we are going to cure crime. I am not sure we can. I am not sure 
about curing scliool dropouts. What we have done universally on these 
school education problems, one theory holds that we have talvcn the 
scliool dropout who used to quit school and go out and go to work some- 
where, and kept him in school where he is unhappy and moved to cr-ime 
in schools, and there is some indication of that in recent years. 

^Ir. Raxgf.l. jNTr. Chairman ? 

You are using some social work terms that I am familiar with. Ivoot 
causes just sounds like if you eliminate that you have it made, and I 
don't want to make that contention. But you can say that employment, 
those youngsters Avho are employed, flo less mugging than those who 
are unemployed. That wouldn't put you into difiicidty. 

Mr. Wilson. I think you can say that. 

]Mr. Raxoei.. I would say most drug addicts smoke pot, and you 
could sav most drug addicts start off drinking milk. 



354 



]\Ir. Wilson. I am not going to say that. 



Mr. Rangel. But if police chiefs can work with other people in 
fittempting- to deal with the employment of the youth — I am not talk- 
ing about giveawa}^ programs or putting a couple of dollars in their 
pocket and having them idle, because it could very well be that even 
with money in their pocket they would commit crime if they had 
notliing to do with their time — it would not infiinge upon your pro- 
fessionalism to say in areas where youngsters are employed, that you 
would suspect that this is not the person that is most prone to physi- 
ca 1 ly attack peop 1 e in the street ? 

j^ir. Wir SON. I think that is true. But I would not invest any crime 
prevention money in employment of youth, and I guess that is where 
you and I probably disagree. Maybe we don't. 

Mr. Rangel. I don't want any person in charge of any agency to 
invest any of tliose funds from other peoples" work. T wouldn't ask 
you to do it. With those police chiefs who have testified here, I think 
it was made abundantly clear to us, those funds did come from otlier 
sources even though they wrote the programs. They were the sponsors 
of the j^trograms and they asked businessmen and other concerned 
citizens to give a kid a job. I guess the District of Columbia Committee 
will have to get together with you to ask your advice regarding some of 
tlie proirrams that this Congress may be prepared to fund without 
jeopardizing your budget. I hope _you can walk that one step with us 
to begin to talk about some of the factors tliat underlie crime and not 
the core, or the term you used, because I am not pi-epared to deal 
witli that. 

But if you did find as a T'esult of your statistical data that all of 
those factors that contribute to crime, and if we would rely upon your 
expertise as a criminologist and ask what can we do to help, certainly 
we would not ask you to come with a program that would 

Mr. Wilson. I am not a criminologist. I am a high school dropout. 

Mr. Rangel. I am, too. So Ave should be able to use the same type of 
language; one dropout should be able to understand another. You 
kn.ow, if it was to surface, a lot of them survived. 

My. Wilson. Me. too. 

Mr. Rangel. I am suggesting people really don't have to volunteer 
to go into the Army to avoid the temptation out on the streets. If you 
could support the type of programs, in my community the Neighbor- 
hood Youth Corps, and whether- or not you differ with Pat Murphy, I 
could depend on him to suppoi't the application of Neighborhood 
Youth Corps, the a]:)plication of neighborhood police stations, the 
application of a whole lot of things that had nothing to do with in- 
cren^od police manpoAver,or increased squad cars, and I am certain that 
all of them atti'ibute an interest in these other programs as Ijeing partly 
responsible for the decrease of crime in these areas. As a matter of fact, 
I know vou probablv wouldn't suggest it, some of them even have 
policemen trained in psychology to deal with that family that gets into 
a fir.-ht every weekend. 

Mr. Wilson. T am familiar with the progi'am. I don't think those 
proo-rnms are viable for other reasons. 

Mr. Rangel. I eathered you wouldn't. But a lot of chiefs do. 

iMr. Wilson. For other reasons, I do not think they are practical. I 
would predict those programs will not be existing 5 years from now. 



355 

Let me make that as a prediction. Ixh-uusc I don't think tliey are practi- 
cal. 

Mr. Raxgel. I just want to assure you of my political support on the 
District of Columbia Committee to try to aive you the tools that you 
need to Avorli Avith and reduce crime, and from time to time 1 may call 
you to give me a little support on the social programs that you and I 
agree could be a contributing factor to reducing criminal activity. 

Mr. Wilson. Thank you. ' 

Chairman Pepper. Chief. I just want to ask you one other question. 
I believe you said you didn't want any more police. If what we liave 
now done, and what you have done, and what has been done in tlio 
otlier areas tliat have to do with cuT'bing crime, has l)een responsil)le 
for a deci-ease of 20.0 percent of serious crime in tlie District in 1072. 
and I believe a decrease in otlier forms of crime, except for a 16-per- 
cent increase in rapes, if wliat we have done has l3rought about nearly 
a 27-percent decrease, why can't yvo. do some iuore and bring about a 
5()-percent or 75-percen.t decrease in crime? You are aware, the peo})le 
who dwell in the District of Columbia are still very much concerned 
about the volume of serious and violent crime we have in the District. 

Mr. "Wilson. Mr. Chairman, coming back essentially to what !Mr. 
Ivang(>l is saying, it is a matter of priorities. There are other things 
to be done in the District. I think one could argue for increasing the 
police force even furthei-. One could argue even for maintaining our 
authorization ceiling of 5.100 men, Avhich we are not doing. We are, as 
I think I indicated eai-lier. down to a 4,050 ceiling as a budgetary 
matter. 

Chairman Pepper. How mucli did vou have at the maximum? 

My. Wilson. 5,100. 

Chainnan Pepper. You are down to 4.000? 

Mr. Wilson. 4.000 now and our average ceiling for this fiscal v^ar 
is 4.050. And, of course, this reflects a reduction. There are other 
things that ha^-e to be done in this city. T guess that is what it amounts 
to. And while we ai-e still maintaining a high })riority on crime reduc- 
tion here, T think when we had a 25-percent reduction last year, when 
we had a reduction during the first quarter of this vear on the order 
of 10 ]»ercent. as T recall from the last quarter, and are projecting at 
least a lO-percent reduction, this really makes sense to me. 

Clsairman Pepper. If Ave ai-e willing to accejit a relatiA'ely small per- 
centaire of decrease in crime, here you are telling us you have already 
cut 200 men from your police force, from 5.100 to 4,000. In <iri>er 
woi'ds, they have been Avilling to give you enough uiojiey to make the 
progT-ess you have made, but they have not been willing to giA'e you 
enough money to make substantially more progress than you have 
made. Xoaa* you are beginning to reduce your personnel. 

Mr. Wilson. I thinlc. Mv. Chairman, Ave still ha\-e a priority on 
crime reduction. We haAC. as you stated, a 27-percent decrease last 
year, doAvn from 2r)2 oflenses daily in 1060 to 85 a day in March. This 
is better than lialf and it, frankly, seems to make sense to me, in terms 
of the other pioblems of the city. 

Chairman Pepper. Do you think Senator Stennis, whose life has 
been in seriotis jeopardy and who has been out in Walter Reed Hospital 
for over a month now, finds any solace in the fact that crime has de- 
creased generally in the District of Columbia by 26 percent? 



356 

Mr. Wilson. No, Senator, I do not ; but if crime in the District of 
Columbia is reduced to 15,000 offenses a year, wliich we had in 1962, 
I still can't g-uaiuntee that you won't walk out on the sti-eet and get 
shot by a holdup man. People were shot on the street in 1957 when 
crime was at an all-time low. And it was no satisfaction to the man who 
litei-ally had his eyes kicked out on Capitol Hill in 1957 that cnme 
was then at an all-time low. But those kinds of incidents are not the 
things by which I think we can sensibly measure crime and establish 
l^riorities on the basis of. I am sorry to say that. 

Chairman Pepper. With all of the things to do, and the decisions to 
be made by the public authorities and the people, do Ave really Avant to 
substantially get rid of crime as a priority, or do we just want to con- 
sider that one of the major prioi-ities with which we deal, comparable 
to building the subway, et cetera ? 

Ml'. Wilson. I think in the District of Columbia it is still the major 
priority. 1 understand that the desire of the President is that crime 
in this city be reduced to the 1962 level, which means it has to be 
reduced to about half again; and I think we aie on the road to doing 
that. 

Chairman Pepper. Thank you. 

Mr. Winn ? 

Mr. Winn. Yes, Mr. Chairman. Thank you very much. 

Chief AYilson, I want to apologize for not being here for most of 
your testimony. I have been checking with counsel to see if some of 
the questions I had in mind were covered. One of them Avas on LEAA 
fmids. I have been informed tluit you Avill submit for the record how 
those funds Avero used and in Avhat amounts. 

Mr. Wilson. Yes, sir. 

[See letter received for the record, dated May 3, 1973, at the end 
of Mr. Wilson's testimony.] 

]Mr. Winn. I want to conmiend you for the 26- or 27-percent decrease, 
It seems to be a trend around the Nation, though, that crime is drop- 
ping, I think your record is very commendable and made under some 
A'^ery trying circumstances. 

Yesterday Ave Avei-e urged b}- one of the other police chiefs to take 
the opportunity to lide in patrol cars. And, as you know, Avhen I 
served on the District of Columlua Committee I Avas one of the mem- 
bei'S of that connnittee that did accept an invitation from the police 
chief at that time to ride in the cars and see the many problems your 
patrolmen face. 

Pet me ask a question that daAvned on me when I first came to 
Congress in 1967. We had a Aery high rate of crime at that time in 
the District of Columbia. Around the Capitol, itself, other than the 
dome of the Capitol, Ave had a A'ery poor lighting system in this area. 
I inquired and found out that — I don't mean to be stepping on any 
toes, and I don't knoAv the exact name of the commission, but it has 
got something to do Avitli the beautification of the Capital and the 
Ca])itol, itself; in order that all of the buildings look beautiful at 
niglit they light those, but the entii-e surrounding area is dark. 

I think some of that opposition to additional lighting has been 
OA-ercome, but at the same time aac had muggings and assaults and 
things like that. As a matter of fact, tAvo people in my office Avere 
assaulted Avhen Avalking to their cars in this area. 



357 

I wondered if this is the problem in other places in the city, that 
they won't let them even approve additional lio:htin^ because they 
want to keep it so beautiful ? 

Mr. WiLsox. It is not a problem, INIr. Winn. We have instituted a 
significant street-lighting program throughout most of the city, or 
at least throughout the high-crime areas of the city. And perhaps 
you notice that east of the Capitol Grounds themselves there is a 
major program of lighting. In the early years we had some problems, 
some objections, I think, from the Fine Arts Commission with regard 
to Georgetown but that is some time ago, and it has not been a problem 
in recent times. 

Mr. Winn. Is additional lighting a deterrent to crime ? 

Mr. Wilson. No question. 

Mr. Winn. You have proven facts on it ? 

Mr. Wilson. It is a deterrent to crime in any high crime area. Of 
course, like many crime reduction programs, it loses its cost effective- 
ness as you get into lower crime areas, but in any high crime area it is 
certainly a deterrent to crime. 

Mr. Winn. Chairman Pepper referred to Senator Stemiis. We cer- 
tainly feel, all of us, badly about those circumstances. I want to point 
out also that it is my understanding that a young man who worked on 
the Hill until recently for Senator Vance Hartke was shot the other 
night. Is that true ? 

Mr. Wilson. I am not familiar with that. 

Mr. Winn. There was an article carried in the Roll Call magazine. 
I didn't get all of the details. If you are not familiar with the case, 
we will skip it. 

Mr. Wilson. I am not familiar with the incident. 

Mr. Winn. But, as you say, you can't guarantee w^e won't walk out 
of a restaurant tonight, lighted or poorly lighted, and have somebody 
try to rob us or shoot us. 

Mr. Wilson. We are never going to be able to guarantee that under 
the best of circumstances. 

I would hasten to add a lot of improvement can be achieved. We 
still have far too much robbery in the city, as in most cities. But my 
point is as a practical matter, we can't judge crime by spectacular 
events. 

Mr. Winn. In your opinion — this has possibly been asked by the 
other members — how can we cut down on the number of people in the 
District of Columbia that are carrying illegal weapons — gims? 

]Mr. Wilson. I have recommended legislation for mandatory jail 
sentences for persons carrying guns. 

]Mr. Winn. Where do we put them ? We are loaded now. 

]\Ir. Wilson. The population of the jail is down from its peak, 
though. 

Mr. Winn. You have got some room ? 

Mr. Wilson. I don't advocate necessarily long sentences in the sense 
of a year or two ; but our experience is that individuals who are arrested 
for carrying guns in the District of Columbia virtually never get any 
time in jail, any time at all. All we are recommending is 6 months 
minimum — I would be happy with a 30-day minimum. 

Mr. Winn. There used to be a joke on the District of Cyolumbia 
Committee that they would check them when they were arrested for 



358 

carrying a gun; they check them in and write their name down on 
the blotter and spank them and make them stand in the corner for 
30 seconds and send them out the back door, because they didn't have 
any place to put them. 

If there is some room down there, maybe we ought to try to fill it 
up with some of these guys, because they are the same ones shooting 
Senator Stennis and whoever it might be tonight or the next night. 

Did they ask you if you have a rape division ? 
' ' Mr. Wilson. They did not. We do have a sex unit in our criminal 
investigation, which primarily deals with rape. 

Mr. Wtnn. Are women involved ? 

Mr. Wilson. Yes. Women police officers are involved. 

Mr. Winn. We had very interesting testimony from Lieutenant 
Tucker of the New York City Police Department. 

By the way, Mr. Chairman, she was on the "Today Show" the next 
morning discussing the same thing she did with this committee; of 
how she felt that the policemen in many cases lacked the sensitivity 
to discuss the details with women that had been raped. 

I was just wondering whether you had found this was a prol^lem, 
because we read in the Washington papers about every other day a 
rape occurs in Washington. 

Mr. Wilson. They occur more frequently than every other day. It 
is about two a day. 

yiv. Winn. Tlie percentage of rapes is up ? 

Mr. Wilson. The number of rapes is up, not from the peak, but it 
is up substantially over the years. We find that it is useful to have 
women to inteindew women, although our sex squad officers are pretty 
good individuals in terms of interviewing. But I think there is a lot 
of desirability to have women police officers doing that work. 

]Mr. Winn. Have those officers in that division been trained, or are 
they taking courses from psychiatrists, or anything like that? 

Mr. Wilson. Not psychiatrists. We have a school we send the of- 
ficers through for- both sex and homicide. 

Mr. AViNN. What kind of training? 

Mr. Wilson. Primarily investigative techniques, rather than psychi- 
atric : not psycliiatric techniques. 

Mr. Winn. Lieutenant Tucker tried to describe to the committee 
some of the types of men that are raping Avomen. and we sort of got 
into people with psychiatric problems. 

Mr. Wilson. Well, that, I think, is probably a generalization. It 
is typical that the rapist is probably a person with psychiatric 
problems. 

Mr. Winn. The Indianapolis police chief gave us, I thought, some 
very good information, Mr. Chairman, on some precautionary plans 
and programs. You might want to refer to the record and see what they 
are doing; how they are trying to take cai-e of the rape problem in 
Indianapolis by these programs, by watching certain individuals in 
advance that they think are heading that way. They seem to have a 
pretty good record of spotting these guys who are heading for trouble 
because of certain patterns they follow. 

Mr. Wilson. That is interesting. 

Chairman Pepper. If my colleague would yield. 



359 

Mr. "Winn. Yes. 

Chairman Pepper. I believe he said, the rapist starts as a prowler in 
the neighborhood and then a peeping torn indicating proclivity toward 
that sort of thing, and then some ladies' underwear is stolen from the 
clothesline, just petty larceny, but it has some signihcance with respect 
to that individual. 

Mr. Winn. And indecent exposure. 

Chairman Pepper. Indecent exposure would be another phase. When 
a man begins to be involved in those things, I don't know just what you 
could do about it. There is no way of preventing it that 1 know of, but 
those are indicative signs that he might later on be involved in a rape. 

Mv. Wilson. That is probably true. I am not sure how one identities 
those symptoms from a police standpoint on a practical basis, because 
with many of our rapists we learn of them only when they commit a 
crime and are apprehended. 

Mr. Winn. As I remember, he had a lot of help from the com- 
mmiity and they worked very closely. Their street policemen work 
very closely with the community and get a lot of tips in this direction. 

I have no more questions. 

Chairman Pepper. jNIr. Nolde, our chief counsel, has a few questions. 

Mr. XoLDE. What is your position regarding legalization of 
gambling? 

Mr. Wilson. Well, I don't have a specific position on it. There is a 
gambling commission which is supposed to issue a report within 2 
years, I believe, which is to study the problem of gambling nationally 
and come up with some comprehensive national program. I think it is 
something that is going to have to be approached on a national basis 
to aA^oid most cities, or areas, becoming centers for gambling. 

I haven't really made a thorough examination of the problem. It is 
a difficult problem to us and not a problem of high priority to tlie 
police. It is a problem which is one of the gi'eat influences in corrupting 
polic£^ officers. So, from a police point of view, it is something that cer- 
tainly needs study ; but I don't have a position of my own. 

Mr. NoLDE. I understand there was a recent survey of District of 
Columbia police officers in which 88 percent favored legalization. 

Mr. Wilson. I saw that reported in the paper. I am not surprised. 

Mr. XoLDE. And I understood that, according to that report, you 
had indicated that you would be in favor of a legal lottery in tlie 
District, but you thought it would not greatly affect widespread il- 
legal gambling. 

Mr. Wilson. That was a clipping, an inaccurate report, from an 
earlier inaccurate report, which was a question : "If the Mayor wanted 
to have a legal lottery would I object," and I said, "no." I have no 
role ; I am not an advocate for change. 

My impression is, and again let me say my knowledge of what legal 
lotteries have accomplished is sketchy, but my impression is govern- 
ment-run lotteries have not eliminated the nongovernment lotteries 
and, therefore, have not eliminated the police enforcement problem 
or eliminated the problem of corruption of police. I have no strong 
objection to a government-run lottery but I don't think that is an 
answer to the pi-oblem from a police point of view. My imi)ression is 
that those jurisdictions which have the lotteries still have the under- 
ground numbers game which is able to better operate since they are 

95-158— 73— pt. 1 24 



360 

private enterprise and are able to serve the customer much better and, 
besides that, you don"t have to pay tax on your money. 

Mr. NoLDE. It is reported that 80 percent of the officers believe that 
present enforcement of gambling laws is uneven^ unfair, and mis- 
directed. Wiy would they feel that way ? 

Mr. Wii.soN. I frankly don't know. I don't recall what the ques- 
tionnaire Avas and, of course, how the questionnaire was instructed 
and what it says. I, frankly, don't know what would be the basis for 
that, because within the District gambling is enforced against both 
the numbers and against these spoi-ts- betting figures. We encourage en- 
forcement of gambling against all levels, so I am not aware of any 
substantial amount of commercialized gambling in the District of 
Columbia. I am not aware of any gambling in the District going on. 
I don't doubt there is some gambHng, which, incidentally, the U.S. 
attorney won't prosecute anyhow, but I am not aware of any com- 
mercial ffambline: going on in the District, not receiving enforcement 
attention. 

On a sketchy basis, quite frankly, gambling enforcement is not a 
higli priority in the Department or in tlie District. It is something 
we keep up on because it is a violation of law, it is widespread, and 
it does finance other problems, such as narcotics. 

Mr. XoLDE. Should there be any priority in terms of the so-called 
victimless crimes, such as gambling and maybe some of the others? 
Shouldn't we concentrate our police resources on curbing the more 
violent types of crime, and free up some of the other areas which 
account for substantial amounts of police effort? 

Mr. Wilson. We do concentrate our efforts on other crimes. We 
certainly aren't concentrating our efforts on gambling. The term of 
what is victimless crime is subject to question. There is a commission 
study of gambling, and I think it deserves study. I don't know what 
it will be. I haven't studied it sufficiently in terms of what happens in 
cases where there is gambling. There are a lot of myths, perhaps, about 
gambling which I am not in a position to analyze and, frankly, inas- 
much as this is a study appointed jointly by the President and Con- 
gress, I have not seen it as something I thought I should undertake. 

Mr. NoLDE. What I am getting at is, according to last year's total 
arrest figures for the country, approximately 2 million arrests were for 
so-called victimless crimes such as prostitution, gambling, marihuana 
possession, drunkenness. And that is one-third of the 6 million arrests 
made in the prior year. So, it would seem if we could reduce police effort 
in this area, we might be able to better concentrate on the crimes that 
are more bothersome to the public. 

Mr. Wilson. Well, I would suppose of the 2 million arrests for so- 
called victimless crimes, a large proportion were for drunkenness 
Avhich is not a violation of law in the District of Columbia. And it 
was for long a factor, a heavy factor, in the arrests in the District of 
Columbia and certainly was lising resources unwisely. The problem is, 
Avhen you talk about Victimless crimes you include in that narcotic 
usei-s. INIany people use heroin, so heroin traffic is a victimless crime 
and that is subject to some question. 

Mr. NoLDE. I am not including hard drug traffic, 

Mr. Wilson. Well, I am not sure that prostitution is a victimless 
crime. 



361 

]Mr. XoLDE. Maybe the prostitute is the victim. 

Mr. Wilson. It also is a heavy cause of robberies in areas that Mr. 
Eangel an I were discussing. Prostitution is a heavy cause of robberies. 
It is a cause of robberies in the sense that it attracts to tlio area a lot 
of individuals who are targets for holdupmen. 

Mr. NoLDE. It wouldn't necessarily be if it were legalized. 

Mr. AViLsox. It may or may not. It depends on how one deals with it. 
It is also a problem to the coinnnnuty. When I became chief of police — 
and not lately, because we try to enforce the prostitution regulation, 
as well as we can without the vagrancy statute — one of the most per- 
sistent complaints I got in the central city was from people trying to 
raise their families at 14th and W Streets, and they couldn't go to the 
grocery store, the women couldn't, without being propositioned by 
some individual who was up there looking for a prostitute. They are 
raising their children in tliose areas. I am not sure I would charac- 
terize prostitution in its present mode as a victimless crime. Perhaps 
you can do what was done in France, prewar, and zone it. That may 
i)e a way of doing it. In its present mode, I would not characterize it 
as a victimless crime because, frankly, I think society is the victim. 

Mr. NoLDE. Getting back to these crime statistics. I believe you have 
agreed they can be manipulated. But. as you said in answer to the 
skeptics, how could 100 crimes a day in the District simply disappear? 
Tiiey just can't be hidden. What about the audit which found that over 
l.OiiO tliefts of more than $50 were downgraded to under $50? 

Mr. Wilson. You asked me about a report I haven't looked at in 
(■) months, but my recollection is that the Ernst and Ernst report in- 
dicated that OAcrall there were some faults in our preliminai"y report- 
ing at the peak period. We underwent a nnijor reorganization of the 
record system in 1969, and they estimated the crime reduction was 
actually greater than we thought. It was one of the substantial find- 
ings, that crime was higher in 1969 than Ave thought, and that it was 
greater than we thought. 

The devaluation of pioperty, of course, has been a persistent problem 
since it was interjected as the measurement of what we were doing to 
the ci-ime index in 1957, and the result of that is, beginning this year, 
begimiing with the 19T;> data, all larcenies will be in the crime index 
regardless of valuation of property. In the Distnct of Columbia, 
wjiether you include all larcenies or exclude those under $50, the crime 
reduction is still about 40 percent. The ])oints of variation are so 
insignificant as not to be a matter of great concern. 

Mr. NoLDE. You don't think that would indicate a problem in 
reporting? 

Mr. Wilson. No, I do not. It is indicative of a problem of reporting. 
Valuation is a reporting problem. It is a problem because the victim 
tends to overvaluate. It is a problem because the officer has no decent 
guidelines, and you can't construct good guidelines. I don't think 
it is indicative of a gross prol)lem. You run a survey of crime by 
any mode and tliere is a reduction, no matter how you measure it. 

Mr. NoLDE. What about the Pi-inceton study finding that the District 
of Columbia policemen tend not to record crimes where they believe 
they have little or no chance of solving them ? 

Mr. Wilson. That was not what the Princeton study showed. 

The Princeton study, I believe — if you are referring to the recent 
one — was a criticism of the process by which we dispatch cars and not 



362 

requiring a report on every offense. This was one of the points made by 
the Ernst & Ernst survey, that tine UCR guidelines literally requiie 
the police, for every telephone call, to make a report and then find ap- 
propriate evidence of a crime. There is no city in the United States of 
any size, including the cities which are represented by members of 
UCR committee, which follows that guideline, however. Maybe some 
other study. 

Mr. NoLDE. You don't think there is any tendency on the part of the 
officers to not record crimes where they don't think they will be solved ? 

Mr. Wilson. No. In this city, no ; I do not. 

Mr. NoLDE. That was my understanding of the study. 

Mr. Wilson. I am not familiar with that study. 
 Mr. NoLDE. Returning to the President's position on crime, did it 
really help the cause of law enforcement when he held the well-pul> 
licized White House Conference last year on police killings and failed 
to invite Chief Patrick Murphy ? Do you think that helped ? 

Mr. Wilson. Whether he invites Patrick Murphy to the White 
House is not a concern of mine. I think the Conference on Police Kill- 
ings helped law enforcement. I think the purpose of the meeting was 
clearly to show, as the President has sliown several times during his 
first administration and, obviously intends to show several times in 
his second administration, he is concerned about crime in America, he 
is concerned about achieving reduction in crime, and he is concerned 
with assuring this support for police officers in America. 

Mr. NoLDE. But when he fails to invite one of the most innovati\'e 
and outstanding police chiefs in the country to such a conference, I 
don't see how that could do anything but hurt the cause of law 
enforcement. 

Mr. Wilson. I didn't make up the guest list. I don't have to have 
any executive privilege on that because I wasn't asked. 

Mr. NoLDE. T'f^nlike the Watergate people. Thank you. Chief Wilson. 

Chairman Pepper. Chief Wilson, we certainly do thank you and Mr. 
Alprin for coming here today and giving us this very interesting and 
very helpful testimony. 

Mr. Wilson. Thank you. Mr. Chairman. 

[The following letter was received for the record :] 

Government of the District of CoLtiMBiA. 

Metropolitan Police Depaktment, 

Washington, D.C., May 3, 1973. 
Select Committee on Crime, 
Cannon House Office BniUVmg, 
Washington, D.C. 

Dear Sir : In response to your request, attached i.s a listing of L.E.A.A. grants 
awarded to the Metropolitan Police Department. 

The daily average number of men on patrol was 664 during the 4 :00 p.m. 
to midnight shift for the month of March 1970. This was the month during which 
the department attained an actual strength of 4,100 police officers, and was during 
the high-crime period. 

I trust this information will be helpful to your Committee. 
Sincerely, 

Jerry V. Wilson, Chief of Police. 



363 

LEAA GRANTS 



Fiscal year and title Grant No. Amount Status Expiration Type 



Completed June 30, 1971 Discretionary. 



1970: 

Overtime, uniforms, and 70-DF-0455 $1, 239, 000 

radios. 

Overtime 736,000 

Uniforms.... 214,531 

Radios - 236, 750 

Moneys returned 51,669 J „„.„,„ „«,„ „. 

Update training curriculum.. . 70-A-151 135,000 Current June 30, 1973 O.C.J.P. & AJ 

subgrant (70- 8). 
Crime reduction ttirough NI-70-089 113,923 Completed May 1, 1972 Institute. 

AuSated rwi time 71-A-051 24,000 do. June 30, 1971 O.C.J. P. & A. 

subgrant (69-02). 

1971- 
Simulated model police dis- NA-71-090-G... 102,155 Current Feb. 28, 1973 Institute. 

patch and control. „ „ , „ „ , 

Helicopter pilot training 71-A-251 54,320 Continued in O.C.J. P. & A. 

' 1972. subgrant (71-19). 

WALES-MILES interfaced... 71-A-251. 15,000 Current Aug. 30, 1973 O.C.J. P. & A. 

subgrant (71-21). 

Street to command center 71-A-251 37,500 Continued in O.C.J.P. & A. 

TVptiasel. 1972. subgrant (71-11). 
1972; 

Organized crime intelligence 72-DF-ll-OOOl 157,660 Current May 14, 1973 Discretionary. 

HeHcopter operations 3 72-A-lll 175,000 do. Mar. 31, 1973 O.C.J.P. & A. sub- 

grant (72-07). 

Command and control master 72-E-211 50,000 do July 24, 1973 O.C.J.P. & A. subgrant 

plan. (72-18). 

Audit of crime statistics 72-SS-99-€008 32, COO Completed Aug. 31, 1972 Institute. 

1973- 

Command and control plan... 73-A-311 49,500 Current Jan. 24, 1974 O.C.J.P. & A. subgrant 

(73-33). 

Street to command TV system, 73-A-311 46,500 do Nov. 30, 1973 O.C.J.P. & A. subgrant 

phase II. (73-32). 

Organized crime confidential 73-A-311 8,000 do Dec. 31, 1973 O.C.J.P. & A. subgrant 

fund. (73-13). 

Supplemental confidential 73-A-311 25,000 do do O.C.J.P. & A. subgrant 

fund. (73-09). 
Organized crime intelligence 130,000 Pending exten- do O.C.J.P. & A. sub- 
unit, sion applica- grant. 

tion. 

Simulated model police dis- ! 71,078 Pending Jan. 31, 1974 Institute. 

patch and control. continuation 

application. 

Pilot policeman— Portable 72,000 Pending. June 31, 1974 Discretionary. 

digital communications sys- 
tem. 



' O.C.J.P. & A.— Office of Criminal Justice Plans and Analysis. 

2 WALES— Washington Area Law Entoicement System. MILES— Maryland Interagency Law Enforcement System. 

i $43,750 of this money came from fiscal year 1971 funds. 

Chairman Pepper. The committee will meet tomorrow morning at 
10 a.m., in room 311 of the Cannon House Office Building. 

Let me state that the chief of police of Miami, whom we esteem 
very highly, was to have been a witness today to tell what he has been 
doiiig in Miami to reduce the rate of crime. Chief Garmire was una- 
voidably prevented from being here this afternoon, but he sent up 
a prepared statement which goes thoroughly into the procedures he 
employs. 

Without objection, I ask that the statement of Chief Garmire appear 
in the record at this point in the hearing. 

[Chief Garmire's prepared statement follows :] 

Prepared Statement of Bernard L. G.vrmire, Chief of Police, 
Police Department, MiAiii, Fla. 

the high pressure sodium vapor street lighting PR0GR-\M in the city Of MIAMI 

In 1971, on a visit to Washington. D.C.. Miami City Manager, M. L. Ree.se. 
was greatly impressed with the effectiveness of their High Pressure Sodium 
^'apor (HPSV) street lighting. Upon his return to Miami, he instructed that a 



364 

member of the City Department of Public Worlvs and a representative of the 
Florida Power and Light Company visit Washington, D.C. to view the installa- 
tion and get certain information from ofBcials there. 

This investigation was made, and upon their return, it was agreed to install 
a HPSV pilot lighting installation in Miami. The Public Works Department 
was to be responsible for the implementation of the program with close liaison 
wnth the Police Department. The Florida Power and Light Company would 
incur all costs of Installation and maintenance, and the City of Miami would 
utilize the lights on a lease basis. The decisions on installations were based 
on discussions held between Public Works, Police, and Florida Power and 
Light Company ; however, the l>rand of lighting to be used was determined by 
the Florida Power and Light Company. The particular brand they chose was 
General Electric, (brochures attached). Incidentally, there are several other 
brands on the market : Westinghouse and Sylvania. to name two. 

In order to place this lighting where it would be the greatest deterrent to 
nighttime crime, police records of nighttime crime activities were used. The 
intensity of nighttime Part I crime. (Murder, Rape, Robbery, Assaidts, Larceny, 
and Auto Theft), was calculated for all areas of the City. This nighttime crime 
intensity of nighttime Part I crime. (Murder, Rape, Robbery, Assaults, Larceny, 
system. 

Coincidentally, other programs were being initiated during this same time 
period to combat the rising serious crimes. "Operation Impact" was a manp4)wer 
allocation program which utilized all available personnel in the high crime areas 
with Street Crime as its main objective. (Copy of "Operation Impact" attached). 

For the HPSV pilot program, a one-third square mile high crime area was 
selected in that portion of the City generally referred to as the "Garment Dis- 
trict". This area consists mainly of warehou.ses and small manufacturing plants, 
plus some residences. Installation took place during August, 1971, and police 
deployment was changed to coincide with the installation. The existing lighting 
had been 140 watt Mercury Vapor with an average spacing of 150 feet. This 
lighting was rei)laced. one for one. using 400 watt HPSV in the commercial areas 
and 2.10 watt HPSV in the residential areas. (Since then, the City has established 
a standard of using the 400 watt lighting in both commercial and residential 
areas.) HPSV lighting giA^es much more light per watt than does Mercur.v 
Vapor. Therefore, the resulting light level was up to ten times the in-evious light 
level. 

Upon completion of the installation, nighttime evaluations were made, both 
visual and instrumental. The comparison was startling. Vision was unobstructed 
for blocks, and due in part to the high degree of reflection from the light colored 
buildings, the lighting was virtually shadowless. The average light readings on 
the street ranged from 3 to 5 foot-caudles.^ National standards for a well lighted 
arterial street is 1 to 2 foot-candles, and % foot-candle for residential areas. 

Four months after the installation of the pilot program and redeployment of 
police personnel, a crime analysis revealed that nighttime Part I crime in the 
Garment District was reduced by 48 percent. One year after installation. Part I 
crimes maintained a 30 percent reduction. The lighting was regarded as some- 
thing more than a success, and it was decided that the 400 watt High Pressure 
Sodium Vapor light would be adopted into the City's standards to be used in high 
crime areas, spacing, of course, being dependent upon the individual circum- 
stances ; but except in very rare instances, spacing not to exceed 150 feet, so that 
an average level of not less than 3 to 4 foot-candles can be achieved. 

Plans were made for extension of the High Pressure Sodium Vapor lighting 
into additional high crime areas. Discussions at the managerial level were held 
between City and County. Dade County agreed to install such lighting on the 
Metropolitan arterial streets within these areas, the lighting of such arterials 
being a County responsibility. The City, of course, would light all the other 
streets. 

The City immediately undei'took a progi-am to extend the areas lighted with 
this new high intensity lighting. To date, approximately 3,000 of these lights have 
been installed and the installation of an additional 6,000 has been programmed. 
This will include about one-third of the City. (It is presently anticipated that an 
extension of this program will be carried into next year's budget. This will, of 
course, be predicated upon decisions to be made by the Administration and 
City Commission.) 



1 Foot-candle : The illumination of a standard candle on a surface one foot away. 



365 

In addition to streets, the City has also extended this type of ligliting into the 
City's parks in some of these critical areas. Bayfront Park, wliich is linatctl 
in the downtown area, had HPSV lighting installed in March, 1972. Througli the 
end of 1972, a satisfying reduction of 36 percent was maintained in crimes of 
violence (Mni-der, Rape, Robbery, Aggravated Assaults). In addition to the street 
ligliting program, the City has also taken steps to light potentially dangerous off- 
street areas. This was in the form of an ordinance requiring all of£-street parking 
areas to be lighted to a minimum intensity of one foot-candle (two foot-candles in 
the Downtown Business District). A copy of this ordinance and descriptive 
brochure are attached. 

The City's present street lighting expenditures are at a rate of approximately 
one and one-half million dollars (.i(l,500,000) or thirty seven thousand dollars 
(.$37,000) per mile annually. Based upon its estimated population of 350,000 per- 
sons, this equals about $4.25 per capita. This cost does not include the lighting 
of arterial streets and expressways within the City which are administered and 
financed at the County level. It is estimated that the cost of this lighting ap- 
proaches an additional one-half million dollars ($500,000) annually. 

Attachment. (1) 

Attachment 1 

Operation "Impact" — A Report Delivered Before the Commission of the 
City of Miami at the Miami City Hall, Miami, Fla., on July 22, 1971 

(Intensified Mobilization for Patrol Against the Crime Threat) 

On July 14, 1971, you requested that I appear before you on July 22, 1971. and 
present to you concrete proposals concerning the assignment of additional police 
officers to the high-crime areas of the City of Miami. As a direct response to your 
request, I am submitting a proposal entitled "Operation IMPACT." 

Operation Impact can be summarized as follows : 

1. 40 police personnel have been transferred from their regular units to the 
Patrol and street duty. 

2. 107 police personnel, as the result of extensive reassignments and transfers, 
liave been allotted to supplemental units which will be deployed as a patrol 
strike force against street crimes.^ The 107 police personnel are allocated as 
follows : 

(A) 30 police personnel are assigned to the three-wheel motorcycle supple- 
mental unit. They will be the first group to experiment with the 10-hour a 
day, 4 days a week schedule, often referred to as the "10 plan." The 10 plan 
affords maximum coverage during peak hours of criminal activity. 

(B) 14 ix)lice personnel will be assigned to 9 personalized beats to provide 
intensive police patrol and presence in the most volatile high-crime locations. 

(C) 56 police personnel will be assigned to the Tactical Operations Platoon 
which will be targeted against street crime in 6 high-crime areas. 

(D) 7 police personnel will serve as field inspectors to report on the prog- 
ress and problems of Operation Impact. 

3. 24 recruits will be used one day a week to personally contact merchants and 
citizens in designated areas to solicit information on crime and report on prob- 
lems in the area. 

4. 6 areas of the community have been identified on the basis of crime statistics 
to receive priority police attention : Allapattah, Central-Downtown Business Dis- 
trict, Coconut Grove. Latin Area, Liberty City, and Little River-Edison Center. 

5. Responsiveness will be the key principle in the assignment of supplemental 
patrol units. Wherever the crime problem is the worst, that is where major 
police emphasis will be placed. 

6. Community Relations personnel will intensify their efforts to encourage 
citizen reporting of crime, and then follow-up on the police response to those 
reports. 

7. Intei-nal Security personnel will increase their efforts to be available to 
groups in the community to hear grievances, and to promptly investigate citizen 
complaints. 

S. The entire Police Department will l»e immediately placed on a virtual 
emergency status concentrating its energies upon comJ)ating street crime. 

9. Operation Impact is scheduled to begin Siuiday. July 25, 1971. and continue 
for approximately 90 to 100 days. After that period of time the manpower prol)- 

^ It must be remembered that clue to days off. vacation, illness, and in the fall the 
opening of school, not all personnel will 1)p available all the time. 



366 

lems due to vacancies, vacations and military leave will have eased, and two 
recruit classes will probably have been graduated. 

Before I discuss the details of Operation Impact, I think it would be beneficial 
to establish a perspective from which to view the Operation. Street crime is the 
target of Operation Impact ; but, as you well know, the crime problem in Miami 
is not a recent development. In fact, crime in Miami has been increasing dra- 
matically during the past ten years. 

Serious crimes, as depicted on the comparison chart, such as murder, robbery, 
rape, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny over $50, and auto theft, have in- 
creased "from 8,539 crimes in 1961 to 16,202 in 1966, and to 23,903 in 1970." 

Crime, however, is but one aspect of the perspective against which Operation 
Impact should be viewed. Other aspects are : 

1. The police budget which increased from $5.36 million in 1961, to $6.34 million 
in 1966. to $10.2 million in 1970. 

2. The population of the City of Miami which increased from approximately 
295.000 in 1961, to 316.000 in 1966, to 335,000 in 1970." 

3. The number of sworn personnel — police officers — which increased from 619 
in 1961, to 664 in 1966, to 719 in 1970. 

A more startling picture is revealed if we compare these various aspects in the 
more manageable terms of percentages. Population increase in the 10-year period 
amounted to 13.5%. The number of police officers increased 16.2%. The police 
budget, however, reflecting the factors of 100 more officers plus inflation and pay 
raises, increased 89.4%. But. the increase in crime completely outstripped popu- 
lation, police, and budget increases. Crime from 1961 through 1970 increased 
180% ; or, 13 times as much as the population, 11 times that of the police strength, 
and 2 times that of the police budget. 

Although Miami has undergone a tremendous increase in crime since 1961, 
this experience is not unique within the United States. As the United States 
crime and population chart indicates, crime has increased 148% from 1960 
through 1969 — the last year for which FBI crime statistics are available.* How- 
ever, population increased only 13% ; or crime increased 11 times that of the 
population increase. Therefore, Miami's experience is not unique ; in fact, it 
parallels that of the Country at large because both the Nation and Miami 
reflected a growth in crime 11 to 13 times that of the population growth. 

Unfortunately, Miami is still contending with an increase in crime. During 
the first three months of 1971, serious crimes increased 15% over the same period 
in 1970. However, I think it only fair to note that : 

1. As reported in the local press, the increase in serious crime in the unincor- 
porated area of Dade County for the same three month period was 23% — half 
again as much as the increase in Miami ; ^ hence the experience in the City of 
Miami is not really an isolated phenomenon. 

2. The increase in serious crime in Miami for the first six months of 1971 over 
the same period in 1970, showed some signs of leveling off — the increase was only 
7.2%^ — 12..5.54 serious crimes in 1971 ver.sus 11,685 serious crimes in 1970. 

Admittedly, these statistics make for a rather somber view of the crime pic- 
ture in Miami as well as the Nation. But, I believe it is essential that we have a 
realistic grasp of the problem which confronts us, if we are to establish reason- 
able expectations for what Operation Impact can accomplish. If we expect Opera- 
tion Impact to result in a major decrease in crime, we may be deluding ourselves. 
If, on the other hand, we expect Operation Impact to have a significant effect 
upon crime — perhaps even a deceleration of the crime increase rate — then we 
have a reasonable chance of having our expectations fulfilled. 

If we harbor the illusion that the police can singlehandedly engage the crime 
problem and overcome it, we are destined to hear not the cries of victory, but 
instead the bitter recriminations of defeat. Crime is the product of a myriad of 
social, economic, and political factors, and until the root causes of crime are 
resolutely and effectively dealt with, our society will be driven by crime and its 
attendant violence. In short, the police have been, and are now, only capable of 
dealing with the symptoms of that social pathology known as crime ; they cannot 
deal with the disease itself. 



= See Appendix A for ten-year comparison chart of crime, police budget, sworn personnel, 
and nopnlation. 

- Source for 1970 population : U.S. Census Bureau. Source of population of other years : 
Dnde Countv Planning Department Estimates. 

* Spe .\pppndix B for the United States Crime and Fopulation Chart. 

« Miami Herald, .Tuly 1, 1971, p. 2c. 



367 

Lest I be misunderstood, may I make one point very clear: I am not trying 
to avoid my responsibility as a police administrator to address the problem of 
crime and violence. I am, however, tiding to demonstrate that crime has been 
sharply increasing in the past 10 years in Miami, and in the Nation. 

In fact, I have discussed the rising crime rates in at least 10 major addresses 
before various public forums. Furthermore, even though the police have been 
given additional resources, they still have not been able to successfully cope with 
crime and violence. Finally, I am trying to suggest, just as countless other police 
administrators, appointed and elected officials, scholars, and citizens have sug- 
gested, that the police alone cannot solve the crime problem of a community 
or a Nation. Therefore, Operation Impact should be viewed as a temporary ex- 
pedient — a stop-gap measure — to attack, as was pointed out two weeks ago, the 
short range problems, while we are preparing middle and long range responses 
to the crime threat. With this as a background, we now can proceed to discuss, 
in detail, our plans. 

Operation Impact, which will provide 40 additional me